Horus, Zulis, or Zhule, Also Osiris and Orus, of Egypt.
It Is Said That…
1. Horus was born of a virgin on December 25th.
2. He had 12 disciples.
3. He was buried in a tomb and resurrected.
4. He was also the Way, the Truth, the Light, the Messiah, God’s Anointed Son, the Good Shepherd, etc.
5. He performed miracles and rose one man, El-Azar-us, from the dead.
6. Horus’ personal epithet was “Iusa,” the “ever becoming son” of “Ptah,” the “Father.”
7. Horus was called “the KRST,” or “Anointed One,” long before the Christians duplicated the story.
According to Egyptian mythology, Horus was originally believed to be the son of Ra and Hathor and the husband/brother of Isis. Later he was seen as the son of Osiris and Isis once Hathor and Isis were merged into one being. Horus was considered the sky, sun, and moon god represented by a man with the head of falcon.
The Virgin Birth
There are two separate birth accounts in regards to Horus (neither depict a virgin birth): Version 1: Hathor, the motherly personification of the milky way, is said to have conceived Horus but we are told her husband, Ra, was an Egyptian sun god. Hathor (a sky goddess) was represented by the cow whose milk brought forth the milky way. By the will of her husband Ra, she gave birth to Horus:
“I, Hathor of Thebes, mistress of the goddesses, to grant to him a coming forth into the presence [of the god]… Hathor of Thebes, who was incarnate in the form of a cow and a woman.”Version 2: When we examine Isis as Horus’ mother, we are told Isis was not a virgin, but the widow of Osiris. Isis practices magic to raise Osiris from the dead so she can bear a son that would avenge his death. Isis then becomes pregnant from the sperm of her deceased husband. Again, no virgin birth occurs:
“[Isis] made to rise up the helpless members [penis] of him whose heart was at rest, she drew from him his essence [sperm], and she made therefrom an heir [Horus].
We have already seen that Horus was NOT born of a virgin at all. Indeed, one ancient Egyptian relief depicts this conception by showing his mother Isis in a falcon form, hovering over an erect phallus of a dead and prone Osiris in the Underworld (EOR, s.v. “Phallus”). And the Dec 25 issue is of no relevance to us–nowhere does the NT associate this date with Jesus’ birth at all.
Indeed, the description of the conception of Horus will show exactly the sexual elements that characterize pagan ‘miracle births’, as noted by the scholars earlier:
“But after she [i.e., Isis] had brought it [i.e. Osiris’ body] back to Egypt, Seth managed to get hold of Osiris’s body again and cut it up into fourteen parts, which she scattered all over Egypt. Then Isis went out to search for Osiris a second time and buried each part where she found it (hence the many tombs of Osiris tht exist in Egypt). The only part that she did not find was the god’s penis, for Seth had thrown it into the river, where it had been eaten by a fish; Isis therefore fashioned a substitute penis to put in its place. She had also had sexual intercourse with Osisis after his death, which resulted in the conception and birth of his posthumous son, Harpocrates, Horus-the-child. Osiris became king of the netherworld, and Horus proceeded to fight with Seth…”[BTW, the Hebrew word ‘satan’ is not a ‘cognate’ of the name ‘seth’ by any means: “The root *STN is not evidenced in any of the cognate languages in texts that are prior to or contemporary with its occurrences in the Hebrew Bible
The Father and Son Unity
Critics suggest the Christian trinity was adapted from the notion of Osiris, Ra, and Horus being one god in essence. Because Horus was born after the death of Osiris, it came to be believed he was the resurrection, or reincarnation, of Osiris:
“He avengeth thee in his name of ‘Horus, the son who avenged his father.” Throughout the centuries, the Egyptians eventually considered Osiris and Horus as one and the same. However, this son-as-the-father comparison more closely resembles the metamorphosis of Hathor into Isis than it does the Christian trinity. We see Horus first as the son of Ra, then being the equivalent of Ra, then Ra finally becoming just as aspect of Horus. Similar to Hathor and Isis, we simply see a merger of one being into another. In Egyptian mythology, each god had a distinct beginning by being conceived from other gods. In Christian theology, God and Jesus always existed as one and the same, neither having a beginning or an end. Jesus’ birth did not represent His creation – only His advent in human from. Furthermore, the father-son concept was not created by first-century Christians. Prophecies in the Old Testament referred to the future Messiah as the Son of God up to 1,000 years before the birth of Christ. I Chronicles 17:13-14
