Posted By Thomas Perez. July 16, 2011 at 7:59pm. Copyright 2011.
VII. The Problem that Reconciliation Addresses
A. The problem is alienation, enmity, hostility, provocation, and outright attacks
B. But the enemy, in this case, is US, not GOD! It is our hostility that is the problem:
You see, at just the right time, when we were still powerless, Christ died for the ungodly (or ‘impious’). 7 Very rarely will anyone die for a righteous man, though for a good man someone might possibly dare to die. 8 But God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us. 9 Since we have now been justified by his blood, how much more shall we be saved from God’s wrath through him! 10 For if, when we were God’s enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of his Son (Romans 5)
Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior. (Col 1; note: “mind” is probably an expression for “heart/life” there)
C. “Impiety” does not in itself have to be “god-conscious”; crimes against humans are called “impious” in the ancient world:
q “Thus not one of the charges brought against me has any foundation. But even if the probabilities, as distinct from the facts, point to me as the murderer, it is acquittal that I deserve from you far more than anything else; since first, it is clear that if I struck back, it was only because I was being deeply wronged; had that not been so, it would never have been thought likely that I was the murderer; and secondly, it is the murderers, not those accused of the murder, whom it is your duty to convict.  As I am completely cleared of the charge, it is not I who will profane the sanctity of the gods when I set foot within their precincts, any more than it is I who am sinning against them in urging you to acquit me. It is those who are prosecuting an innocent man like myself, while they let the criminal escape, to whom dearth is due; it is they who deserve in full the penalty which they say should he inflicted upon me, for urging you to become guilty of impiety.  If this is the treatment which the prosecution deserve, you must put no faith in them. I myself, on the other hand, as you will see by examining my past life, do not form plots or covet what does not belong to me. On the contrary, I have made several substantial payments to the Treasury. I have more than once served as Trierarch, I have furnished a brilliant chorus, I have often advanced money to friends, and I have frequently paid large sums under guarantees given for others; my wealth has come not from litigation, but from hard work; and I have been a religious and law-abiding man. If my character is such as this, you must not deem me guilty of anything sinful or dishonorable. [Antiphon, Speeches 2.2.10]
q “nobody, he thought, would proceed with the suit, and judgement would go by default; while in the event of his losing his case after all, he considered it better to have revenged himself for his defeat than, like a coward, to be ruined by the indictment without retaliating. And he knew very well that he would lose it, or he would not have thought the present trial the safer alternative.  Such are the motives which drove him to sin as he did. Had there been eyewitnesses in large numbers, we should have produced them in large numbers; but as the dead man’s attendant was alone present, those who heard his statement will give evidence; for he was still alive when picked up, and in reply to our questions stated that the only assailant whom he had recognized was the defendant. Inferences from probability and eyewitnesses have alike proved the defendant’s guilt: so both justice and expediency absolutely forbid you to acquit him.  Not only would it be impossible to convict deliberate criminals if they are not to be convicted by eyewitnesses and by such inferences; but it is against all your interests that this polluted wretch should profane the sanctity of the divine precincts by setting foot within them, or pass on his defilement to the innocent by sitting at the same tables as they. It is this that causes dearth and public calamity. [Antiphon, Speeches 2.1.8]
q “It is very rightly laid down that in cases of murder prosecutors must take especial care to observe justice in making their charge and presenting their evidence: they must neither let the guilty escape nor bring the innocent to trial.  For when God was minded to create the human race and brought the first of us into being, he gave us the earth and sea to sustain and serve us, in order that we might not die for want of the necessaries of life before old age brought us our end. Such being the value placed upon our life by God, whoever unlawfully slays his fellow both sins against the gods and confounds the ordinances of man.  For the victim, robbed of the gifts bestowed by God upon him, naturally leaves behind him the angry spirits of vengeance, God’s instruments of punishment, spirits which they who prosecute and testify without giving heed to justice bring into their own homes, defiling them with the defilement of another, because they share in the sin of him who did the deed. [Antiphon, Speeches 4.1.3]
q “Let us ask the fulfillment of these wishes both for the city and for the people,  and may the wisest of us cause her opinion to be accepted. But woe to those women who break their oaths,  who speculate on the public misfortune, who seek to alter the laws and the decrees, who reveal our secrets to the foe  and admit the Medes into our territory so that they may devastate it! I declare them both impious and criminal. [Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 352]
q “Furthermore, about the same date, Diopithes attacked Crobyle and Tiristasis and enslaved the inhabitants, laying waste the adjacent parts of Thrace. But his crowning act of lawlessness was the arrest of Amphilochus, the ambassador sent to negotiate for the captives; he subjected him to the severest torture and wrung from him a ransom of nine talents. And this he did with the approval of your Assembly.  Yet violation of the rights of heralds and ambassadors is regarded by all men as an act of impiety, and by none more than by you, if I may judge from the fact that, when the Megarians arrested Anthemocritus, your Assembly went to the length of excluding them from the celebration of the mysteries, and actually erected a statue before the city gates to commemorate the outrage. Yet is it not monstrous that you are now yourselves notoriously guilty of acts which, when you were the victims, excited in you such detestation of the perpetrators?  Again, your general, Callias, captured the cities on the Pagasaean Gulf, every one of them, though they were protected by treaty with you and were in alliance with me all merchants sailing to Macedonia he regarded as enemies and sold them into slavery. And for this you passed him a vote of thanks! So I am at a loss to say what difference it will make if you admit that you are at war with me, for when we were openly at variance, then too you used to send out privateers, enslave merchants trading with us, help my adversaries, and lay waste my territory.[ Demosthenes, Speeches 11-20 12.3ff]
D. This shows up in anti-god attitudes and behavior (e.g., apathy, stereotyping, moral presumption, moral convenience, avoidance, complacency, obstruction of justice or mercy) and in anti-person attitudes and behavior (e.g., elitism, manipulation, abuse, withholding cooperation, criminal behavior, blame-shifting, factionalism/divisiveness)…the various vice-lists of the NT and antiquity…
“Humans constitute themselves as God’s enemies not only by their sin but also by their disdain (the active sense of “enmity”) for godly things.” .[ NT:DictPL, s.v. “Peace, Reconciliation”]
VIII. The Agent of NT Reconciliation: Only God
A. This is the unprecedented shocker…
“The subject of the reconciliation is God (2 Cor. 5:18 f.). This is the theological novelty in comparison with non-Christian religious thought, which knows the deity only as the object of the reconciling work of man. ” [NIDNTT, s.v. “Reconciliation”]
“Paul is the first attested Greek author to speak of the offended party (God) initiating reconciliation, using the active voice form of the verb.” .[NT:DictPL, s.v. “Peace, Reconciliation”]
B. It is always God (or God acting in Christ) that reconciles US…not vice versa.
q All this is from God, who reconciled us to himself through Christ…God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting men’s sins against them. (2 Cor 5)
q For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross. 21 Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior. 22 But now he has reconciled you (Col 1)
q His purpose was to create in himself one new man out of the two, thus making peace, 16 and in this one body to reconcile both of them to God through the cross, by which he put to death their hostility. (Eph 2)
C. God effects the reconciliation on and for us:
q “In the NT only Paul uses the term for the divine-human relation. God is not reconciled, nor does he reconcile himself, but he himself reconciles us or the world to himself (2 Cor. 5:18-19), while we are reconciled to God (Rom. 5:10) or reconcile ourselves to him (2 Cor. 5:20). katallaŒssein denotes a transformation of the state between God and us and therewith of our own state, for by it we become new creatures (2 Cor. 5:18), no longer ungodly or sinners, but justified, with God’s love shed abroad in our hearts (Rom. 5:6ff.). God has not changed; the change is in our relation to him and consequently in our whole lives. [TDNT, little kittel]
q “apokatallaŒssoµ. This word does not occur prior to the NT and is found only in Colossians and Ephesians, where it has much the same sense as katallaŒssoµ. Christ is now the subject as well as God or the pleµroµma (Col. 1:20, 22; Eph. 2:16). Reconciliation is preceded by human enmity but enables us to stand in the judgment (Col. 1:22). It is connected with the conclusion of peace and a new creation (Eph. 2:15), not merely the removal of guilt. [TDNT, little kittel]
IX. The Method–Exchange
A. The basal meaning of the word: change, exchange, exchange friendship for enmity..
“The Greek terms for reconciliation derive from words for exchange, in which by extension enmity is exchanged for peaceful relations.”[NT:DictPL, s.v. “Peace, Reconciliation”]
“To reconcile is to end a relation of enmity, and to substitute for it one of peace and goodwill. It is not necessarily implied that the enmity existed on one side only, but it is plainly stated that in this case the initiative to reconciliation was God’s…”[NIDNTT, op.cit.]
B. The word for “making peace” is different than our word–it focuses on the state/results, rather than on the process (change).
C. “New hearts for old…new hearts for old…”
Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come! (2 Cor 5)
“katallavssein denotes a transformation or renewal of the state between God and man, and therewith of man’s own state. In 2 C. 5:18 it is introduced as the basis of the most comprehensive renewal possible for man, namely, that he has become a new creature, that old things have passed away and that all things have become new. In R. 5:10, too, it denotes an incisive change. We are no longer ejcqroiv, ajsebei`”, ajsqenei`” (v. 6), aJmartwloiv (v. 8), but the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts (v. 5). There is a change, not merely in the disposition of man or his legal relationship to God, but in the total state of his life. [TDNT]
“This is particularly clear in R. 5:5. In us (the reconciled), the love of God has become a present and active reality, whereas previously we lived apart from it, and simply of ourselves. This has taken place through the Holy Spirit, who is given to us men who still live in the flesh. Thus both the old and the new are to be found in man, both his own heart and the Holy Spirit; yet considered in totality he has become new through the Spirit, and he is enabled to walk in the Spirit (R. 8:4)….He is a person who is visited by the love of God and who is thus awakened to love. [TDNT]
D. Related to, and based on, Justification, but it goes beyond it…
1. Justification is legal; reconciliation is interpersonal
2. Justification deals with guilt and righteousness; reconciliation (NT) deals with love and peace:
“For to katallagh`nai there belongs the kindling of love which does not lie in dikaiwqh`nai [TDNT]
E. “Early” manifestations of the promised New Universe:
“Behold, I will create new heavens and a new earth. (Is 65.17)
“The one sitting on the throne said, “See, I am making all things new!” (Rev 21.5)
“He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created. (Jas 1.18)
X. The Participants (“Roles and Responsibilities”)
A. The personal dimension of this is obvious, from the usage and the context of these words. This is a heart-to-heart and person-to-person relationship, and requires a personal choice on the part of humans to effect it.
“The substance of this exhortation (“be reconciled to God” ) draws attention to the fact that reconciliation is incomplete until it is accepted by both sides. [NIDNTT, op. cit.]
“We have received reconciliation, yet not as blows are received, but in such a way that God has besought us (2 Cor. 5:20). The activity of a man cannot be conceived of in any higher way than in terms of causing him to ask for the acceptance of a gift. The fact that Paul speaks of the word of reconciliation as a request excludes any possibility of regarding man as merely passive in reconciliation. In reconciliation, too, man is a person. It is only because he is a person, and consequently an active being, that there can be any reconciliation for him at all. [TDNT]
B. But the command is in the passive voice! We are commanded to “become something by Another’s hand”..
“Yet we are active only in the sense of receiving reconciliation, not of effecting it, so that we may also be said to ‘be reconciled’ (passive) in Rom. 5:10” [TDNTa, little kittel]
“The katallage4 created by God is thus a completed act which precedes all human action. “For if while we were enemies we were reconciled [kate4llage4men] to God by the death of his Son, much more now that we are reconciled [katallagentes], shall we be saved by his life” (Rom. 5:10). Man was thus an enemy before the reconciliation took place. A fortiori the resurrection of Jesus is the guarantee of salvation. Human action, including even repentance and confession of sins, is not a work of man to bring about and initiate reconciliation, to which God reacts. Rather is it the reaction of man, and as such necessary and demanded. [NIDNTT, s.v. “Reconciliation”]
XI. The Distinctives In Our NT Passages
A. Romans 5
Vs 1 Therefore, since we have been justified through faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, 2 through whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we now stand. And we rejoice in the hope of the glory of God. 3 Not only so, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; 4 perseverance, character; and character, hope. 5 And hope does not disappoint us, because God has poured out his love into our hearts by the Holy Spirit, whom he has given us…6 You see, at just the right time, when we were still powerless, Christ died for the ungodly. 7 Very rarely will anyone die for a righteous man, though for a good man someone might possibly dare to die. 8 But God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us. 9 Since we have now been justified by his blood, how much more shall we be saved from God’s wrath through him! 10 For if, when we were God’s enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of his Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through his life! 11 Not only is this so, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation.
2. Love of God in our hearts (placed by His action!)
3. God’s initiative
4. Enmity removed by our union with Him at the Cross–death/new life in New Creation
5. “Bragging” on God…
B. II Cor 5
Vs 1 So from now on we regard no one from a worldly point of view. Though we once regarded Christ in this way, we do so no longer. 17 Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come! 18 All this is from God, who reconciled us to himself through Christ and gave us the ministry of reconciliation: 19 that God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting men’s sins against them. And he has committed to us the message of reconciliation. 20 We are therefore Christ’s ambassadors, as though God were making his appeal through us. We implore you on Christ’s behalf: Be reconciled to God. 21 God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.
