Glossary of Terms ‘I-K’

Written By Thomas Perez. December 14, 2010 at 6:20PM. Copyright 2010.

Idol, Idolatry
An idol is a representation of something in the heavens or on the earth. It is used in worship and is often worshiped. It is an abomination to God (Exodus 20:4). Idolatry is bowing down before such an idol in adoration, prayer, or worship. In a loose sense, idolatry does not necessitate a material image nor a religious system. It can be anything that takes the place of God: a car, a job, money, a person, a desire, etc. Idolatry is denounced by God at the beginning of the Ten Commandments and is considered a form of spiritual fornication.

Immaculate Conception
The teaching that Mary was conceived without original sin. Typically believed as true in Roman Catholicism.

Image of God
Man was made in the image of God (Gen. 1:26). The image of God is generally held to mean that people contain within their nature elements that reflect God’s nature: compassion, reason, love, hate, patience, kindness, self-awareneness, etc. Though we have a physical image, it does not mean that God has one. Rather, God is spirit (John 4:24), not flesh and bones (Luke 24:39).

Immutability
The divine attribute of unchangeableness. God said in Exodus 3:14, “I AM that I AM,” signifying His eternal sameness and His sovereignty. He cannot change His moral character, His love, His omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence, etc. God is “From everlasting to everlasting,” (Psalm 90:2). Immutability does not mean that God does not vary. The incarnation is just such an example of variation. Also, God’s attitude toward a person is changed when the person becomes a Christian. For example, the enmity between God and man is removed (Rom. 5:10). Mormonism denies the immutability of God. It says that God was not always God, that He was a man on another planet who became a God (Mormon Doctrine, by Bruce McConkie, pg 321).

Immortality
Life without death anytime in the future. God is immortal. The souls of people are immortal though their bodies are not. All people can die in a physical sense but they continue on after death. Therefore, it is the soul/spirit that is immortal. However, after the return of Christ and the resurrection, the Christians’ bodies will also become glorified and immortal (1 Cor. 15:50-58). The wicked will likewise be resurrected to immortality but they will be cast into hell for eternal. Within the ranks of Preterism, the concept of a bodily resurrection is of little importance since they believe that the soul/spirit of every individual was resurrected when Christ defeated death at the cross, thus giving us eternal life. We are awaiting to shed this present body in favor of its new resurrection/metrics or higher level. The individual only needs to realize this concept, and thus believe.

Impute, Imputation
To reckon to someone the blessing, curse, debt, etc. of another. Adam’s sin is imputed to all people (Rom. 5:12-21), therefore, we are all guilty before God. Our sins were put upon, imputed, to Jesus on the cross where He became sin on our behalf (2 Cor. 5:21) and died with them (Isaiah 53:4-6). Therefore, our sins are forgiven. Understanding imputation is very important. Imputation is the means of our salvation. Our sins were put upon, imputed, to Jesus on the cross. Our sins were “given” to Jesus. When He died on the cross, our sins, in a sense, died with Him. The righteousness that was His through His perfect obedience to the Father in His complete obedience to the Law is imputed, given, to us. In short, our sins were given to Jesus. His righteousness was given to us. Technically speaking our sins were imputed to Jesus. His righteousness was imputed to us.

In Facto
Something that exists and is complete.

In Fieri
Beginning to be, but not yet complete.

Incarnation
The addition of human nature to the nature of God the second person of the Trinity. It is where God became a man (John 1:1,14; Phil. 2:5-8). It was the voluntary act of Jesus to humble Himself so that He might die for our sins (1 Pet. 3:18). Thus, Jesus has two natures: Divine and human. This is known as the Hypostatic Union. The doctrine is of vital importance to the Christian. By it we understand the true nature of God, the atonement, forgiveness, grace, etc. It is only God who could pay for sins. Therefore, God became man (John 1:1,14) to die for our sins (1 Pet. 2:24) which is the atonement. Through Jesus we have forgiveness of sins. Since we are saved by grace through faith (Eph. 2:8-9) it is essential that our object of faith be accurate. The doctrine of the incarnation ensures accuracy, the knowledge that God died on the cross to atone for sin and that the God-man (Jesus) is now in heaven as a mediator (1 Tim. 2:5) between us and God.
Jesus came to reveal the Father (Matt. 11:27; Luke 10:22), to do His will (Heb. 10:5-9), to fulfill prophecy (Luke 4:17-21), to reconcile the world (2 Cor. 5:18-21), and to become our High Priest (Heb. 7:24-28). (Contrast with Kenosis.)