Also for further study pertaining to the doctrine of the Trinity & the Oneness belief; please see my article called “How to Answer Those Who Deny That Jesus Christ Is God Almighty” Part’s 1-3
Crucifixion and Resurrection
Horus is never said to have been crucified, nevertheless to have died. The only connection we can make to Horus being resurrected is if we consider the eventual merger of Horus and Osiris. But such a theory results in an catch 22, apparently noticed by the Egyptians as they later altered their beliefs to fix the contradictions. In the Egyptian tale, Osiris is either dismembered by Set in battle or sealed in a chest and drowned in the Nile. Isis then pieces Osiris’ body back together and resurrects Osiris to conceive an heir that will avenge Osiris’ death (although technically Osiris is never actually resurrected as he is forbidden to return to the world of the living)
[Set] brought a shapely and decorated chest, which he had caused to be made according to the measurements of the king’s body…Set proclaimed that he would gift the chest unto him whose body fitted its proportions with exactness…Then Osiris came forward. He lay down within the chest, and he filled it in every part. But dearly was his triumph won in that dark hour which was his doom. Ere he could raise his body, the evil followers of Set sprang suddenly forward and shut down the lid, which they nailed fast and soldered with lead. So the richly decorated chest became the coffin of the good king Osiris, from whom departed the breath of life”
Born on the 25th of December
Horus’ birth was actually celebrated during the month of Khoiak, (October/November). Though some critics claim Horus was born during the winter solstice, this shows more of a relationship to other pagan religions which considered the solstices sacred.
One way to look at this is by examining the similarities of the two accounts. Superficially this similarity seems accurate until we see Horus’ “disciples” were not disciples at all- they were the twelve signs of the zodiac which became associated with Horus, a sky god. However Jesus’ disciples were actual men who lived and died, whose writings exist to this day, and whose lives are recorded by historians. Because Horus’ “disciples” were merely signs of the zodiac, they never taught his philosophy or spread his teachings. The fact that there are twelve signs of the zodiac (twelve months) as compared to Jesus’ twelve apostles is an insignificant coincidence.
Moreover, my research in the academic literature does not surface this fact. I can find references to FOUR “disciples” – variously called the semi-divine HERU-SHEMSU (“Followers of Horus”). I can find references to SIXTEEN human followers. And I can find reference to an UNNUMBERED group of followers called mesniu/mesnitu (“blacksmiths”) who accompanied Horus in some of his battles; although these might be identified with the HERU-SHEMSU. But I cannot find TWELVE anywhere.…Horus is NOT the sun-god (that’s Re), so we cannot use the ‘all solar gods have twelve disciples–in the Zodiac’ routine here.
Critics point out the similarity of both Jesus and Horus having an encounter on a mountaintop with their enemies. Instead of dissecting this piece by piece, I will simply give each version of events and let the reader observe the (obvious) differences:
Jesus: After Jesus completes His fast in the wilderness, Satan tries to tempt Jesus by offering Him all the kingdoms of the world if Jesus agrees to worship him, but Jesus refuses.
Horus: During battle, Horus rips off one of Set’s testicles while Set (sometimes called Seth) gorges out Horus’ eye. Set later tries to prove his dominance by initiating intercourse with Horus. Horus catches Set’s semen in his hand and throws it into a nearby river. Horus later masturbates and spreads his semen over lettuce which Set consumes. Both Set and Horus stand before the gods to proclaim their right to rule Egypt. When Set claims dominance over Horus, his semen is found in the river. When Horus’ dominance is considered, his semen is found within Set so Horus is granted rule over Egypt:
“O that castrated one! O this man! O he who hurries him who hurries, among you two! These- this first corporation of the company of the justified… Was born before the eye of Horus was plucked out, before the testicles of Set were torn away.” “It is the day on which Horus fought with Set, who cast filth in the face of Horus, and when Horus destroyed the powers of Set.” “Then [Set] appeared before the divine council and claimed the throne. But the gods gave judgment that Horus was the rightful king, and he established his power in the land of Egypt, and became a wise and strong ruler like to his father Osiris.”