1. New Creation (in Christ)
2. God’s initiative
3. Gospel of Reconciliation is NOT about us dealing with sin, but about God’s actions and reach-out!
4. Sin didn’t stop God from offering us New Life
5. “God the beggar…”
“Yet there can be no question that in reconciliation more takes place than a mere removal of the relationship of guilt. God has sent to men His messengers through whom He addresses men and who beseech them for Christ’s sake: “Be ye reconciled to God” (2 C. 5:20). Through the revelation of the superabounding love of God which did not find the sacrifice of the Son too great, and which does not regard it as too humiliating to plead with men, we are renewed in the total state of our life. [TDNT]
C. Col 1
He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. 16 For by him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by him and for him. 17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 18 And he is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything he might have the supremacy. 19 For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross. 21 Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior. 22 But now he has reconciled you by Christ’s physical body through death to present you holy in his sight, without blemish and free from accusation— 23 if you continue in your faith, established and firm, not moved from the hope held out in the gospel. This is the gospel that you heard and that has been proclaimed to every creature under heaven, and of which I, Paul, have become a servant.
1. Evil minds/behavior removed in Christ (“condemned sin in the flesh”, will be destroyed at His Future)
2. Enemies in our “minds”
3. Restoration of cosmic order (the context for our enjoying our interpersonal interactions/relationships)
a. Part of our problem was/is the ‘meddling’ of the supraterrestrial…(Genesis 3, Daniel, and the NT)
b. This issue needs dealing with, somehow–we HAVE to get back to “order” and “harmony”.
“It also embraces supraterrestrial beings (Col. 1:20) in what some exegetes see as a restoration of cosmic order, possibly through subjection to Christ (cf. Col. 2:10). [TDNTa, little kittel]
c. Any sin-based hostility of the “Authorities” would have been removed by the Cross:
“The ground of this victory in cancelling the debt of the law on the cross, thus depriving the principalities and powers of their hold on man, is further explained in Col. 2:13 ff… Moreover, the scope of reconciliation is given a cosmic dimension… The passage presupposes a cosmic catastrophe caused by the powers of evil. He, who is the creator and sustainer of all, is he who has triumphed over the powers of evil on the cross and is therefore the reconciler of all (Col. 1:16 ff.; cf. 2:15). [NIDNTT]
d. No matter how one understands the ‘all’, it is ‘bigger than just us’:
“The word “all” in Colossians 1:20 is explicated as “either things upon the earth or things in heaven.” Interpreters have defined these words in various ways: to include the world of humans (upon the earth) and angels (in the heavens); the breach between humans and God brought about by sin; subjection of the cosmic powers, which by nature are evil; the rupture between heaven and earth; and the world of humankind. On the basis of the grammar, the contrasting structure and the context of the work of Christ extending from before creation to reconciliation on the cross, the antithetical elements apparently form a comprehensive or inclusive statement, that is, embracing all the things in heaven, upon the earth, seen and unseen, thrones, principalities, rulers and powers (Col 1:16). Although this passage may imply universal salvation, in which things are reconciled against their will, that interpretation overlooks the larger argument. Colossians 1:18–20 establishes the general principle of God’s cosmic reconciling activity. [NT:DictPL, s.v. “Peace, Reconciliation”]
“The “healthy” or normal state which corresponds to the will of God is not to be limited to the soul or even to man. It extends basically to the universe as a whole.” [TDNT]
Remember, Romans 8…and apolytro…
And remember Hebrews and the Heavenly Sanctuary that needed “cleansing” (Heb 9.23ff)
e. Reconciliation at the Cross actually consisted of TWO elements: a creative one, and a destructive one:
“As M. Barth points out, “The pacification carried out by Jesus Christ is an act of creation” (Barth, 1.308) whereby the two are made into something entirely new (see Creation and New Creation). This act of reconciliation is defined in both positive and negative terms. Reconciliation consists of making peace, and of killing animosity. The first phrase explains the title of this section: Jesus Christ can be called “our peace,” since he is a peacemaker. This positive message forms the basis of the proclamation of peace to all, those both far and near (Eph 2:17; cf. 6:15; see also Col 1:18–22). The enmity which calls for reconciliation is defined in terms of two human groups, Jews and Gentiles. In that the Law excluded Gentiles, it was the source of their enmity. The animosity is said to be “killed” by Christ’s work on the cross, and to constitute the new condition of Christian existence (cf. Eph 4:3; Rom 11:15). [NT:DictPL, s.v. “Peace, Reconciliation”]
The “flesh” was somehow ‘separated from’ our center of consciousness when we placed our trust in Christ, but it physically won’t disappear until the apolytro…In this case, “peace” will only come through removal/destruction of the dissonant element (the ‘flesh’ is NOT ‘reconcilable’–Rom 8.7)
f. As in some of our background quotes, restoring total order/peace/harmony MAY involve subjugation, destruction, or exile of hostile elements:
§ The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. (Rom 16.20; cf. Genesis 3.15)
§ “God is the God of peace (cf. 15:33; Philippians 4:9; 1Thess 5:23), who is concerned to preserve harmony among his people and protect them from divisive influences. He is able to defeat the adversary who delights to sow discord among Christians. [EBCNT]
§ In Revelation 21, the New Heavens/Earth and the New Jerusalem are ‘isolated’ from evil elements. They are not allowed to enter, restrained from acting on the residents, and isolated in location.
§ The subjugation of the enemies of Christ, promised in the OT and re-affirmed in the NT, involves at least the destruction of one major hostile force:
For He must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet. 26 The last enemy to be destroyed is death. (I Cor 15.25f)
g. Part of the reason the world-system doesn’t work well, is that the “Rulers and Authorities” are conflicted themselves. The book of Daniel shows us how angelic agents ‘fight’ among themselves. If God were to remove the negative combatants (e.g., by exile or destruction), then the world would “work” like it was originally intended. Order and biblical “peace” (the supra human elements) would be restored. And, remember, there’s going to be a change of management (“we shall judge the world…and angels…”, I Cor 6).
h. Plus, some of them were constantly ‘accusing’ us of the various crimes we actually did/do, and no doubt requesting immediate judgment on us (but they sorta were supposed to do this–Romans 13)…With the removal of both the Law and our sin at the Cross, these “appeals” have lost their force, if not their frequency…[Rev 12.10]
D. Ephesians 2
Vs 1 But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, 5 made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressions—it is by grace you have been saved. 6 And God raised us up with Christ and seated us with him in the heavenly realms in Christ Jesus, 7 in order that in the coming ages he might show the incomparable riches of his grace, expressed in his kindness to us in Christ Jesus. 8 For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith—and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God— 9 not by works, so that no one can boast. 10 For we are God’s workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do…11 Therefore, remember that formerly you who are Gentiles by birth and called “uncircumcised” by those who call themselves “the circumcision” (that done in the body by the hands of men)— 12 remember that at that time you were separate from Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far away have been brought near through the blood of Christ. …14 For he himself is our peace, who has made the two one and has destroyed the barrier, the dividing wall of hostility, 15 by abolishing in his flesh the law with its commandments and regulations. His purpose was to create in himself one new man out of the two, thus making peace, 16 and in this one body to reconcile both of them to God through the cross, by which he put to death their hostility. 17 He came and preached peace to you who were far away and peace to those who were near. 18 For through him we both have access to the Father by one Spirit….19 Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God’s people and members of God’s household, 20 built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the chief cornerstone. 21 In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple in the Lord. 22 And in him you too are being built together to become a dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit.
1. Both Jew and Gentile have access (an element of the peace of reconciliation)
2. Creates “one new man” instead of two new men: unity and newness
3. This highlights the community aspect of peace and order. Includes unity of purpose and contribution by all.
4. The dividing wall:
“Paul writes this letter from prison because he has been falsely charged with taking a non-Jew inside the temple in Jerusalem (Acts 21:28). Taking a non-Jew beyond a particular dividing point in the temple was such an important breach of Jewish law that the Romans even permitted Jewish leaders to execute violators of this law. Paul’s readers in Ephesus and Asia undoubtedly know why Paul is in prison (Acts 21:27, 29); thus for them, as well as for Paul, there can be no greater symbol of the barrier between Jew and non-Jew than “the dividing wall” of verse 14. But Paul says that this dividing wall is shattered in Christ. “He is our peace” might (but need not) reflect the Hebrew of Micah 5:5… In the Old Testament, the only division in the temple was between priests and laity, but by Paul’s day architects had added barriers for non-Jews and for women (contrast 1 Kings 8:41–43); Paul says these barriers are abolished in God’s true, spiritual temple. Some other Jewish writers spoke of God’s people as his temple, but only Paul and other early Christians recognized that this new temple included non-Jews. (Paul derived the image of Christ as the cornerstone from Ps 118:22, probably via Jesus’ teaching; see comment on Mk 11:10.)…Around the time Paul was writing these words, arguing for racial unity in Christ, Jews and Syrians were massacring each other in the streets of Caesarea, a city where he had been not long before (Acts 23:23). Here Paul does not simply mimic a common stand against racism in his culture; he condemns racism and segregation of a religious institution even though he has to challenge his culture to do so.” [BBC, in. loc.]
5. “These far-ranging and distinctive ideas—covering cosmic, personal, societal and ethnic areas of our human story—are nevertheless part of a pattern, whose picture fills the tapestry. The various strands are closely textured and intricately woven together. Yet they are not aimlessly put into a frame. There is an emerging design and a coherent picture. And the most adequate and meaningful title for the result is, we submit, “reconciliation.”” [NT:DictPL, s.v. “Center of Paul’s Theology”]
6. Thus, the “one body” action (which actually preceded reconciliation) has the spill-over effects of reconciliation within the body.
Gal 3.28: There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
“Just why these three couplets, and not others, were incorporated into the confession of early Christians is impossible to say. Perhaps their inclusion was a conscious attempt to counter the three beáraµkoÆt (“blessings,” “benedictions”) that appear at the beginning of the Jewish cycle of morning prayers: “Blessed be He [God] that He did not make me a Gentile; blessed be He that He did not make me a boor [i.e. an ignorant peasant or a slave]; blessed be He that He did not make me a woman” (cf. e.g. The Authorised Daily Prayer Book of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British Commonwealth of Nations, tr. S. Singer, 2nd rev. ed. [London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1962] 6–7). These three beáraµkoÆt are credited to R. Judah ben Elai (c. 150 a.d.) in t. Ber. 7.18 and j. Ber. 13b, but to R. Meier (his contemporary) in b. Menahi. 43b. Analogous expressions of “gratitude” appear in Greek writings as well; for example, “that I was born a human being and not a beast, next, a man and not a woman, thirdly, a Greek and not a barbarian” (attributed to Thales and Socrates in Diogenes Laertius’ Vitae Philosophorum 1.33, but to Plato in Plutarch’s Marius 46.1 and Lactantius’ Divine Institutes 3.19.17). So it may be surmised that in conscious contrast to such Jewish and Greek chauvinistic statements, early Christians saw it as particularly appropriate to give praise in their baptismal confession that through Christ the old racial schisms and cultural divisions had been healed. [WBC, in.loc.]
XII. Excursus: God the Peace-Maker
q The scripture affirms that God rewards those that seek Him or His character of righteousness (e.g., Heb 11.6; Acts 10.35; Matt 5.6), but in the NT, God is also on the offensive. He sends ambassadors out, He implores, He “seeks such to worship Him” (John 4), He endeavors to be “found by those who sought Him not” (Is 65.1).
q The love of Christ ‘compels’ Paul to beseech others to trade in their old hearts for new ones, to enter into friendship and companionship with the God who openly showed His love on the Cross.
q Christ is said to have “announced/proclaimed peace” to those near and far (Eph 2).
q And the gospel is called “the gospel of peace” in Eph 6.15
q The gift of Christ: “He is our peace” (Eph 2.14)
q Earthly peace-makers have a character like the Father: How blessed are those who make peace for it is they who will be called God’s children! (Matt 5.9)
q The rabbinic passage: God the advocate of domestic peace…
q …And peace in difficult situations: But if the unbeliever leaves, let him do so. A believing man or woman is not bound in such circumstances; God has called us to live in peace. (I Cor 7.15)
q In larger community settings: Let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, since as members of one body you were called to peace. (Col 3.15)
q The model of Jesus, seeking all types of peace:
§ Mt 5:44 (ISV) But I say to you, love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you,
§ Mk 5:34 (NIV) He said to her, “Daughter, your faith has healed you. Go in peace and be freed from your suffering.”
§ Mk 9:50 (NIV) “Salt is good, but if it loses its saltiness, how can you make it salty again? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with each other.”
§ Lk 7:50 (NIV) Jesus said to the woman, “Your faith has saved you; go in peace.”
§ Jn 14:27 (NIV) Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid.
§ Jn 16:33 (NIV) “I have told you these things, so that in me you may have peace. In this world you will have trouble. But take heart! I have overcome the world.”
§ Ac 10:36 (NIV) You know the message God sent to the people of Israel, telling the good news of peace through Jesus Christ, who is Lord of all.
XIII. Where Does This Leave Us?
On the cross, Jesus voluntarily identified Himself in solidarity with fallen ‘us’ and accepted the consequences-due us–for our moral failures.
God judged these moral failures, and exacted the ultimate penalty of the Law–becoming a ‘curse’–upon Jesus.
This judgment on universal sin, which foreshadows the ultimate destruction of the sinful tendencies in all of us (“the flesh”), rendered the Law code irrelevant to those now “judged” in Christ–it had no ‘mission’ left to pursue with them.
