Glossary of Terms ‘B’

Written By Thomas Perez. December 14th, 2010 at 5:10PM. Copyright 2010.

Baianism
A school of thought credited to the Roman Catholic theologian Michael Baius (1513–1589). It is related to Augustinianism, and is considered to be the immediate historical predecessor of Jansenism.

Behavioralism
(not to be confused with behaviorism (the learning theory), behavioralism is an approach in political science which seeks to provide an objective, quantified approach to explaining and predicting political behavior. It is associated with the rise of the behavioral sciences, modeled after the natural sciences.

Behaviorism
(not to be confused with behavioralism of political science) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior can be researched scientifically without recourse to inner mental states. It is a form of materialism, denying any independent significance for the mind. Its significance for psychological treatment has been profound, making it one of the pillars of pharmacological therapy.

Classical Behaviorism
The behaviorism of Watson; the objective study of behavior; no mental life, no internal states; thought is covert speech.

Methodological Behaviorism
The objective study of third-person behavior; the data of psychology must be inter-subjectively verifiable; no theoretical prescriptions. It has been absorbed into general experimental and cognitive psychology.

Radical Behaviorism
Skinner’s behaviorism; is considered radical since it expands behavioral principles to processes within the organism; in contrast to methodological behaviorism; not mechanistic or reductionist; hypothetical (mentalistic) internal states are not considered causes of behavior, phenomena must be observable at least to the individual experiencing them. Willard Van Orman Quine made use of many of radical behaviorism ideas in his study of knowing and language.

Logical Behaviorism
Established by Oxford philosopher Gilbert Ryle in his book The Concept of Mind (1949).

Teleological Behaviorism
Post-Skinnerian, purposive, close to microeconomics.

Theoretical Behaviorism
Post-Skinnerian, accepts observable internal states (“within the skin” once meant “unobservable”, but with modern technology we are not so constrained); dynamic, but eclectic in choice of theoretical structures, emphasizes parsimony.

Biological Behaviorism
Post-Skinnerian, centered on perceptual and motor modules of behavior, theory of behavior systems.

Inter Behaviorism
Founded by Jacob Robert Kantor before Skinner’s writings and currently worked by L. Hayes; E. Ribes; and S. Bijou. centered in the inter behavior of organisms, field theory of behavior; emphasis on human behavior.

Buddhism
A dharmic religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddha-rtha Gautama. The basic teachings of Buddhism have to do with the nature of suffering or dissatisfaction (dukkha) and its avoidance through ethical principles (the Eightfold Path). Buddhism originated in India, and is today largely followed in East Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, Tibet, and Thailand. Buddhism is divided into different sects and movements, of which the largest are the Mahayana, Theravada, and Vajrayana.

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