Skeptic Interjection: Does the similarity between the names Set and Satan hold any significance?
Answer: Set’s variant names include Seth, Sutekh, Setesh, and Seteh. The root Set is usually considered to translate into dazzler or stable pillar. The different suffixes of his name add the meanings majestic, supreme, and desert. The name Satan comes from the Semitic root Stn which represents opposition. Before his fall, Satan’s original name was Lucifer, or angel of light. The term Satan represents a general adversary, hence his accepted identity. Though both names consist of an S and a T, their meanings have nothing in common. The spellings are only a result of the original root words which represent their character.
Critics allege Horus held similar titles used to identify Jesus such as Messiah, Savior, Son of Man, Good Shepherd, Lamb of God, The Way, the Truth, the Light, and Living Word. However I can find no evidence of any of these names ever being used in reference to Horus. I am especially suspicious of the word Messiah since it is Hebrew in origin.
Most of the above ‘similarities’ simply vanish, become irrelevant, or contribute nothing to the argument for some alleged ‘identical lives’ assertion for Horus and Jesus. To further highlight this, let’s look at the thumbnail sketch of Horus’ life given in Encyclopedia of Religions, s.v. “Horus”:
“In ancient Egypt there were originally several gods known by the name Horus, but the best known and most important from the beginning of the historic period was the son of Osiris and Isis who was identified with the king of Egypt. According to myth, Osiris, who assumed the rulership of the earth shortly after its creation, was slain by his jealous brother, Seth. The sister- wife of Osiris, Isis, who collected the pieces of her dismembered husband and revived him, also conceived his son and avenger, Horus. Horus fought with Seth, and, despite the loss of one eye in the contest, was successful in avenging the death of his father and in becoming his legitimate successor. Osiris then became king of the dead and Horus king of the living, this transfer being renewed at every change of earthly rule. The myth of divine kingship probably elevated the position of the god as much as it did that of the king. In the fourth dynasty, the king, the living god, may have been one of the greatest gods as well, but by the fifth dynasty the supremacy of the cult of Re, the sun god, was accepted even by the kings. The Horus-king was now also “son of Re.” This was made possible mythologically by personifying the entire older genealogy of Horus (the Heliopolitan ennead) as the goddess Hathor, “house of Horus,” who was also the spouse of Re and mother of Horus.
“Horus was usually represented as a falcon, and one view of him was as a great sky god whose outstretched wings filled the heavens; his sound eye was the sun and his injured eye the moon. Another portrayal of him particularly popular in the Late Period, was as a human child suckling at the breast of his mother, Isis. The two principal cult centers for the worship of Horus were at Bekhdet in the north, where very little survives, and at Idfu in the south, which has a very large and well- preserved temple dating from the Ptolemaic period. The earlier myths involving Horus, as well as the ritual per- formed there, are recorded at Idfu.”
We can see the differences between Jesus and Horus far outweigh any superficial correlations.
It is said by some critics that:
1. Zoroaster was born of a virgin and “immaculate conception by a ray of divine reason.” 2. He was baptized in a river.
3. In his youth he astounded wise men with his wisdom.
4. He was tempted in the wilderness by the devil.
5. He began his ministry at age 30.
6. Zoroaster baptized with water, fire, and “holy wind.”
7. He cast out demons and restored the sight to a blind man.
8. He taught about heaven and hell, and revealed mysteries, including resurrection, judgment, salvation and the apocalypse.
9. He had a sacred cup or grail.
10. He was slain.
11. His religion had a Eucharist.
However, it must be pointed out here that the critics are correct in reference to some of the similarities pertaining to certain doctrines according to the established Roman Church; such as the Eucharist – as noted in the book ‘The Two Babylon’s’ – a book that can be found at my website. However, Biblical Christianity differs from that of the Roman Catholic’ s pagan adaptations of such parallelism’s.
12. He was the “Word made flesh.”
13. Zoroaster’s followers expect a “second coming” in the virgin-born Saoshyant or Savior, who is to come in 2341 CE and begin his ministry at age 30, ushering in a golden age.