But Christ, because of His supreme obedience to the Father and because of the supreme love and forgiveness manifested, was given the promised messianic privileges–an eternal kingdom, a resurrection in power, and a ministry of renewal to the world.
The power within the resurrection was the power of a ‘new, incorruptible, and creative life-force’–corresponding to the very character of God’s life. This life was a ‘firstfruit’ of the New Creation, promised by God to the world in the OT.
But this newness of life–victorious over death and the constraints of the world, but still enfleshed–was sharable, through the promised giving of the very Spirit of God. God could, and would, impart this life to those who wanted it.
In this way, God began creating the New Heavens and the New Earth–one new heart at a time. And when He would make two new hearts, He would begin to make a new relationship between them–modeled after His love, friendship, forgiveness, and acceptance of us.
Those that came in contact with these New Hearts were offered the same opportunity–indeed, they were implored to partake of the New Universe of life and peace and beauty and grace.
They were simply to “face God, heart-to-heart, in the face of Jesus” and agree to a free and painless “heart transplant”. Looking at the Cross, which revealed the awesome love and non-hostility of God toward us–in spite of our past actions and attitudes toward Him and others, they were simply to tell God “I’ll take that new heart and new start and new life you are offering…”
When that openness to God, that tiny act of confidence, that thin trust in the good-heartedness and reality of God’s offer, the person underwent a massive–but quiet–transformation.
Their center of consciousness was all of sudden ‘de-coupled’ from the irresistible (and often invisible) authority and commands of destructive and selfish tendencies within them. And a new set/source of tendencies seemed to “awaken” within the person.
The center of consciousness now had one set of influences and habits that avoided, abused, or trivialized God and everything that hinted of Him; and a new set of influences/tendencies (not habits yet, not patterns yet, not always very vocal) that were characterized by affection, patience, warmth, joviality, calm, conciliatory action, and excellence.
The center of consciousness now encountered both competing sets of influences in situations of moral choice, but the more it ‘listened to’ the new set, then the more it experienced freedom, peace, orderliness, gentleness, affection for others and God, openness to change, and new life-growth. It was increasingly open to reconciliation with other people (where circumstances allowed), and sometimes even felt impelled to initiate it.
Tendencies from the old ‘self’ and old thought patterns seemed increasingly sub-standard, “odd”, and short-sighted, although often appealing to matters of “comfort zones” and “predictability”.
The person soon discovered that this old ‘self’ was very unreasonable, and incorrigible, and so they gave up trying to ‘reform’ it, and began focusing exclusively on the new life side. They discovered the significant differences between the short-term flashes of superficial pleasure (offered by the former), and deeply moving senses of significance, impact, connectedness, acceptance, affirmation, purpose, and love that came from living on the “New” side…
This growing manifestation of this inner newness of life and improvement of values (surfacing and being corroborated in exchanges with other New Creation Citizens) met with increased contrary efforts of the old-self, of course, and even seemed to be at odds with the world-at-large. The values often ‘sold’ by the world, and the actions of macro-institutions sometimes seemed to be in direct conflict with the beautiful impulses of their new heart & attitude.
They hoped one day that the world would not be so schizophrenic and would unite around goodness and value and excellence and mercy and kindness and honesty and loyalty…As they got older, this hope–of a life of beauty and grace and freedom, without the constant dissonance from without and from within–became a longing, and eventually a daily exercise in perseverance…”Thy kingdom come…Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven”
And meanwhile, they invited others to this new future, this new life, this Jesus…and they “made peace” wherever they could.
The following is a list of all citations as quoted in the study, ‘Is Christianity Borrowed From Pagan Myths/Religions?’ (Parts 1 – 9). Common abbreviations: DSS (Dea Sea Scrolls); mss (manuscripts); NT (New Testament); OT (Old Testament/Tanach); ANE (Ancient New East). Books with an X: prefix are NOT in my library.
[AAA] Atlas of Ancient Archaeology, Jacquetta Hawkes (ed), Barnes and Nobles: 1994.
[AAF] Answering a Fundamentalist, Albert J. Nevins, M.M., Our Sunday Visitor Publishing:1990.
[AB] Atlas of the Bible, John Rogerson, Facts on File: 1985.
[ABC] Atlas of the Bible and Christianity, Tim Dowley (ed.), Baker:1997.
[ABD] Anchor Bible Dictionary, David Noel Freedman (main ed.), DoubleDay:1992
[ABH] Archeology and Bible History, Free and Vos, Zondervan:1992.
[ABWT] Archaic Bookkeeping: Writing and Techniques of Economic Administration in the Ancient Near East, Hans Nissen / Peter Damerow / Robert Englund (trans. Paul Larsen), U.Chicago: 1993.
[ACAEC] Early Civilizations: Ancient Egypt in Context, Bruce G. Trigger, American University in Cairo:1993.
[ACCS:Mark] Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture. Thomas Oden and Christopher Hall (eds.). IVP:1998.
[ACH] Atlas of Classical History, Michael Grant, Oxford: 1994.
[AEC] The Archaeology of Early Christianity–A History, William Frend, Fortress:1996.
[AEL1] Ancient Egyptian Literature (3 vols), Miriam Lichtheim, Univ of Cal:1973, 1976, 1980.
[AEL2] Ancient Egyptian Literature (3 vols), Miriam Lichtheim, Univ of Cal:1973, 1976, 1980.
[AEL3] Ancient Egyptian Literature (3 vols), Miriam Lichtheim, Univ of Cal:1973, 1976, 1980.
[AHANE] Archeological History of the Ancient Near East, Jack Finegan, Barnes&Nobles:1979.
[AHSG] Archaeology, History, and Society in Galilee–the Social Context of Jesus and the Rabbis, Richard A. Horsley, Trinity Press: 1996.
[AI] Ancient Israel. de Vaux, Roland, McGraw-Hill, 1965.two vols.
[AILCC] Ancient Israelite Literature in its Cultural Context, John H. Walton, Zondervan: 1989.
[AL] Ancient Literacy, William V. Harris, Harvard:1989.
[AM] Ancient Mesopotamia, Leo Oppenheim-completed by Erica Reiner, Univ.Chicago: 1977 (2nd ed).
[ANET] Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Relating to the Old Testament, with supplement. James B. Pritchard. PrincetonUP:1969 (3rd ed)
[ANL] Archeology and Langauge: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins, Colin Renfreq, Cambridge: 1987.
[ANT] The Archeology of the New Testament-The Life of Jesus and the Beginnings of the Early Church, Jack Finegan, Princeton: 1992 (revised edition)
[AOOT] Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Kitchen, K.A. ,Intervarsity Press, 1966.
[AOTI] Approaches to Old Testament Interpretation (2nd ed), by John Goldingay, IVP:1990.
[AP:CBW] Can a Bishop be Wrong?–Ten Scholars Challenge John Shelby Spong, Peter C. Moore (ed.), Morehouse:1998.
[AP:IDFB] In Defense of the Faith: Biblical Answers to Challenging Questions, Dave Hunt, Harvest House:1996.
[ART] Aspects of Rabbinic Theology, Solomon Schechter, Jewish Lights: 1909/1993.
[ATNT] The Text of the New Testament, Aland and Aland, Eerdmans/EJ Brill: 1989 (2nd ed).
[ATRD] As the Romans Did: A Sourcebook in Roman Social History, Jo-Ann Shelton, Oxford: 1988.
[BABY] Babylon, Joan Oates, Thames and Hudson: 1986 (rev.ed.)
[BAFCSALS] The Book of Acts in its First Century Setting: Ancient Literary Setting, Bruce Winter and Andrew Clarke (eds.), Eerdmans: 1993.
[BAFCSDS] The Book of Acts in its First Century Settting: Diaspora Setting, by Irina Levinskaya, Eerdmans/Paternoster:1996 (vol 5 in the series)
[BAFCSGR] The Book of Acts in its First Century Settting, vol 2: Graeco-Roman Setting, David W. Gill and Conrad Gempf, eds. Eerdmans: 1994.
[BAFCSP] The Book of Acts in its First Century Setting: Vol 4–Palestinian Setting, ed. R. Bauchkham, Eerdmans: 1995, 526pp.
[BAFCSPRC] The Book of Acts in its First Century Setting: Paul in Roman Custody, Brian Rapske, Eerdmans:1994.
[BAM] Berossos and Manetho: Introduced and Translated–Native Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, Gerhard Verbrugghe and Wichersham, U.Mich: 1996.
[BAW] Before Abraham Was: The Unity of Genesis 1-11, Kikawada and Quinn, Ignatius: 1985.
[BBC] The Bible Background Commentary-NT. Keener, Craig. S. , IVP, 1993.
[BCANON] The Canon of Scripture, F. F. Bruce, IVP: 1988.
[BEALE] The Right Doctrine from the Wrong Texts, G. K. Beale (ed.), Baker:1994.
[BEAP] Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period. Longenecker, Richard. , Eerdmans Publishing, 1975.
[BEB] Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible (electronic edition)
[BFC] Beyond Form Criticism: Essays in Old Testament Literary Criticism, Paul R. House (ed.), Eisenbrauns: 1992.
[BHDL] Biblical Hebrew and Discourse Linguistics, Robert D. Bergen (ed.), Summer Institute of Linguistics: 1994.
[BIAI] Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel, Michael Fishbane, Oxford: 1985.
[BKC] Bible Knowledge Commentary, Kenneth L. Barker, Eugene H. Merrill, and Dr. Stanley D. Toussaint (eds). Victory Books.
[BLOM] The Historical Reliability of the Gospels by Craig Blomberg, IVP: 1987.
[BLOM2] The Historical Reliability of the Gospels (2nd Ed). Craig Blomberg. IVP:2007.
[BM] The Birth of the Messiah, by Raymond E. Brown, Doubleday: 1993.
[BNTH] New Testament History. Bruce, F.F., Anchor, 1972.
[BPM] Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs: Popular Movements at the Time of Jesuss, Richard Horsley and John Hanson, Harper & Row: 1985.
[BQI] Beyond the Q Impasse: Luke’s Use of Matthew, Allan J. McNichol (ed), Trinity: 1996. (International Institute for Gospel Studies).
[BREC] Books and Readers in the Early Church, Harry Y. Gamble, Yale: 1995
[BSNT] Behind the Scenes of the New Testament, Barnett, IVP: 1990.
[BTE] The Bauer Thesis Examined: The Geography of Heresy in the Early Christian Church, T.A. Robinson, Edwin Mellen: 1988.
[BTM] Before the Muses–An Anthology of Akkadian Literature (2 vols), Benjamin R. Foster, CDL Press:1996.
[BTT] The Trinity, Edward Henry Bickersteth, Kregel: 1994. Reprint of 19th century work.
[BVS] The Bible, Violence, and The Sacred: Liberation from the Myth of Sanctioned Violence, James G. Williams, HarperCollins: 1991.
[CAE] Constantine and Eusebius, Timothy D. Barnes, Harvard: 1981.
[CAM] Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East, Michael Roaf, Facts of File: 1990.
[CAP] Christianity and Paganism, 350-750, J. N. Hillgarth (ed.), Univ of Penn Press: 1986.
[CASA] Cambridge Annotated Study Apocrypha, Howard Clark Kee (ed.), Cambridge: 1989.
[CBGR] Civilization before Greece and Rome, H.W.F. Saggs, Yale:1989.
[CER] The Civilization of Europe in the Renaissance, John Hale, Simon and Schuster: 1993.
[CFMH] The Classical Foundations of Modern Historiography, Arnaldo Momigliano, U of Ca: 1990.
[CH:DECB] A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs, David W. Bercot (ed), Hendrickson:1998.
[CH:JCW] John Calvin and the Will: A Critique and Corrective, Dewey J. Hoitenga, Jr., Baker:1997.
[ChRE] Chronicle of the Roman Emperors, Chris Scarre, Thames and Hudson: 1995.
[CKC] Chronos, Kairos, Christos: Nativity and Chronological Studies Presented to Jack Finegan, Jerry Vardaman and Edwin Yamauchi, eds. Eisenbrauns:1989.
[CKC2] Chronos, Kairos, Christos II, E. Jerry Vardaman (ed), Mercer UPress: 1998.
[CMM] An Introduction to the New Testament. Carson, D.A.; Moo, Douglas; and Morris, Leon. , Zondervan, 1992.
[CMM2] An Introduction to the New Testament (2nd Ed). DA Carson and Douglas Moo. Zondervan:2005.
[COMFORT] Quest for the Original Text of the New Testament by Philip Wesley Comfort, Baker: 1992.
[COTTD] Celsus On the True Doctrine: A Discourse Against the Christians, trans. R. Joseph Hoffman, Oxford: 1987.
[COWA1] Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (2 vols), Robert W. Ehrich (ed)., Univ of Chicago: 1992.
[COWA2] Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (2 vols), Robert W. Ehrich (ed)., Univ of Chicago: 1992.
[CP] The Chronicle of the Pharoahs, Peter A Clayton, Thames and Hudson:1994
[CR:NLBC] The Natural Limits to Biological Change, Lester & Bohlin, Probe Books: 1989.
[CRCST] Classical Rhetoric and Its Christian & Secular Tradition, George A. Kennedy, Univ. of N.Carolina: 1980.
[CRE] Christianizing the Roman Empire A.D. 100-400, Ramsay MacMullen, Yale:1984.
[CRJ] Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism: A Parallel History of Their Origins and Early Development, Hershel Shanks (ed.), Biblical Archeology Society: 1992.
[CRST] The Christians as the Romans Saw Them, Robert Wilken, Yale: 1984.