Induction
A system of logic where specific facts are used to draw a general conclusion.

Indulgence
In Catholicism, a means by which the Catholic church takes away some of the punishment due the Christian in this life and/or purgatory because of his sin.

Inerrancy
Without error, non-errant. In Christianity, inerrancy states that the Bible, in its original documents, is without error regarding facts, names, dates, and any other revealed information. Inerrancy does not extend to the copies of the Biblical manuscripts.

Infant Baptism
The practice of baptizing infant children of believing parents. In the Catholic Church infant baptism washes away original sin and is regenerative. In Reformed circles, infant baptism is not regenerative but covenantal and validated through the believing parent(s). There are no explicit accounts of infant baptism in the Bible. However, it cannot be completely excluded as a possibility given that entire households were baptized Acts 16:15, 33; 18:8.

Infidel
A person who does not belief in any particular religious system.

Infinity
The state or quality of being infinite, unlimited by space or time, without end, without beginning or end. God is infinite in that He is not limited by space or time. He is without beginning and without end (Psalm 90:2).

Infralapsarianism
An issue within Reformed theology dealing with what may have happened in God’s mind regarding the logical order of His considering whom to elect into salvation before the foundation of the world. The word means “after the fall.” The position is that God first decided he would allow sin into the world and second that he would then save people from it. By contrast, the supralapsarian (“before the fall”) position holds that God first decided that he would save some people and then second that he would allow sin into the world.

Inspiration
The doctrine that the Bible was written by the influence of God. It is, therefore, without error. It is accurate and authoritatively represents God’s teachings (2 Tim. 3:16). As such it is a revelation from God which implies direct knowledge about God, creation, man, salvation, the future, etc. It is an illumination in that it shows us what we could not know apart from it. One of the ways to prove that the Bible is inspired is to examine the O.T. prophecies fulfilled in the N.T. concerning Jesus (Luke 24:27-45). Because the Bible is inspired, its words are unbreakable (John 10:34-36), eternal (Matt. 24:35), trustworthy (Psalm 119:160), and able to pierce the heart of man (Heb. 4:12). Additionally, the inspired Word of God will not go forth without accomplishing what God wishes it to (Isaiah 55:11).

Intermediate State
The period between death and resurrection. The condition of the person in the intermediate state is debated. One theory is that the person is without a body, yet is conscious, and that he will receive his body at the resurrection. Another theory states that the person has a different sort of spiritual body that will be lost at the resurrection when body and soul are reunited (2 Cor. 5:1-4).

Jehovah
An anglicized pronunciation of the Hebrew tetragrammaton, YHWH, which are the four consonant letters used to spell the nationalistic name of God in the Old Testament (Exodus 3:14) – and therefore as such, it represents the Hebrew God only. The Hebrews considered the name of this God too holy to pronounce and substituted the word “Lord” (adonai) when texts were and are read. Eventually, the vowels of the word “adonai” was combined with YHWH to get the word “Jehovah” which was first used in the 12th century. A more accurate pronunciation of YHWH would be “Yahweh.” However, the exact and proper pronunciation has been lost. Moreover, the term Yahweh is a nationalistic identity for the Hebrew/Jewish people. The name of God EL is Universal Father – it seems to be distinct from Yahweh or Yahwism.

Jesus
The Bible is about Jesus (Luke 24:27,44; John 5:39; Heb. 10:7). The prophets prophesied about Him (Acts 10:43). The Father bore witness of Him (John 5:37, 8:18). The Holy Spirit bore witness of Him (John 15:26). The works Jesus did bore witness of Him (John 5:36; 10:25). The multitudes bore witness of Him (John 12:17). And, Jesus bore witness of Himself (John 14:6, 18:6). Jesus is God in flesh (John 1:1,14). He is fully God and fully man (Col. 2:9) thus, He has two natures: God and man. He is not half God and half man. He is 100% God and 100% man. He never lost his divinity. He existed in the form of God and when He became a man, He added human nature1to Himself (Phil. 2:5-11). Therefore, there is a “union in one person of a full human nature and a full divine nature.” Right now in heaven there is a man, Jesus, who is Mediator between us and God the Father (1 Tim 2:5). Jesus is our advocate with the Father (1 John 2:1). He is our Savior (Titus 2:13). He is our Lord (Rom 10:9-10). He is not, as some teach, an angel who became a man (Jehovah’s Witnesses) or the brother of the devil (Mormonism). He is wholly God and wholly man, the Creator, the Redeemer. He is Jesus.