Many claim, according to the quote, that the “all to similar stories” predate Christianity. This is far from the truth. Scholars – both secular and religious, both agree that the stories contained in the Zoroastrian writings of the ‘Avesta’ was written after early Christianity, sometime in the 3rd century AD.
The ‘Avesta’, a collection of sacred texts which was put in writing between 346-360 AD [Herz.ZW, 774] and of which we have manuscript copies only as early as the 13th century [Wat.Z, 56 – Anything written (Zoroastrian literature) prior to the date above was totally destroyed by Alexander the Great and the Muslims Turks. The literature that we have today are but a few pathetic fragments of a forgotten religion. Some of this material probably comes from a time before the Christian era, but most of this is reckoned to be hymns and some basic information [Rose.IZ, 17] that was part of the oral tradition. The rest seems likely to have been added later, and for good reason, as Rose notes [ibid., 27]:
The incorporation of certain motifs into the Zoroastrian tradition in the ninth century CE could indicate the conscious attempt of the priesthood to exalt their prophet in the eyes of the faithful who may have been tempted to turn to other religions.
In other words, if we see a “Jesus-like” story in these texts, especially this late, we have a right to suspect borrowing.
Herz.ZW – Herzfeld, Ernst. Zoroaster and His World. Octagon Books, 1974.
Wat.Z – Waterhouse, John. Zoroastrianism.
Rose.IZ – Rose, Jenny. The Image of Zoroaster. Bibliotecha Persica Press.
The religion of ancient Persia as founded by Zoroaster; one of the world’s great faiths that bears the closest resemblance to Judaism and Christianity. When did Zoroaster actually live? According to the tradition in the Parsee books, Zoroaster was born in 660 B.C. and died in 583; but many scholars claim that he must have flourished at a much earlier time. All investigators, however, are agreed that his teachings were generally in force throughout Iran before the time of the Jewish Captivity. His name in its ancient form in the Avesta is “Zarathustra,” and in later Persian, “Zardusht”; the form “Zoroaster,” which is now common, has been adopted from the Greek and Latin “Zoroastres.” The native country of the prophet is now believed to have been Media, in western Iran, and there are reasons for claiming that his birthplace was in the province of Atropatene, the modern Azerbaijan; but much of his ministry, or rather most of his prophetic career, was passed in eastern Iran, especially in the region of Bactria, where he won a powerful patron for his religion. This defender of the faith was a king named Vishtaspa, or Gushtasp, a name identical with that of Hystaspes, the father of Darius, although the two personages are not to be confounded, as has sometimes been done.
Interestingly enough there has even been a few “Zoroaster-mythers” who said (as Bultmann said of Jesus!) “nothing can be said” of the historical Zoroaster [Rose.IZ, 15]. J. M. Robertson, who also stumped for a mythical Jesus and a mythical Buddha, took up the Zoroaster-myth (to which a Zoroastrian scholar responded, “I have myself indeed divined and published the argument by which Mr. Robertson’s successors fifty years hence will irrefutably prove him a myth”) [Wat.Z, 11]. One Zoroastrian scholar did go along with the idea eventually, but died before he could justify his position. At any rate, most of the sources I consulted prefer a date around 600 B.C., though one scholar has suggested a date as early as 1700 BC [Yam.PB, 414].
Yam.PB – Yamauchi, Edwin. Persia and the Bible. Baker: 1990.
Zoroaster was originally a Magian priest, but he appears to have reformed or purified the creed of the Magi. His religious teachings are preserved in the Avesta.The character of the Persian religion before Zoroaster’s time is not known, but a comparison with that of India shows that it must have had much in common with the early religion of the Hindus. It may be presumed that it was a modified nature-worship, with polytheistic features and some traces of demonistic beliefs. Herodotus (“Hist.” i. 131 et seq.) states that the Persians from the earliest times worshiped the sun, moon, stars, and earth, and the waters and wind, and he intimates in precise words that they had borrowed certain religious elements from the Assyrians. One or two superstitious practises which he describes, such as the propitiation of the powers of evil (ib. iii. 35, vii. 114), show survivals of demoniacal rites, against which Zoroaster so strongly inveighed; and the account which he gives of the Magian ceremonies is quite in accordance with Zoroastrianism.