[Crux] Crucifixion, Martin Hengel, Fortress: 1977.
[CS] Caesars and Saints–The Rise of the Christian State, Stewart Perowne, Barnes&Nobles: 1962.
[CS:AM] Animal Minds. Griffin, Donald R., Univ of Chicago, 1992.
[CS:APFC] A Place for Consciousness: Probing the Deep Structure of the Natural World. Gregg Rosenberg. OxfordUP:2004.
[CS:AWU] Are We Unique?, James Trefil, Wiley:1997.
[CS:BO] Beyond Ourselves: Second-person issues in the study of consciousness. Evan Thompson (ed). ImprintAcademic:2001.
[CS:BR] Brain Repair, Stein, Brailowsky, and Will, Oxford: 1995.
[CS:CCS] The Chemistry of Conscious States: How the Brain changes its Mind by J. Allan Hobson. Little/Brown: 1994,292pp.
[CS:CD] Cognitive Development (3rd ed), by J. H. Flavell, P.H. Miller, and S. A. Miller, Prentice Hall:1993.
[CS:CE] Conscious Experience, Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Schoningh: 1995.
[CS:CEden] Consciousness Explained by Daniel C. Dennett. BackBay Books: 1991, 500pp.
[CS:CHC] The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch, and Evan Thompson (eds). CambridgeUP:2007.
[CS:CMSM] Cognitive Models and Spiritual Maps. Jensine Andresen and Robert Forman (eds). ImprintAcademic:2000
[CS:CPL] Cognition, Perception, and Language, Volume 2, Handbook of Child Psychology, 5thEd. Damon, Kuhn, Siegler (eds). Wiley:2000.
[CS:CRA] Consciousness Research Abstracts, Imprint Academic.
[CS:CRM] Children’s Reasoning and the Mind. Peter Mitchell. PsychologyPress:2001.
[CS:CT] Children’s Thinking, 4thEd. Robert Siegler and Martha Alibali. PrenticeHall:2004.
[CS:DEERHB] Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain by Antonio Damasio. Grosset/Putnam: 1994,310+pp.
[CS:DM] Deconstructing the Mind, Stephen P. Stich, Oxford: 1996.
[CS:DPSOBB] Dynamic Patterns: The Self-Organization of Brain and Behavior by Scott Kelso. Bradford (MIT), 1995.
[CS:EL] Goodbye, Descatres: The End of Logic and the Search for a New Cosmology of the Mind. Keith Devlin. John Wiley: 1997.
[CS:EPC] The Emerging Physics of Consciousness. Jack Tuszynski (ed). Springer:2006.
[CS:ESSSC] Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness. Baars, Banks, Newman (eds). MIT:2003.
[CS:EVM] Evolving the Mind: On the Nature of Matter and the Origin of Consciousness, A.G. Cairns-Smith, Cambridge: 1996.
[CS:HBT] How Brains Think, William H. Calvin, BasicBooks:1996.
[CS:HSCB] How the Self Controls its Brain, John C. Eccles, Springer-Verlag: 1994.
[CS:ICW] The Illusion of Conscious Will. Daniel Wegner. MIT:2002.
[CS:IM] Irreducible Mind: Toward a Psychology for the 21st Century. Kelly, Kelly, Crabtree, Gauld, Grosso and Greyson. RowmanLittlefield:2007.
[CS:IOSD] Immortality: The Other Side of Death, Gary Habermas and J.P. Moreland, Nelson:1992.
[CS:ISS] In Search of the Soul: Four Views on the Mind-Body Problem. Joel Green and Stuart Palmer (eds). IVP:2005.
[CS:JCM] Journeys to the Centers of the Mind–Toward a Science of Consciousness, Susan Greenfield, Freeman: 1995.
[CS:JCSxx] The Journal of Consciousness Studies, cited by vol:issue, pps.
[CS:KOM] Kinds of Minds: Towards and Understanding of Consciousness, Daniel Dennett, Basic Books/Harper: 1996.
[CS:MBB] Memory, Brain, and Belief. Daniel Schacter and Elaine Scarry (eds). Harvard:2000.
[CS:MCM] Minds, Causes, and Mechanisms: A Case Against Physicalism. Josep E. Corbi and Josep L. Prades. Blackwell: 2000.
[CS:MD] Memory Distortion: How Minds, Brains, and Societies Reconstruct the Past. Daniel Schacter (ed). Harvard:1995.
[CS:MI] The Making of Intelligence. Ken Richardson. Columbia:2000.
[CS:MKC] Memory: The Key to Consciousness. Richard Thompson and Stephen Madigan. PrincetonUP:2005.
[CS:MMQM] Mind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics, Henry P. Stapp, Springer-Verlag: 1993, 248pp.
[CS:MR] Mind Regained. Edward Pols. Cornell:1998.
[CS:NAR] Neuroscience and Religion: Brain, Mind, Self, and Soul. Volney P Gay (ed). LexingtonRowmanLittlefield:2009.
[CS:NBNG] Neither Brain nor Ghost: A Nondualist Alternative to the Mind-Brain Identity Theory. W Teed Rockwell. BradfordMIT:2005.
[CS:NPAR] Neuroscience, Psychology and Religion: Illusions, Delusions, and Realities about Human Nature. Malcolm Jeeves and Warren S Brown. Templeton:2009.
[CS:OOSSE] The Origins of Order: Self-organization and Selection in Evolution, S. A. Kauffman, Oxford: 1993.
[CS:P] Perception, 5thEd. Randolph Blake and Robert Sekuler. McGrawHill:2005.
[CS:PBP] Pseudoscience in Biological Psychiatry: Blaming the Body. Colin Ross and Alvin Pam. WileyInterscience:1995.
[CS:PC4V] Psychology and Christianity: Four Views. Eric L Johnson and Stanton L Jones (eds). IVP:2000.
[CS:PMC] Physicalism and Mental Causation: The Metaphysics of Mind and Action. Sven Walter and Heinz-Dieter Heckmann (eds). ImprintAcademic:2003.
[CS:PSS] Pain: The Science of Suffering. Patrick Wall. Columbia:2000.
[CS:PSYLIN] Psycholinguistics by Michael Garman. Cambridge: 1990, 500+pp.
[CS:PTEF] Psychology through the Eyes of Faith. David Myers & Malcolm Jeeves. Harper/Collins:1987.
[CS:SAC] Scientific Approaches to Consciousness, J. D. Cohen and J. W. Schooler (eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum Asso: 1997 (Carnegie Mellon Symposia on Cognition).
[CS:SAPgold] Sensation and Perception, 6thEd. E Bruce Goldstein. Wadsworth:2002.
[CS:SAPwolfe] Sensation & Perception. Wolfe, Kluender, Levi, Bartoshuk, Herz, Klatzky, and Lederman. Sinauer:2006.
[CS:SCUR] Science, Consciousness, and Ultimate Reality. David Lorimer (ed). ImprintAcademic:2004.
[CS:SMpen] Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing of Science of Consciousness by Roger Penrose. Oxford: 1994,450+pp.
[CS:SS] The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of language and the brain, Terrance W. Deacon, Norton:1997.
[CS:SSM] The Seven Sins of Memory–How the Mind Forgets and Remembers. Daniel L. Schacter. Houghton/Mifflin:2001.
[CS:TCM] The Conscious Mind–In search of a Fundamental Theory, David J. Chalmers, Oxford:1996.
[CS:TCN] The Cognitive Neurosciences ed. by Michael Gazzaniga. MIT: 1995, 1447pp.
[CS:TEB] The Emotional Brain, Joseph LeDoux, Simon & Schuster:1996.
[CS:TIC] Thinking in Complexity, K. Mainzer, Springer-Verlag: 1994.
[CS:TMB] The Modular Brain by Richard Restak. Scribners, 1994.
[CS:TMTB] The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. Jeffrey Schwartz and Sharon Begley. RegenBooks/HarperCollins:2002.
[CS:TNM] The Nature of Mind by David M. Rosenthal. Oxford: 1991, 642pp.
[CS:TOM] Theories of the Mind. Priest, Stephen, Houghton-Mifflin, 1991.
[CS:TPC] Ten Problems of Consciousness–A Representational Theory of the Phenomenal Mind, Michael Tye, MIT/Bradford: 1995.
[CS:TRM] The Rediscovery of the Mind by John Searle. MIT: 1992, 270pp.
[CS:TSB] The Spiritual Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Case for the Existence of the Soul. Mario Beauregard and Denyse O’Leary. Harper:2007.
[CS:TSC] Toward a Science of Consciousness, Hameroff/Kaszniak/Scott (eds.), Bradford/MIT: 1996.
[CS:TSOC] The Science of Consciousness, Max Velmans (eds.), Routledge:1996.
[CS:TSP] The Story of Psychology by Moron Hunt. Anchor: 1993, 760pp.
[CS:TVB] The Volitional Brain: Towards a Neuroscience of Free Will. Benjamin Libet, Anthony Freeman and Keith Sutherland (eds). ImprintAcademic:1999.
[CS:UM] The Undiscovered Mind: How the Human Brain Defies Replication, Medication, and Explanation. John Horgan. The Free Press:1999.
[CS:WEW] When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. Jeffrey Masson and Susan McCarthy. Dell:1995.
[CS:WGWGA] Why God Won’t Go Away: Brain Science and the Biology of Belief. Andrew Newburg, E. D’Aguili, and V. Rause. Ballantine:2001.
[CS:WIK] What Infants Know: The New Cognitive Science of Early Development, by Jacques Mehler and Emmanuel Dupoux (trans. Patsy Southgate), Blackwell:1990/1994(tr).
[CSSG] Cynic Sage or Son of God?, Gregory Boyd, Bridgepoint: 1995.
[CTEC] The Early Church, Henry Chadwick, Penguin: 1993 (2nd rev).
[CTM] Christianity in Talmud and Midrash, R. Travers Herford, KTAV: 1903.
[DABL] Discourse Analysis of Biblical Literature, Walter Bodine (ed.), Scholars Press: 1995.
[Daube] The New Testament and Rabbinic Judaism, David Daube, Hendrickson:1956 (reprint).
[DAW] Discipleship in the Ancient World and the Gospel of Matthew, Michael J. Wilkins, Baker: 1995 (2nd rev of original by Brill: 1988).
[DDD] Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst (eds.). Brill:1995.
[DGNT] The Defense of the Gospel in the New Testament, F.F. Bruce, Eerdmans: 1977 (2nd ed.).
[DJE] Did Jesus Exist?, G. A. Wells, Pemberton:1986 (rev. ed.)
[DJEC] The Death of Jesus in Early Christianity, John Carroll ad Joel Green, Hendrickson: 1995.
[DLIOT] An Introduction to the Old Testament, Dillard and Longman III, Zondervan: 1994.
[DM] The Death of the Messiah, Raymond E. Brown, Doubleday: 1994, 2 vols.
[DNTT] : Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Colin Brown, eds. Zond.
[DSCH] The Dark Side of Christian History, Helen Ellerbe, MorningStar: 1995.
[DSG] Documents for the Study of the Gospels, Cartlidge and Dungan (eds.), Fortress: 1994 (2nd ed).
[DSIG] Difficult Sayings in the Gospels: Jesus’ Use of Overstatement and Hyperbole., Robert H. Stein. Baker: 1985.
[DSSMTOT] Dead Sea Scrolls & Modern Translations of the Old Testament, Harold Scanlin, Tyndale:1993.
[DSST] The Dead Sea Scrolls Today, James VanderKam, Eerdmans:1994.
[DSST2] The Dead Sea Scrolls Today, 2nd ed. James C VanderKam. Eerdmans:2010.
[DSSTQTE] The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English, Florentino Martinez, Brill: 1996 (2nd ed.).
[DTX] A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature, Marcus Jastrow, Judaica Press: 1971. (of Hebrew/Aramaic)
[EAL] Egypt, the Aegen, and the Levant: Interconnections in the Second Millennium BC, W. Vivian Davies and Louise Schofield (eds.), British Museum Press:1995.
[EAMH] Essays in Ancient and Modern Historiography, Arnaldo Momigliano, Wesleyan: 1975.
[EBC] The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Gaebelein, Frank E., ed., Vol I. Zondervan, 1979.
[EBD] Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties, Gleason L. Archer, Zondervan: 1982.
[EBE] Encyclopedia Britannica (Electronic edition on CD).
[EBI] Early Biblical Interpretation, Kugel and Greer, Westminster:
[EBLA0] Ebla: A New Look at History, Giovanni Pettinato, John Hopkins:1991.
[EBLA1] Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language (Vol 1), Gordon/Rendsburg/Winter (eds.), Eisenbrauns: 1987.
[EBLA2] Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language (Vol 2), Gordon/Rendsburg (eds.), Eisenbrauns: 1990.
[EBLA3] Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language (Vol 3), Gordon/Rendsburg/Winter (eds.), Eisenbrauns: 1992.
[EBLA4] Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language (Vol 4), Gordon/Rendsburg (eds.), Eisenbrauns: 2002.
[ECB] Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. James DG Dunn and John Robertson (eds). Eerdmans:2003. (1 vol).
[ECH] The Earliest Christian Heretics: Readings from their Opponents, eds. Arland Hultgren and Stgeven Haggmark, Fortress: 1996.
[ECIAT] Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Donald B. Redford, Princeton:1992.
[EDNT] Exegetical Dict. of the NT (Balz and Schneider)
[EE] Easter Enigma–Are the Resurrection accounts in conflict? 2nd. ed., John Wenham, Baker: 1992.