Jesus Only Movement
This is a movement in some Pentecostal circles. It is an error in the understanding of the nature of the Trinity. The biblical Trinity consists of three persons simultaneously and eternally existing in one God. The Jesus Only Movement maintains that there is only one person in the Godhead: Jesus. It teaches that the person of the Father became the person of the Son who then became the person of the Holy Spirit and that the persons are consecutive not simultaneous. This movement is incorrect in its Trinitarian interpretation. Additionally, they mistakenly believe that baptism is necessary for salvation and that tongues are evidence of true conversion.

Jews
Originally, a Jew was a member of the state of Judah during the period of the division of Israel into two nations: Judah and Israel. It became a common reference from the 8th century B.C. Today it is used of adherents of the Jewish religion.

Judgment
Condemnation. There are several judgments: the judgment of the believer’s sins (John 5:24), the judgment of the believer’s self (1Cor 11:31-32), the judgment of the believer’s works (2 Cor 5:10), the judgment of the nations (Matt 25:31-46), and the judgment of the wicked (Rev 20:11-15).
There is no judgment for man in respect to salvation (Rom 8:1, I Tim 4:10). We were judged in Christ on the cross 2000 years ago. However, as believers we will be judged according to our works (2 Cor. 5:10) with, most probably, varying degrees of rewards. But, remember, the judgment of our works does not affect our salvation.

Just, Justice
The due reward or punishment for an act. Justice is getting what is deserved. God is merciful but He is also just (Deut 32:4 – righteous) and must punish sin. In the grace of God, justice fell upon His Son so that mercy would fall upon us. (See also Prov 8:15, Gen 18:19, Heb 10:38).

Justify, Justification
To be justified is to be made righteous. It is a divine act where God declares the sinner to be innocent of his sins. It is not that the sinner is now sinless, but that he is “declared” sinless. This justification is based on the shed blood of Jesus,”…having now been justified by His blood…”(Rom 5:9). When God sees the Christian, He sees him through the sacrifice of Jesus and “sees” him without sin. This declaration of innocence is not without cost for it required the satisfaction of God’s Law,”…without shedding of blood there is no forgiveness” (Heb. 9:22). By the sacrifice of Jesus, in the “one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all men” (Rom. 5:18, NASB). In justification, the justice of God fell upon Himself – Jesus. We receive mercy – we are not judged according to our sins. And grace is shed upon us – we receive eternal life. This justification is a gift of grace (Rom. 3:24), by faith (Rom 3:28) because Jesus bore our guilt (Isaiah 53:12).

Karma
In Hinduism, the total compilation of all a person’s past lives and actions that result in the present condition of that person. Normally, it is associated with reincarnation.

Kenosis
This is a teaching concerning Jesus’ incarnation. The Kenosis attempts to solve some paradoxes between the nature of God and of man as united in Jesus. For example, how could an all knowing God become a baby, or how could God be tempted? The Kenosis maintains that God, when becoming a man, divested Himself of some qualities of being a man. In a sense, the Kenosis is God minus something; God subtracting some qualities of deity to become a man. The Hypostatic Union is God plus something; God adding human nature to Himself. The Kenosis, then, jeopardizes the true incarnation because it puts in doubt the full indwelling of God among men in the person of Jesus. (Compare with Hypostatic Union.)

kerygma
A term used, especially by Rudolf Bultmann (1884-1976) and his followers, to refer to the essential message or proclamation of the New Testament concerning the significance of Jesus Christ.

Kingdom of God
The kingdom of God and the kingdom of heaven seem to be variations of the same idea. A kingdom implies a king. Our king is Jesus. Jesus said His kingdom was not of this world (John 18:36). Jesus’ authority did not come from man but from God (Luke 22:29). Entrance into the kingdom of God is by a new birth (John 3:5), repentance (Matt. 3:2), and the divine call (1 Thess. 2:12). We are told to seek the kingdom of God first (Matt. 6:33) and to pray for its arrival (Matt. 6:As seen by some; It is also a future kingdom where full rulership in the actual presence of the king Jesus will occur when He returns to earth. In Preterism, the Kingdom is an established fact. It is a spiritual kingdom that commenced in 70 AD and will, in all likely hood, reveal all righteousness. Although, how God will finally choose to reveal Himself at the end of this culmination of righteousness remains a topic of debate among this school of thought.

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