One of the characteristic features of Zoroastrianism is the doctrine of dualism, recognizing the powers of good and evil as two personified principles at war with each other. (For further studies on the topic of Dualism – a viewpoint upon which I disagree with, – please see my study “The Problem of Evil”). Ahuramazda, or Ormuzd (“the Wise Lord”), leads the forces of good; Angra-Mainyu, or Ahriman (“the Spiritual Enemy”), heads the hosts of evil. Bands of angels and archangels follow the divine leader, while troops of demons and archfiends hasten after the evil lord. The archangels are six in number and are called by the general name Amesha Spentas (“Immortal Holy Ones”); they are personifications of virtues and abstract ideas, and are named Vohu Manah (“Good Mind”), Asha Vahishta (“Perfect Righteousness”), Khshathra Vairya (“Wished-for Kingdom”), Spenta Armaiti (a feminine personification of harmony and the earth), Haurvatat (“Health,” “Salvation”), and Ameretat (“Immortality”). The angels and lesser divine beings are termed Yazatas (“Worshipful Ones”) and are very numerous, although twenty-one of them are more prominent than the rest; these include divine embodiments of the sun, moon, stars, fire, earth, water and air, the spirits of the righteous (called “fravashis”), and also several abstract concepts, like victory, religion, kingly glory, and the divinity known as Mithra, an incarnation of light and truth. The rabble of hell, led by Ahriman, is ill organized, and the chief archfiend, after Ahriman himself, is the demon Aeshma (Dæva), a name which is thought to be found in the Book of Tobit as Asmodeus, although this view is not accepted by some. In addition to the six archfiends there is a legion of minor fiends and demons (“dæva,” “druj”).
Does Persia have anything to do with Jerusalem? Zoroaster’s faith had an idea that sounds like, and probably is, a bodily resurrection, etc – though it is most clear only in AD-dated texts. Did the Jews “steal” this idea while under the thumb of the Persians? Highly unlikely. The Persians may have gotten/borrowed many of the ideas from the Jewish sect, and from Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel.
Causes of Analogies Uncertain?
It is difficult to account for these analogies. It is known, of course, as a historic fact that the Jews and the Persians came in contact with each other at an early period in antiquity and remained in more or less close relation throughout their history (see Avesta; Media; Persia). Most scholars, Jewish as well as non-Jewish, are of the opinion that Judaism was strongly influenced by Zoroastrianism in views relating to angelology and demonology, and probably also in the doctrine of the resurrection, as well as in eschatological ideas in general, and also that the monotheistic conception of Yhwh may have been quickened and strengthened by being opposed to the dualism or quasi-monotheism of the Persians.
But, on the other hand, the late James Darmesteter advocated exactly the opposite view, maintaining that early Persian thought was strongly influenced by Jewish ideas. He insisted that the Avesta, as we have it, is of late origin and is much tinctured by foreign elements, especially those derived from Judaism, and also those taken from Neoplatonism through the writings of Philo Judæus. These views, put forward shortly before the French scholar’s death in 1894, have been violently combated by specialists since that time, and can not be said to have met with decided favor on any side. At the present time it is impossible to settle the question; the truth lies probably somewhere between the radical extremes, and it is possible that when knowledge of the Assyrian and Babylonian religion is more precise in certain details, additional light may be thrown on the problem of the source of these analogies, and may show the likelihood of a common influence at work upon both the Persian and Jewish cults.
The remaining six false deities as promised to be discussed here in this study, were and are discussed in the study entitled ‘Is Christianity Borrowed From Pagan Myths/Religions?’ Parts 1-9
Therefore I will not cover them here, since I already did.
The fact of Jesus’ physical death, burial, and physical resurrection; as put forth in Part 2 of this study and chapter 10 from my book (Reasoning Through Religious, Scientific, and Philosophical Ideologies) called the ‘Hidden God-The Jesus Evidence’ (ch 10) demonstrates and validates beyond a reasonable doubt the validity of the historic Jesus as being truly Human and truly Divine according to the Gospel story as contained in I Corinthians 15:1-4 and as found in the synoptic Gospels.