[EEE] Prophecy and Hermeneutic in Early Christianity. E.E. Ellis, Eerdmans, 1978.
[EFT] The Evidence for Jesus, James D.G. Dunn, Westminster: 1985.
[EGG] Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, George Hart, Routledge:1986.
[EHANE] The Early History of the Ancient Near East: 9000-2000 B.C., Hans J. Nissen, Univ.Chicago: 1988.
[EHHC] Eerdman’s Handbook to the History of Christianity, ed. Tom Dowley, Eerd: 1977.
[EJ] The Evidence for Jesus, R.T. France, Hodder and Stoughton: 1986.
[EMMT] Early Manuscripts & Modern Translations of the New Testament, Philip Comfort, Tyndale: 1990.
[EncyGenocide] Encyclopedia of Genocide (2 vols). Israel W Charny (ed). ABC-CLIO:1999.
[EncyMID] Encyclopedia of Midrash: Biblical Interpretation in Formative Judaism (2 ols). Neusner & Peck (eds). Brill:2005.
[EPIANE] Essential Papers on Israel and the Ancient Near East, Frederick Greenspahn, ed. NYU: 1991.
[EPMM] Essential Papers on Messianic Movements and Personalities in Jewish History, Marc Saperstein, ed. New York Univ: 1992.
[FBI] Foundations for Biblical Interpretation, Dockery, Mathews, Sloan (eds.), Broadman&Holman: 1994.
[FCBC] The Formation of the Christian Biblical Canon, Lee M. McDonald, Hendrickson:1995 (revised ed.)
[FJC] From Jesus to Christ, Paula Fredriksen, Yale:1988.
[FMM] From the Maccabees to the Mishnah, Cohen, Westminster: 1987.
[FRC] The Rise of Christianity by W.H.C. Frend, Fortress: 1984. pp1022.
[FTT] From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple & Rabbinic Judaism, Lawrence H. Schiffman, KTAV:1991.
[FUC] The First Urban Christians, Wayne A. Meeks, Yale:1983.
[GAG] The Gospel and the Gospels, Peter Stuhlmacher, ed. Eerdmans: 1991.
[GAJ] The Gospels and Jesus by Graham Stanton. Oxford, 1989.
[GAJ2] The Gospels and Jesus (2nd ed). Graham Stanton. Oxford:2002
[GANE] The Ancient Near EastCyrus H. Gordon, Norton: 1965.
[GASC] Greek Apologists of the Second Century, Robert M. Grant, Westminster: 1988.
[GASCT] God at Sinai: Covenant and Theophany in the Bible and Ancient Near East, by Jeffrey J. Niehaus, Zondervan:1995.
[GBX] The Great Books series [Multi-volumes]
[GLA] The Galilee in Late Antiquity, Lee Levine (ed.), Jewish Theological Seminary of America: 1992.
[GNT] Gnosticism and the New Testament, by Pheme Perkins, Fortress: 1993.
[GNTI] New Testament Introduction. Guthrie, Donald., Intervarsity Press, 1970.
[GNTT] New Testament Theology. Guthrie, Donald., Intervarsity Press, 1981.
[GP] The Gnostic Paul–Gnostic Exegesis on the Pauline Letters, Elaine Pagels, Trinity Press: 1975
[GP1] Gospel Perspectives, volumes I, II, III. Edited by R.T. France and David Wenham. JSOT: 1980-1983.
[GP2] Gospel Perspectives, volumes I, II, III. Edited by R.T. France and David Wenham. JSOT: 1980-1983
[GP3] Gospel Perspectives, volumes I, II, III. Edited by R.T. France and David Wenham. JSOT: 1980-1983
[GP5new] Gospel Perspectives: The Jesus Tradition Outside the Gospels (vol 5). David Wenham (ed). Wipf/Stock:1984..
[GPX] Gospel Parallels, Burton Throckmorton, Nelson: 1992 (5th ed.)
[GRH] Greek and Roman Historians–Information and Misinformation, Michael Grant, Routledge: 1995.
[GS] The Gnostic Scriptures, trans. and annots. by Bentley Layton, Doubleday: 1987.
[GTQ] Gospel Truth? by Graham Stanton, Trinity Press: 1995.
[HAD] The Historian and Detective: Essays on Evidence, Robin W. Winks (ed.), Harper: 1969.
[HALOT] Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Koeher, Baumgartner, and Stamm. Brill.
[HAME] Heresy and Authority in Medieval Europe, Edward Peters (ed.), Univ. of Penn: 1980.
[HAMM] Historigraphy–Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Ernst Breisach, Univ.Chicago: 1994 (2nd ed).
[HAP] The History of Ancient Palestine by G.W. Ahlstrom. Fortress: 1993, 990pp.
[HAWH] The Harper Atlas of World History , Pierre Vidal-Naquet (ed.), Harper: 1992 (rev. ed.)
[HCNT] Hellenistic Commentary to the New Testament, Boring, Berger, Colpe (eds.), Abingdon:1995.
[HCSB] HarperCollins Study Bible with Apocrypha, Wayne Meeks (gen. ed.) with Society of Biblical Lit., HarperCollins: 1993.
[HDT] Hittite Diplomatic Texts, Gary Beckman, Scholars Press:1996.
[HEA] A History of Education in Antiquity, H. I. Marrou, Univ.Wisconsin: 1956.
[Hermeneia] Hermeneia–Commentaries on Biblical/ExtraBiblical books. Fortress.
[HFJ] The Historical Figure of Jesus, E.P. Sanders, Penguin: 1993.
[HG] The History of Gnosticism, Giovanni Filoramo, Blackwell: 1990.
[HI:100K] ‘100,000 Years of Daily Life – A Visual History. Jacques Brosse, Paul Chaland and Jacques Ostier. GoldenPress:1961.
[HI:2000] Two Thousand Years Ago: The World at the Time of Jesus. Charles Frazee. Eerdmans:2002.
[HI:2NDGOD] The Great Angel: A Study of Israel’s Second God. Margaret Barker. WJKP:1992.
[HI:2PIH] Two Powers in Heaven: Early Rabbinic Reports about Christianity and Gnosticism. Alan Segal. Brill:2002.
[HI:2Strange] Two Strange Beasts: Leviathan and Behemoth in Second Temple and Early Rabbinic Judaism. K Willaim Whitney. Eisenbrauns:2006.
[HI:4BAR] 4 Baruch (Paraleipomena Jeremiou). Jens Herzer (Trans. And Commentary). SBL:2005.
[HI:50JM] 50 Jewish Messiahs. Jerry Rainbow. Gefen:2002.
[HI:7REFS] Those 7 References: A Study of 7 References to Homosexuality in the Bible. John F Dwyer. SelfPublished:2007.
[HI:AAA] Africa and Africans in Antiquity. Edwin Yamauchi (ed). MichiganState:2001.
[HI:AAAT] Ancient Archives and Archival Traditions–Concepts of Record-Keeping in the Ancient World. Maria Brosius (ed). OUP:2003.
[HI:AACD] Ancient Astronomy and Celestrial Divination. N.M. Swerdlow (ed). MIT:1999.
[HI:AACSC] After the Apostles: Christianity in the Second Century. Walter Wagner, Fortress:1994.
[HI:AAH] An Akkadian Handbook. Douglas Miller and R Mark Shipp. Eisenbrauns:1996.
[HI:AB] Africa and the Bible. Edwin Yamauchi. Baker:2004.
[HI:ABI] Archaeology: A Brief Introduction, Brian Fagan, Longman:1997 (6th ed).
[HI:ABJ] The Atlas of Biblical Jerusalem. Dan Bahat. CartaIsrael:1994.
[HI:AC] Ancient Civilizations, Christopher Scarre and Brian Fagan, Longman:1997.
[HI:ACAEE] Angelmorphic Christology: Antecedents and Early Evidence. Charles Gieschen. Brill:1998.
[HI:ACAW] Antiquity: The Civilization of the Ancient World. Norman Cantor. Harpercollins:2003.
[HI:ACIT] Asclepius: Collection and Interpretation of the Testimonies. Emma J. Edelstein and Ludwig Edelstein. Johns Hopkins:1998.
[HI:ACities] Ancient Cities: The Archeaology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Charles Gates. Routledge:2003.
[HI:ACLCAR] The Ancient City: Life in Classical Athens & Rome. Peter Connolly and Hazel Dodge. Oxford:1998.
[HI:ADST] Apologetic Discourse and the Scribal Tradition: Evidence of the Influence of Apologetic Interests on the Text of the Canonical Gospels. Wayne Kannaday. SBL:2004.
[HI:AELHF] Ancient Egyptian Literature: History and Forms. Antonio Loprieno (ed). Brill:1996.
[HI:AF] Ancient Fiction: The Matrix of Early Christian and Jewish Narrative. Jo-Ann Brant, Charles Hedrick and Chris Shea (eds). SBL:2005.
[HI:AFANT] The Apostolic Fathers and the New Testament. Clayton Jefford. Hendrickson:2006.
[HI:AFECN] Ancient Fiction and Early Christian Narrative. Ronald Hock, J B Chance, and Judith Perkins (eds). SBL:1998.
[HI:AG] Akkadian Grammar. Arthur Ungnad and Lubor Mathous, Harry Hoffner (trans). SBL:1992.
[HI:AGFF] Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction. A.B. Bosworth and E.J. Baynham (eds.). Oxford:2000.
[HI:AGLS] Ancient Greek Literature and Society. Charles Rowan Beye. Cornell:1987 (2nd rev).
[HI:AHEC] Acts and the History of Earliest Christianity. Martin Hengel. WipfandStock:1979.
[HI:AHGL] A History of Greek Literature, Albin Lesky (trans. by de Heer and J. Willis), Hackett:1963/66.
[HI:AHI] Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions—Corpus and Concordance. G I Davies. Cambridge:1991.
[HI:AHKTA] Ancient History: Key Themes and Approaches. Neville Morley. Routledge:2000.
[HI:AHMU2] Ancient History in a Modern University: Early Christianity, Late Antiquity, and Beyond (vol 2), T. W. Hillard, R.A. Kearsley, C.E.V. Nixon, and A. M. Nobbs (eds), Macquarie/Eerdmans:1998.
[HI:AHOPL] A History of Pali Literature. Bimala Charan Law. IndicaBooks:2002.
[HI:AI] Ancient Iraq. George Roux. Penguin:1992 (3rd ed).
[HI:AIEJL] Ancient Israelite and Early Jewish Literature. TC Vriezen and AS van der Woude. Brill:2005.
[HI:AJCO] Ancient Judaism and Christian Origins: Diversity, Continuity, and Transformation. George Nickelsberg. Fortress:2003.
[HI:AJCPC] Ancient Jewish and Christian Perceptions of Crucifixion. David Chapman. MohrSiebeck:2008.
[HI:AJGRW] Art and Judaism in the Greco-Roman World–Toward a New Jewish Archaeology (Revised Ed). Steven Fine. CambridgeUP:2010.
[HI:AL] Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome. William A Johnson and Holt N Parker (eds). OxfordUP:2009.
[HI:ALC] Ancient Literary Criticism: The Principal Texts in New Translations, Russell and Winterbottom (eds), Oxford:1972.
[HI:ALM] Ainoi, Logoi, Muthoi: Fables in Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic Greek Literature. Gert-Jan van Dijk. Brill:1997.
[HI:AMC] Ancient Mystery Cults. Walter Burkert. Harvard:1987.
[HI:AMCEC] The Assumption of Moses: A Critical Edition with Commentary, Johannes Tromp, Brill:1993
[HI:AMCPLS] Art as a Means of Communication in Pre-Literate Societies. Dan Eban (ed.). IsraelMuseum:1990.
[HI:AMH] Adam in Myth and History: Ancient Israelite Perspectives on the Primal Human. Dexter E. Callender, Jr. Eisenbrauns:2000.
[HI:AMMA] The Acts of Mar Mari the Apostle. Amir Harrak (trans/notes). SBL:2005.
[HI:ANAB] The Ancient Novel and Beyond. Stelios Panayotakis, Maaike Zimmerman, and Wyste Keulen (eds). Brill:2003.
[HI:APF] A Public Faith: From Constantine to the Medieval World, AD 312-600. Ivor Davidson. Baker:2005.
[HI:APGTET] The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations. Michael W. Holmes (ed). Baker:1992.
[HI:APMEC] Apocalypticism, Prophecy, and Magic in Early Christianity—Collected Essays. Dave E Aune. Baker:2006.
[HI:APNHL] Ancient Place Names in the Holy Land–Preservation and History. Yoel Elitzur. HebrewUnivJerusalme/Eisenbrauns:2004.
[HI:APS] The Afterlife of the Platonic Soul: Reflections of Platonic Psychology in the Monotheistic Religions. Maha Elkaisy-Friemuth and John Dillon (eds). Brill:2009.
[HI:ARAB] Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, 2 vols. Daniel Luckenbill. Histories and Mysteries of Man LTD:1989 (reprint of 1926)
[HI:ARC] The Ancient Roman City, John Stambaugh, Johns Hopkins:1988
[HI:ARE] The Archaeology of the Roman Economy, Kevin Greene, UC Press:1986.
[HI:AREPJC] Apologetics in the Roman Empire: Pagans, Jews, and Christians. Eds: Mark Edwards, Martin Goodman, Simon Price, Christopher Rowland. Oxford:1999.
[HI:ASASA] The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia. Himanshu Prabha Ray. CambridgeUP:2003.
[HI:ASHL] The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, Thomas E. Levy (ed), Facts on File:1995.
