Glossary of Terms ‘U-Z’

Written By Thomas Perez. December 14, 2010 at 6:32PM. Copyright 2010.

Uncial
The Greek characters of upper case: ABGDE, etc. Different copies of Greek manuscripts appear in Uncial form. Minuscules are the lower case letters of the Greek alphabet order and rank.

Unitarianism
Unitarians teach the unity of God and hold to a common system of believing as you will about God, salvation, sin, etc. They often profess to have no dogma and often question the deity of Christ Jesus, in favor of the new age concept of many roads to God. Unitarians also hold to the universal redemption of all humankind. Although, not all Universalists hold to Unitarianism.

Universalism/Universal Salvation
The teaching that all people will eventually be saved through the universal redemption of Jesus. Some Universalists teach that even the devil, after a time of punishment, will be redeemed. Universalists vary in doctrine and particular beliefs. Some Universalists would opt to use the term Ultimate Reconciliation in regards to the gift of salvation for all men everywhere.

Vellum
A material used for writing, like paper. It was made from animal skins, usually from cattle, sheep, goats, and antelope. The hair was scraped off of the skins, then they were washed, smoothed, and dressed with chalk. Vellum was used until the late Middle Ages until paper was introduced into Europe from China via Arab traders. Vellum lasted longer than papyrus and was tougher, but the edges sometimes became torn and tattered. The two oldest parchment manuscripts are the Codex Vaticanus (from Egypt) and the Codex Sinaiticus.

Venial Sin
In Catholicism, a sin but not as bad as mortal Sin. It lessens the grace of God within a person’s soul.

Vicarious Atonement
The theory of the atonement which states that Christ’s death was “legal.” It satisfied the legal justice of God. Jesus bore the penalty of sin when he died on the cross. His death was a substitution for the believers. In other words, he substituted himself for them upon the cross. Jesus hung in our place as He bore our sin in his body on the cross. See 1 Pet. 2:24.

Vulgate
The Latin translation of the Bible, largely deriving from Jerome, upon which medieval theology was largely based. Strictly speaking, “Vulgate” designates Jerome’s translation of the Old Testament (except the Psalms, which was taken from the Gallican Psalter); the apocryphal works (except Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, I and II Maccabees, and Baruch, which were taken from the Old Latin Version); and all the New Testament. The recognition of its many inaccuracies was of fundamental importance to the Reformation.

Word, The
In Greek the word for “word” is logos. It is used in many places, but of special interest is how it is used of Jesus. In John 1:1 it says, “In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was God.” The Word is divine and the word “became flesh and dwelt among us” (John 1:14). In other words, Jesus is the Word of God who represents God to us and us to God. The term is also used to describe the Scriptures (Rom. 9:6; Heb. 4:12), Christ’s teaching (Luke 5:1), and the gospel message (Acts 4:31). The Word of God: is inspired: “All scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness” (2 Tim. 3:16) is truth: “all thy commandments are truth” (Psalm 119:151) makes free”…If you abide in My word, then you are truly disciples of mine; and you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free” (John 8:32) produces faith: “So faith comes from hearing, and hearing by the word of Christ” (Rom. 10:17, NASB) judges: “For the word of God is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing as far as the division of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart” (Heb. 4:12).

Worship
The obligation of God’s creation to give to Him all honor, praise, adoration, and glory due Him because He is the holy and divine creator. Worship is to be given to God only (Exodus 20:3; Matt. 4:10). Jesus, being God in flesh (John 1:1,14 ; Col. 2:9), was worshipped (Matt. 2:2,11; 14:33; John 9:35-38; Heb. 1:6).

Wrath
In Greek the term “wrath” in John 3:36 means – The Gk word for wrath in this instance is “orge” which means; “desire,” “a reaching out.” It comes from the root “oregomai” – “to stretch oneself,” “to reach out after,” “to covet after,” “desire.” The word for “wrath” is “will.“ It indicates a strong desire. In our language the word “will” denotes “strength” “will power” – bending someone to your will. In the original Greek it denotes “thelema” – “pleasure,” “desire,” “decree.” It comes from the root “thelo” – “to determine as an option,” “an impulse” “to be about” in the future tense. Sometimes as an adjective “Gladly.” In Hebrew to “delight in” “love,” To be in a state of “Will.” “An option,” “a determination” as in “thelesis.” However, some are content to hold the English rendering to the word “wrath” as meaning judgment upon sin, sinners and unbelievers. To evangelicals, it does not merely mean that it is a casual response by God to ungodliness, but carries the meaning of hatred, revulsion, and indignation. God is by nature love (1 John 4:16), however, in His justice He must punish sin. The punishment (according to mainstream Christianity) is called the wrath of God. According to some, it will occur on the final Day of Judgment when those who are unsaved will incur the wrath of God. It is, though, presently being released upon the ungodly (Rom 1:18-32) in the hardening of their hearts. Wrath is described as God’s anger (Num. 32:10-13), as stored up (Rom 2:5-8), and as great (Zech. 7:12). The believer’s deliverance from God’s wrath is through the atonement (Rom 5:8-10). “For God has not destined us for wrath, but for obtaining salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ” (1 Thess 5:9). Yet all of this desire or emotion was laid upon Christ – therefore in my opinion the “wrath” whether used in the Greek or English sense is satisfied. There is also a school of thought that teaches all or some of the wrath of God was accomplished in Christ at the cross and therefore should not be considered a concept of a future state. Such a view is commonly found among some (not all) Universalists and Preterists.

Yin and Yang
A dualistic philosophy of passive and active, good and bad, light and dark, positive and negative, male and female, etc., and that they are in opposition, each is part of the whole and works together.

Yoga
A philosophical as well as physical way of life emphasizing harmony of body and mind. The philosophy of yoga is based in Eastern Metaphysical beliefs. The goal of the philosophy is to help a person become balanced in mind and body and attain self-enlightenment. Yoga, apart from its metaphysical teachings, is beneficial to the body.

Zodiac
The stars in the heavens divided into twelve main groups. Imaginary patterns are imposed upon various star patterns as an aid to remember the stars. In Astrology, the Zodiac signs signify personality types for the people born under them. The Zodiac signs are determined by durations of time in the calendar. The twelve signs are Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces.

Zwinglianism
The term is used generally to refer to the thought of Huldrych Zwingli, but is often used to refer specifically to his views on the sacraments, especially on the “real presence,” which for Zwingli was more of a real absence.

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