[HI:ASM] Animal Symbolism in Mesopotamia—a Contextual Approach. Chikako Watanabe. Institut fur Oreintalistik der Universitat Wien:2002.
[HI:ASR] Abandonment of Settlements and Regions: Ethnoarchaeological and Archaeological Approaches, Catherine Cameron and Steve Tomka (eds), Cambridge:1993.
[HI:ATAH] Authority and Tradition in Ancient Historiography, John Marincola, CambridgeUpress:1997.
[HI:ATG] Alexander the Great. Robin Lane Fox. Penguin:1973.
[HI:ATIP] The Antichrist Theme in the Intertestamental Period. GW Lorein. T&TClark:2003.
[HI:ATMP] Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice, Colin Renfrew, Thames and Hudson:1996 (2nd ed).
[HI:ATN] All Those Nations…Cultural Encounters within and with the Near East. Vanstiphout, Bekkum, Gelder and Reinink (eds). Styx:1999.
[HI:AUA] Aspects of Urbanism in Antiquity: From Mesopotamia to Crete. Walter Aufrecht, Neil Mirau, and Steven Gauley (eds). JSOTS/Sheffield:1997.
[HI:AVSI] Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction, Paul Bahm, Oxford:1996
[HI:AWH] Arguing with Historians: Essays on the Historical and the Unhistorical. Richard Nelson Current. Wesleyan UP:1987.
[HI:AYOWITC] Are You the One Who is To Come? The Historical Jesus and the Messianic Question. Michael Bird. Baker:2009.
[HI:BA] Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience, Frank M. Snowden Jr., Belknap/Harvard:1970.
[HI:BDSS1] The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls (vol 1): Scripture and Scrolls. James Charlesworth (ed). BaylorUP:2006.
[HI:BDSS2] The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls (vol 2): The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Qumran Community. James Charlesworth (ed). BaylorUP:2006.
[HI:BDSS3] The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls (vol 3): The Scrolls and Christian Origins. James Charlesworth (ed). BaylorUP:2006.
[HI:BEFCC] Biblical Exegesis and the Formation of Christian Culture, Frances Young, CambridgeUPress:1997.
[HI:BFOB] Biblical Figures Outside the Bible. Michael Stone and Theodore Bergen (eds). Trinity:1998.
[HI:BFOGE] The Buried Foundation of the Gilgamesh Epic: The Akkadian Huwawa Narrative. Daniel E Fleming and Sara J Milstein. Brill:2010.
[HI:BG2P] A Brief Guide to Philo. Kenneth Schenck. WJK:2005.
[HI:BGBH] The Birth of God: The Bible and the Historian. Jean Bottero. PennState:2000.
[HI:BGME] Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus: Hellenistic Histories and the Date of the Pentateuch. Russell E Gmirkin. TnTClark:2006.
[HI:BHS] The Book of Hebrew Script: History, Palaeography, Script Styles, Calligraphy and Design, Ada Yardeni, Carta Jerusalem:1997.
[HI:BIAA] The Bible in Athanasius of Alexandria. James Ernest. Brill:2004.
[HI:BIB] Birth in Babylonia and the Bible: Its Mediterranean Setting. M. Stol with F.A.M. Wiggermann. Styx:2000.
[HI:BIHMOE] Born in Heaven, Made on Earth: The Making of the Cult Image in the Ancient Near East. Michael B Dick (ed). Eisenbrauns:1999.
[HI:BJP] Between Jesus and Paul. Martin Hengel. Fortress:1983.
[HI:BLFAG] The Birth of Literary Fiction in Ancient Greece, Margalit Finkelberg, Oxford:1998.
[HI:BNPCAW] Brills New Pauly, Supplements I, Chronologies of the Ancient World. Walter Eder and Johannes Renger (eds). Brill:2007.
[HI:BO] Blessed One: Protestant Perspectives on Mary. Beveryly Roberts Gaventa and Cynthia L Rigby (eds). WJK:2002.
[HI:BOC] The Birth of the Codex, Roberts and Skeat, Oxford:1983.
[HI:BODADL] The Book of Daniel and the Apocryphal Daniel Literature. Lorenzo DiTommaso. Brill:2005.
[HI:BOEC] Backgrounds of Early Christianity (3rd Ed). Everett Ferguson. Eerdmans:2003.
[HI:BOJ] The Brother of Jesus: James the Just and His Mission. Bruce Chilton and Jacob Neusner (eds). WJK:2001.
[HI:BPAPW] The Book of Proverbs and Arabic Proverbial Works. Riad Aziz Kassis. Brill:1999.
[HI:BPEUIB] Biblical Perspectives: Early Use & Interpretation of the Bible in the Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Michael Stone and Esther Chazon (eds.). Brill:1998.
[HI:BQ] Bible and Quran: Essays in Scriptural Intertextuality. John Reeves (ed). SBL:2003.
[HI:BRD] The Bible and Radiocarbon Dating: Archaeology, Text and Science. Thomas Levy and Thomas Higham (eds). Equinox:2005.
[HI:BTE] Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE. Patrick Olivelle (ed). OxfordUP:2006.
[HI:BTIT] Biblical Traditions in Transmission: Essays in Honour of Michael A Knibb. Charlotte Hempel and Judith Lieu (eds). Brill:2006.
[HI:BW1] Before Writing, Volume 1: From Counting to Cuneiform. Denise Schmandt-Besserat. UTexas:1992.
[HI:C2CCH] A Companion to Second-Century Christian ‘Heretics’. Antti Marjanen and Petri Luomanen (eds). Brill:2005.
[HI:CAAPIT] Christianity Among the Arabs in Pre-Islamic Times. J Spencer Trimingham. LibrairieDuLiban:1990.
[HI:CACD] The Church of the Ancient Councils: The Disciplinary Work of the First Four Ecumenical Councils, Peter L’Huillier, St. Vladimir’s:1996.
[HI:CAE] A Companion to Ancient Epic. John Miles Foley (ed). Blackwell:2005.
[HI:CAIANE] City Administration in the Ancient Near East. L Kogan, N Koslova, S Loesov and S Tishchenko (eds). Eisenbrauns:2010.
[HI:CAIT] Canaanite in The Amarna Tables: A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan (4 vols). Anson F. Rainey. Brill:1996.
[HI:CAJI] Conceptions of Afterlife in Jewish Inscriptions. Joseph Park. MohrSiebeck:2000.
[HI:CAT2] The Cuneiform Alphabetic Texts from Ugarit, Ras Ibn Hani and Other Places. Dietrich, Loretz, Sanmartin. Ugarit-Verlag:1995 (2nd ed).
[HI:CAW] Chronology of the Ancient World, E.J. Bickerman, Cornell:1980 (2nd rev).
[HI:CB] Constantines Bible: Politics and the Making of the New Testament. David L Dungan. Fortress:2007.
[HI:CCEC] Conflicts and Challenges in Early Christianity. Martin Hengel and C.K. Barrett, Donald Hagner (ed). Trinity:1999.
[HI:CCFJ] The Complete Concordance to Flavius Josephus: Study Edition (2 vols). Karl Heinrich Rengstorf (ed). Brill:2002.
[HI:CD] The Canon Debate. Lee Martin McDonald and James A. Sanders(eds). Hendrickson:2002.
[HI:CDA] A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. J Black, A George, N Postgate (eds). Harrassowitz Verlag:2000 (second/corrected printing).
[HI:CEC] Children in the Early Church: Children in the Ancient World, the New Testament and the Early Church. W. A. Strange. Paternoster:1996.
[HI:CFEC] Community Formation in the Early Church and in the Church Today. Richard Longenecker (ed). Hendrickson:2002.
[HI:CGEC] Charismatic Gifts in the Early Church. Ronald Kydd. Hendrickson:1984.
[HI:CGLCE] The Coptic Gnostic Library: A Complete Edition of the Nag Hammadi Codices (5 vols), James Robinson (gen.ed), Brill:2000.
[HI:CHC2] The Cambridge History of Christianity, volume 2: Constantine to c. 600. Augustine Casiday and Frederick Norris (eds). CambridgeUP:2007.
[HI:CIAB15] Christiansin Asia before 1500. Ian Gillman and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit. Umichigan:1999.
[HI:CityAI] The City in Ancient Israel, Volkmar Fritz, Sheffield Academic:1995.
[HI:CLC] Classical Literary Criticism, D.A. Russell and Michael Winterbottom (eds). Oxford:1989.
[HI:CLUC] A Comparative Lexicon of Ugaritic and Canaanite. Issam KH Halayqa. Ugarit-Verlag:2008.
[HI:CM3] Classical Myth (3rd ed). Barry Powell. PrenticeHall:2001.
[HI:CMS] Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World: Means of Transmission and Cultural Interaction. Rollinger and Ulf (eds). Verlag:2004.
[HI:CMTCOB] Classic Midrash: Tannaitic Commentaries on the Bible. Reuven Hammer (trans/ed). Paulist:1995.
[HI:CMW] The Creation of Man and Women: Interpretations of the Biblical Narratives in Jewish and Christian Traditions. Gerard Luttikhuizen (ed). Brill:2000.
[HI:CMY6] Classical Mythology (6th ed), Mark Morford and Robert Lenardon. Longman:1999.
[HI:CNDN] Canonization and Decanonization. A van der Kooij and K van der Toorn (eds). Brill:1998.
[HI:CNJS] The Children of Noah: Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times. Raphael Patai. Princeton:1998.
[HI:COAI] Civilizations of Ancient Iraq. Benjamin Foster and Karen Foster. PrincetonUP:2009.
[HI:COBW] Cities of the Biblical World: An Introduction to the Archaeology, Geography, and History of Biblical Sites, Lamoine DeVries, Hendrickson:1997.
[HI:COCCL] The Concise Oxford Companion to Classical Literature, Howatson & Chilvers (eds), Oxford:1993.
[HI:COH] The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. David Goldenberg. Princeton:2003.
[HI:Comet44] The Comet of 44 B.C. and Caesar’s Funeral Games, John T. Ramsey and A. Lewis Licht, Scholars:1997.
[HI:COTS] The Commerce of the Sacred: Mediation of the Divine among Jews of the Graeco-Roman Diaspora. Jack N Lightstone. ScholarsPress:1984.
[HI:CP48C] Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries, Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1997.
[HI:CSLman] Comparative Semitic Linguistics–A Manual. Patrick Bennett. Eisenbrauns:1998.
[HI:CTBSAW] Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World. John G. Gager. Oxford:1992.
[HI:CTH] Companion to Historiography. Michael Bentley (ed). Routledge:1997.
[HI:DAH] Disease and History, Cartwright and Biddiss, Barnes&Nobles:1972.
[HI:DAS] The Development of the Arabic Scripts. Beatrice Gruendler. Harvard:1993.
[HI:DCH] The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (Volume III). David J. A. Clines (ed), Sheffield Academic:1996.
[HI:DFG] Dying for God: Martyrdom and the Making of Christianity and Judaism. Daniel Boyarin. Stanford:1999.
[HI:DFRC] Decline and Fall of the Roman City. JHWG Liebeschuetz. Oxford:2001.
[HI:DGBM] Did the Greeks Believe in Their Myths?: An Essay on the Constitutive Imagination. Paul Veyne (trans. By Paula Wissing). UChicago:1983/1988t.
[HI:DGSP] Dialect Geography of Syria-Palestine, 1000-586 BCE. W Randall Garr. Eisenbrauns:2004 (reprint of 1985).
[HI:DIA] Diasporas in Antiquity. Shaye Cohen and Ernest Frerichs (eds). ScholarsPress:1993
[HI:DictJBP] Dictionary of Judaism in the Biblical Period. Jacob Neusner and William Scott Green (eds.). Hendrickson:1996.
[HI:DictNTB] Dictionary of New Testament Background. Craig Evans and Stanley Porter (eds). IVP:2000. [Fourth in the Dictionary series]
[HI:DID] The Didache: A Commentary, Kurt Niederwimmer (Linda Maloney, trans.), Fortress:1998.
[HI:DIERL] Deviancy in Early Rabbinic Literature: A Collection of Socio-Anthropological Essays. Simcha Fishbane. Brill:2007.
[HI:DLAG] Daily Life of the Ancient Greeks. Robert Garland. Greenwood:1998.
[HI:DLAR] Daily Life in Ancient Rome. Jerome Carcopino. Yale:2003 (2nd ed).
[HI:DLIBT] Daily Life in Biblical Times. Oded Borowski. SBL:2003.
[HI:DOD] The Death of Death: Resurrection and Immortality in Jewish Thought, Neil Gillman, Jewish Lights Publishing:1997.
[HI:DOGAF] The Doctrine of Grace in the Apostolic Fathers. Thomas F Torrance. WipfNStock:1948/1996.
[HI:DOTW] Dynasties of the World–a Chronological and Geneaological Handbook. John Morby. Oxford:1989.
[HI:DRE] The Divinity of the Roman Emperor. Lily Ross Taylor. Scholars:1931.
[HI:DRR] Dictionary of Roman Religions. Lesley Adkins and Roy Adkins. Oxford:1996.
[HI:DSFC] Diodorus Siculus and the First Century. Kenneth S. Sacks. Princeton:1990.
[HI:DSS50A] The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years (vol 1). Peter Flint and James Vanderkam (eds.). Brill:1998.
[HI:DSS50B] The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years (vol 2). Peter W. Flint and James C. Vanderkam (eds). Brill:1999.
[HI:DSSB] The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English. Martin Abegg, Jr., Peter Flint, and Eugene Ulrich. Harper:1999. (English translation of the biblical texts of the DSS. Has ‘pierced’ for Ps 22, by the way…)
[HI:DSSOB] The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Origins of the Bible. Eugene Ulrich. Eerdmans/Brill:1999.
[HI:DSSSE] The Dead Sea Scrolls—Study Edition. Martinez and Tigchelaar (eds). Brill/Eerdmans:1997/98 (2 vols).
[HI:EAI] Education in Ancient India. Hartmut Scharfe. Brill:2002.
[HI:EAR] Education in Ancient Rome, Stanley F. Bonner, UCalPress:1977.
[HI:ECA] The Earliest Christian Artifacts: Manuscripts and Christian Origins. Larry W Hurtado. Eerdmans:2006.
[HI:ECBIE] Early Christian Books in Egypt. Roger Bagnall. PrincetonUP:2009.
[HI:ECCC] Early Christianity and Classical Culture–Comparative Studies in Honor of Abraham J Malherbe. John Fitzgerald, Thomas Olbricht, and L Michael White (eds). SBL:2003.
[HI:ECF] Early Christian Fathers. Cyril C. Richardson (ed.). Macmillan:1970.
[HI:ECGLL1] Early Christian Greek and Latin Literature–A Literary History: Volume One, From Paul to the Age of Constantine. Claudio Moreschini and Enrico Norelli. Hendrickson:2005.
[HI:ECGLL2] Early Christian Greek and Latin Literature–A Literary History: Volume Two, From the Council of Nicea to the Beginning of the Medieval Period. Claudio Moreschini and Enrico Norelli. Hendrickson:2005.
[HI:ECM1] Early Christian Mission, Volume 1: Jesus and the Twelve. Eckhard Schnabel. IVP:2004.
[HI:ECM2] Early Christian Mission, Volume 2: Paul and the Early Church. Eckhard Schnabel. IVP:2004.
[HI:ECOW] Early Civilizations of the Old World: The Formative Histories of Egypt, The Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China. Charles Keith Maisels. Routledge:1999.
[HI:EDF] Enoch and Daniel: A Form Critical and Sociological Study of Historical Apocalypses. Stephen Breck Reid. Bibal:1989.
[HI:EDSS] Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls (2 vols). Lawrence Shiffman and James VanderKam (eds). Oxford:2000.
[HI:EFHWAE] The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. M. L. West. Clarendon/Oxford:10997.
[HI:EGALT] Editing Greek and Latin Texts. John Grant (ed). AMSpress:1989.
[HI:EGAT] Enoch and the Growth of an Apocalyptic Tradition. James C. VanderKam. CBQMonograph Series: 1984.
[HI:EGE] The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic. Jeffrey Tigay. Bolchazy-Carducci:2002 (reprt of 1983 ed).
[HI:EGM1] Early Greek Mythography Volulme 1: Text and Introduction. Robert L. Fowler. Oxford:2000.
[HI:EIE] Eden in the East: The Drowned Continent of Southeast Asia. Stephen Oppenheimer. Phoenix:1998.
[HI:EJ] Early Judaism: The Exile to the Time of Jesus. Frederick J. Murphy. Hendrickson:2002.
[HI:EJL2TP] Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple Period, Larry R. Helyer, IVP:2002.
[HI:EJPG] Early Jewish Prayers in Greek. Pieter van der Horst and Judith Newman. Wgruyter:2008.
[HI:ELAE] Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt. Lionel Casson. JohnsHopkins:2001 (Rev Ed).
[HI:ELAM] Everyday in Ancient Mesopotamia. Jean Bottero (Antonia Nevill, trans). JohnsHopkins:1992/2001.
[HI:ELAR] Everyday Life in Ancient Rome. Lionel Casson. Johns Hopkins:1998 (rev. ed.)
[HI:EMDSS] Eschatology, Messianism, and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Craig Evans and Peter Flint (eds). Eerdmans:1997.
[HI:EMPI] Exploratio: Military and Political Intelligence in the Roman World from the Second Punic War to the Battle of Adrianople. N.J.E. Austin and N. B. Rankov. Routledge:1995.
[HI:EOB] Exploring the Origins of the Bible: Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspectives. Craig Evans and Emanuel Tov (eds). Baker:2008.
[HI:EOC] Enemies of Civilization: Attitudes toward Foreigners in Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China. Mu-chou Poo. SUNY:2005.
[HI:EOTSR] Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Christofer Beckwith. PrincetonUP:2009.
[HI:EOWC] The Eastern Origins of Western Civilization. John Hobson. Cambridge:2004.
[HI:EQO] Enoch and Qumran Origins: New Light on a Forgotten Connection. Gabriele Boccaccini (ed). Eerdmans:2005.
[HI:ERP] The Economy of Roman Palestine, Ze’ev Safrai, Routledge:1994. (Only applies to the period AFTER the destruction of the 2nd Temple.)
[HI:EUSY] Eusebius–The Church History. Paul Maier (trans/annots). Kregel:1999.
[HI:EWH] Encounters with Hellenism: Studies on the First Letter of Clement. Cilliers Breytenbach and Laurence L Welborn (eds). Brill:2004.
[HI:EWIGRE] Everyday Writing in the Graeco-Roman East. Roger S Bagnall. UChicagoPress:2011.
[HI:F4QMMT] From 4QMMT to Resurrection. FG Martinez, A Steudel, and E Tigchelaar (eds). Brill:2006.
[HI:FAASHI] From Arrian to Alexander: Studies in Historical Interpretation. A. B. Bosworth. Oxford:1988.
[HI:FAGA] The Fortunes of Apuleius and the Golden Ass: A Study in Transmission and Reception. Julia Haig Gaisser. PrincetonUP:2008.
[HI:FAHJC] Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity. Annette Yoshiko Reed. CambridgeUP:2005.
[HI:FAHNJ] Fiction as History: Nero to Julian. G. W. Bowersock. Ucal:1994.
[HI:FAL] Figure and Likeness: On the Limits of Representation in Byzantine Iconoclasm. Charles Barber. PrincetonUP:2002.
[HI:FAMRE] Fairs and Markets in the Roman Empire: Economic and Social Aspects of Periodic Trade in a Pre-Industrial Society. L de Ligt. Gieben(Amsterdam):1993.
[HI:FARNP] The Family in Ancient Rome: New Perspectives. Beryl Rawson (ed). Cornell:1986.
[HI:FCC] The First Christian Centuries–Perspectives on the Early Church. Paul McKechnie. IVP:2001.
[HI:FCCDWS] Forgers and Critics: Creativity and Duplicity in Western Scholarship. Anthony Grafton. Princeton:1990.
[HI:FD] The Fate of the Dead: Studies in the Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. Richard Baukham. Brill:1998.
[HI:FDM] The Forgotten Desert Mothers. Laura Swan. Paulist:2001.
[HI:FFANE] Flight and Freedom in the Ancient Near East. Daniel Snell. Brill:2001.
[HI:FFHPGR] The First Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times. Adrienne Mayor. Princeton:2000.
[HI:FG] The Faces of the Goddess. Lotte Motz. Oxford:1997.
[HI:FH] The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds, Alan E. Bernstein, Cornell:1993.
[HI:FHJA1] Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors (vol1): Historians. Carl Holladay. SBL:1983.
[HI:FHJA2] Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors, Volume 2 Poets. Carl Holladay. Scholars:1989.
[HI:FHJA3] Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors (vol3): Aristobulus. Carl Holladay. SBL:1995.
[HI:FHJA4] Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors (vol4): Orphica. Carl Holladay. SBL:1996.
[HI:FHTH] From Harappa to Hastinapura: A Study of the Earliest South Asian City and Civilization. Piotr Andreevich Eltsov. Brill:2008.
[HI:FIB] Family in the Bible: Exploring Customs, Culture, and Context. Richard Hess and M Daniel Carroll R (eds). Baker:2003.
[HI:FJAA] Flavius Josephus, Translation and Commentary, Volume 10–Against Apion. Steve Mason (ed) and John MG Barclay (trans/comm). Brill:2007.
[HI:FJSME] The Flourishing of Jewish Sects in the Maccabean Era: An Interpretation. Albert Baumgarten. Brill:1997.
[HI:FJTC3] Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary (vol 3). Louis Feldman (trans and comm.) and Steve Mason (ed). Brill:2000.
[HI:FJTC5] Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary (vol 5). Christopher Begg and Paul Spilsbury, Steve Mason (ed). Brill:2005.
[HI:FJTC9] Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary (vol 9), Louis Feldman (trans and comm.) and Steve Mason (ed). Brill:2001.
[HI:FMR] From Myth to Reason? Studies in the Development of Greek Thought. Richard Buxton (ed). Oxford:1999.
[HI:FOTF] Fiction on the Fringe: Novelistic Writing in the Post-Classical Age. Grammatiki Karla (ed). Brill:2009.
[HI:FRSHM] From Reliable Sources: An Introduction to Historical Methods. Martha Howell and Walter Prevenier. Cornell:2001.
[HI:G2C] The Gospels in the Second Century—An Examination of the Critical Part of a Work Entitled ‘Supernatural Religion’. William Sanday. HardPressReprint:1875.
[HI:GA] A Grammar of Akkadian (Second Ed). John Huehnergard. Eisenbrauns:2005.
[HI:GAB3] The Greek Apocalypse of Baruch (3 Baruch) in Hellenistic Judaism & Early Christianity, Daniel C. Harlow, Brill:1996
[HI:GBH] Greece Before Homer: Ancient Chronology and Mythology. John Forsdyke. Norton:1964.
[HI:GBPLA] Greek Biography and Panegyric in Late Antiquity. Tomas Hagg and Philip Rousseau (eds). UCal:2000.
[HI:GCGM] A Geneaological Chart of Greek Mythology. Harold Newman and Jon Newman. UNorthCarolina:2003.
[HI:GFAGH] Galilee from Alexander the Great to Hadrian 323BCE to 135CE: A Study of Second Temple Judaism, Sean Freyne, T&T Clark:1980
[HI:GFL] Greek Fictional Letters. CDN Costa (ed). Oxford:2001.
[HI:GGOE] The Goddessess and Gods of Old Europe: Myths and Cult Images. Marija Gimbutas. Ucal:1982 (rev.ed).
[HI:Ginz] The Legends of the Jews (multivols), Louis Ginzberg, John Hopkins paperbacks of JPS editions:1966.
[HI:GLAA] Greek Literature–An Anthology, Michael Grant, Penguin:1990.
[HI:GLAJJ] Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism (3vols), Menahem Stern, The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities:1980.
[HI:GLGSLA] Guardians of Language: The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity. Robert Kaster. Ucalifornia:1988.
[HI:GLLPT] Guardian of Letters: Literacy, Power, and the Transmitters of Early Christian Literature. Kim Haines-Eitzen. Oxford:2000.
[HI:GMM] Greek Myths and Mesopotamia: Parallels and Influence in the Homeric Hymns and Hesiod. Charles Penglase. Routledge:1994.
[HI:GN] The Gods of the Nations–Studies in Ancient Near Eastern National Theology. Daniel Block. Baker:2000 (2nd ed)
[HI:GRCBANE] Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East. Jan Bremmer. Brill:2008.
[HI:GRM] Greek and Roman Maps, O.A. W. Dilke, JohnsHopkins:1985.
[HI:GRN] Greek and Roman Necromancy. Daniel Ogden. Princeton:2001.
[HI:GUGOAR] Growing Up and Growing Old in Ancient Rome: A life course approach. Mary Harlow and Ray Laurence. Routledge:2002.
[HI:HAAM] Historical Atlas of Ancient Mesopotamia. Norman Bancroft Hunt. CheckmarkBooks:2004.
[HI:HAAP] Herod and Augustus: Papers Presented at the IJS Conference 2005. David Jacobson and Nikos Kokkinos (eds). Brill:2009.
[HI:HAD] The Hungry are Dying: Beggars and Bishops in Roman Cappadocia. Susan Holman. Oxford:2001.
[HI:HAF] Historia and Fabula: Myths and Legends in Historical Thought from Antiquity to the Modern Age. Peter G. Bietenholz. Brill:1994.
[HI:HAI8] History and Imagination: Eight Essays on Roman Culture. TP Wiseman. UExeter: 1994.
[HI:HAIG] Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2nd, Rev. ed). Morten Horning Jensen. MohrSiebeck:2010.
[HI:HANEL] A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law (2 vols). Raymond Westbrook (ed). Brill:2003.
[HI:HATW] The Hittites and Their World. Billie Jean Collins. SBL:2007.
[HI:HAW] The Horse in the Ancient World. Ann Hyland. Sutton:2003.
[HI:HBB] Homer, the Bible, and Beyond: Literary and Religious Canons in the Ancient World. Margalit Finkelberg and Guy Stroumsa (eds). Brill:2003.
[HI:HBC] Handbook of Biblical Chronology, Jack Finegan, Hendrickson:1998 (Rev.ed.)
[HI:HBIAP] A History of Biblical Interpretation Volume 1: The Ancient Period. Alan Hauser and Duane Watson (eds). Eerdmans:2003.
[HI:HCA] A History of Christianity in Asia: Volume I, Beginnings to 1500, Samuel Hugh Moffett, Orbis:1998 (2nd rev).
[HI:HCA2] A History of Christianty in Asia: Volume 2, 1500-1900. Samuel Moffett. Orbis:2005.
[HI:HCRC] Health Care and the Rise of Christianity. Hector Avalos. Hendrickson:1999.
[HI:HCW] Historiography in the Cuneiform World. Abusch, Beaulieu, Huehnergard, Machinist, Steinkeller (eds). CDL:2001.
[HI:HEAI] The History of Education in Ancient India: C 3000 BC to AD 1192. Suresh Ghosh. MunshirmManoharlal:2001.
[HI:HEBL] Harper’s Encyclopedia of Bible Life. Madeline and J Lane Miller. Castle:1996.
[HI:HF] Hidden Futures: Death and Immortality in Ancient Egypt, Anatolia, the Classical, Biblical and Arabic-Islamic World. J. M. Bremer, Th. P. J. van den Hout, R. Peters (eds.). Amsterdam UP:1994.
[HI:HGLF2] History of the Graeco-Latin Fable II: The Fable during the Roman Empire & in the Middle Ages. Francisco Rodriguez Adrados (Leslie A. Ray, trans.). Brill:2000.
[HI:HGLF3] History of the Graeco-Latin Fable, volume 3: Inventory and Documentation of the Graeco-Latin Fable. F R Adrados. Brill:2003.
[HI:HHHALH] LCL496–Homeric Hymns, Homeric Apocrypha, Lives of Homer. Martin West (trans/ed). HarvardUP:2003.
[HI:HHL] A History of the Hebrew Language, Angel Saenz-Badillos (trans. by John Elwolde), Cambridge:1993.
[HI:HHMBI] Historical Handbook of Major Biblical Interpreters, Donald McKim (ed), IVP:1998.
[HI:HHRVEC] Hellenists and Hebrews: Reappraising Division within the Earliest Church. Craig C. Hill. Fortress:1992.
[HI:HI] Holy Images: An Inquiry into Idolary and Image-Worship in Ancient Paganism and in Christianity. Edwyn Bevan. GeorgeAllenUnwin:1940.
[HI:HIBW] Homoeroticism in the Biblical World: A Historical Perspective. Martti Nissinen, Kirsi Stjerna (trans). Fortress:1998.
[HI:HIHL] Hellenism in the Holy Land. John Collins and Gregory Sterling (eds). NotreDame:2001.
[HI:HIMink] Historical Understanding. Louis O. Mink. Cornell:1987.
[HI:HITT] Hebrew Inscriptions and their Translations–Jerusalem Index of Jewish Art, Survey of Synagogues. Bracha Yaniv, Zohar Hanegbi, and Shalom Sabar. HebrewUnivJerusalem:1988.
[HI:HJ] Herod’s Judea: A Mediterranean State in the Classical World. Samuel Rocca. MohrSiebeck:2008.
[HI:HJAELC] The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ. Gary R. Habermas. College Press:1996. (Good discussion on the modern theories of mythicism, the new gnosticism, Jesus Seminar, etc.)
[HI:HKBA] Historical Knowledge in Biblical Antiquity. Jacob Neusner, Bruce Chilton, and William Scott Green (eds). Deo:2007.
[HI:HLAG] Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece, Lesley Adkins and Roy Adkins, Facts on File:1997.
[HI:HLAR] Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome, Lesley Adkins and Roy Adkins, FactsOnFile:1994.
[HI:HLL] Hippocratic Lives and Legends. Jody Rubin Pinault. Brill:1992.
[HI:HLWC] The History of the Library in Western Civilization–From Minos to Cleopatra. K. Staikos. Oak Knoll Press:2004.
[HI:HOED] How on Earth Did Jesus Become God? Historical Questions about the Earliest Devotion to Jesus. Larry Hurtado. Eerdmans:2005.
[HI:HOJA] A History of the Jews of Arabia–From Ancient Times to Their Eclipse Under Islam. Gordon Darnell Newby. UnivSCarolinaPress:1988.
[HI:HOP] The History of Punishment. Lewis Lyons. LyonsPress:2003.
[HI:HOPL] A Handbook of Pali Literature. Von Oskar Hinuber. VerlagWalterDeGruyter:2000.
[HI:HOS] History of the Samaritans. Nathan Schur. Peter Lang:1992 (rev.ed).
[HI:HP] The History of Punishment. Lewis Lyons. LyonsPress:2003.
[HI:HPE] Handbook of Patristic Exegesis: The Bible in Ancient Christianity. Charles Kannengiesser. Brill:2006.
[HI:HRC] Hellenic Religion and Christianization c. 370-529 (2 vols). Frank Trombley. Brill:2001 (2nd ed).
[HI:HRER] Heavenly Realms and Earthly Realities in Late Antiquity Religions. Ra’anan Boustan and Annette Yoshiko Reed (eds). CambridgeUP:2004.
[HI:HS] Homeric Seafaring. Samuel Mark. Texas AM:2005.
[HI:HSJ] Hidden Sayings of Jesus: Words Attributed to Jesus Outside the Four Gospels. William Morrice. Hendrickson:1997.
[HI:HSQCPL] Holy Scripture in the Qumran Commentaries and Pauline Letters, Timothy Lim, Oxford:1997.
[HI:HTG] Honor Thy Gods: Popular Religion in Greek Tragedy. Jon D. Mikalson. UNC/Chapel Hill:1991.
[HI:HTNNAR] Homer the Theologian: Neoplatonist Allegorical Reading and the Growth of the Epic Tradition. Robert Lamberton. Ucalifornia:1986.
[HI:HTRB] How to Read the Bible: A Guide to Scripture, Then and Now. James Kugel. FreePress:2007.
[HI:HWST] Holy Writings, Sacred Test: The Canon in Early Christianity. John Barton. Westminster John Knox:1997.
[HI:IAC] India and Christendom: The Historical Connection Between Their Religions. Richard Garbe, Lydia Robinson (trans). OpenCourtPublishing:1959.
[HI:IAGW] India and the Greek World: A Study in the Transmission of Culture. Jean W. Sedlar. RowanLittlefield:1980.
[HI:IASS] Ignatius of Antioch and the Second Sophistic. Allen Brent. MohrSiebeck:2006.
[HI:IAW] Isis in the Ancient World, R. E. Witt, JohnsHopkins:1971.
[HI:ICON] ICON–Studies in the History of an Idea. Moshe Barasch. NewYorkUP:1992.
[HI:IE] Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages. Richard Salomon. OxfordUP:1998.
[HI:IF] Interpretations of the Flood. Martinez and Luttikhuizen (eds). Brill:1999.
[HI:IGCG] Information Gathering in Classical Greece. Frank S. Russell. UMich:1999.
[HI:IGRTR] Intratextuality: Greek and Roman Textual Relations. Alison Sharrock and Helen Morales (eds). OUP:2000.
[HI:IGSM1] The Influence of the Gospel of Saint Matthew on Christian Literature before Saint Irenaeus: Book 1 – The First Ecclesiastical Writers. Edouard Massaux with Norman Belval and Suzanne Hecht (trans). MercerUP:1990.
[HI:IGSM2] The Influence of the Gospel of Saint Matthew on Christian Literature before Saint Irenaeus: Book 2 – The Later Christian Writings. Edouard Massaux with Norman Belval and Suzanne Hecht (trans). MercerUP:1990.
[HI:IGSM3] The Influence of the Gospel of Saint Matthew on Christian Literature before Saint Irenaeus: Book 3 – The Apologists and the Didache. Edouard Massaux with Norman Belval and Suzanne Hecht (trans). MercerUP:1993.
[HI:IHSJL] An Introduction to the History and Sources of Jewish Law. N.S. Hecht, B.S. Jackson, S. M. Passamaneck, D. Piatello, and A.M. Rabello (eds). Oxford:1996.
[HI:IIBP] Israel in the Biblical Period: Institutions, Festivals, Ceremonies, Rituals. J Alberto Soggin. T&TClark: 2000.
[HI:IIROR] The Impact of Imperial Rome on Religions, Ritual and Religious Life in the Roman Empire. Lukas De Blois, Peter Fluke, and Johannes Hahn (eds). Brill:2006.
[HI:IIW] It is Written: Scripture Citing Scripture, DA Carson and H.G.M. Williamson, Cambridge:1988.
[HI:IJGLHP] The Image of the Jews in Greek Literature: The Hellenistic Period. Bezalel Bar-Kochva. UcalPress:2010.
[HI:IJS] Imperialism and Jewish Society, 200 bce to 640 ce. Seth Schwartz. Princeton:2001.
[HI:INTGRP] The Interpretation of the New Testament in Greco-Roman Paganism. John Granger Cook. Hendrickson:2002.
[HI:IPAJ] Interpreting the Past: Ancient Jewelry. Jack Ogden. BritishMuseum:1992.
[HI:IRA] The Impact of the Roman Army 200 BC – Ad 476: Economic, Social, Political, Religious and Cultural Aspects. Lukas de Blois and Elio Lo Cascio (eds) and Olivier Hekster and Gerda de Kleijn (helpers). Brill:2007.
[HI:IRCA] The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. Benjamin Isaac. Princeton:2004.
[HI:IRL] Introduction to Rabbinic Literature. Jacob Neusner. ABRL/Doubleday:1994.
[HI:ISAA] Ideas of Slavery from Aristotle to Augustine, Peter Garnsey, CambridgeUpress:1996.
[HI:ISEC] The Impact of Scripture in Early Christianity. J Den Boeft and ML Van Poll-Van de Lisdonk (eds). Brill:1999.
[HI:ISGM] In Search of God the Mother: The Cult of Anatolian Cybele. Lynn Roller. Ucalifornia:1999.
[HI:IST] In the Shadow of the Temple: Jewish Influences on Early Christianity. Oskar Skarsaune. IVP:2002.
[HI:ITA] Introduction to Akkadian (4th ed). Richard Caplice with Daniel Snell. Pontifical Biblical Institute:2002.
[HI:ITM2] Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, H.L. Strack and Gunter Stemberger, Fortress:1992.
[HI:IWSTH] Integrating Women into Second Temple History. Tal Ilan. Hendrickson:1999.
[HI:J2C] From Joshua to Caiaphas: High Priests after the Exile. James VanderKam. Fortress:2004.
[HI:JAG] Judaism and the Gentiles: Jewish Patterns of Universalism to 135 CE. Terence L Donaldson. Baylor:2007.
[HI:JAGR] The Jews among the Greeks & Romans:A Diaspora Sourcebook. Margaret K. Williams. Johns Hopskins:1998.
[HI:JATG] Julian’s Against the Galileans. R Joseph Hoffman (trans/ed). Prometheus:2004.
[HI:JATTJ] Judeophobia: Attitudes toward the Jews in the Ancient World. Peter Schafer. HarvardUP:1997.
[HI:Jb4J] Judaism before Jesus: The Events and Ideas that Shaped the New Testament World. Anthony Tomasino. IVP:2003.
[HI:JBIJ] Jewish Believers in Jesus: The Early Centuries. Oskar Sharsaune and Reidar Hvalvik (eds). Hendrickson:2007.
[HI:JBPRP] Jewish Babylonia between Persia and Roman Palestine. Richard Kalmin. OxfordUP:2006.
[HI:JCFCR] Judaism and Christianity in First-Century Rome. Karl P. Donfried and Peter Richardson (eds.). Eerdmans:1998.
[HI:JCGT] Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition. AFJ Klijn. Brill:1992.
[HI:JCPAS] Jews, Christians, and Polytheists in the Ancient Synagogue: Cultural Interaction during the Greco-Roman Period. Steven Fine (ed). Routledge:1999.
[HI:JCR] Jewish Christianities Reconsidered: Rethinking Ancient Groups and Texts. Matt Jackson-McCabe. Fortress:2007.
[HI:Jeru] Jerusalem: Portrait of the City in the Second Temple Period. Lee Levine. JPS:2002.
[HI:JFCCE] Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era: The Age of Tannaim. George Foot Moore. (reprints of 1927/1930 vols). Hendrickson.
[HI:JFCPR] Jewish Funery Customs, Practices and Rites in the Second Temple Period. Rachel Hachlili. Brill:2005.
[HI:JGA] The Jews in the Greek Age, Elias J. Bickerman, Harvard:1988.
[HI:JGGE] The Johannine Gospel in Gnostic Exegesis: Heracleon’s Commentary on John. Elaine Pagels. SBL:1989.
[HI:JILA1] Judaism in Late Antiquity, Vol 1. Jacob Neusner (ed). Brill:2001.
[HI:JITT] Jesus in the Talmud. Peter Schafer. PrincetonUP:2007.
[HI:JJX] Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition. John Painter. Fortress:1997.
[HI:JLFMM] Jewish Law from Moses to the Mishnah: From bible to torah. Jacob Neusner. HiramCollege:1999.
[HI:JLIRP] Jewish Literacy in Roman Palestine. Catherine Hezser. MohrSiebeck:2001.
[HI:JMA] Jewish Marriage in Antiquity. Michael L Satlow. Princeton:2001.
[HI:JNAW] The Jewish Novel in the Ancient World. Lawrence M Wills. Cornell:1995.
[HI:JOE] The Jews of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian. Joseph Meleze Modrzejewski and Robert Cornman (trans). PrincetonUP:1995.
[HI:JONT] Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Robert E. Van Voorst. Eerdmans:2000. (Very balanced treatment.)
[HI:JP] Jesus the Pharisee. Harvey Falk. Wipf and Stock/Paulist:1985.
[HI:JPCA] The Jewish People in Classical Antiquity from Alexander to Bar Kochba, John H. Hayes and Sara R. Mandell, WJK:1998.
[HI:JPFC] The Jewish People in the First Century: Historical Geography, Political History, Social, Cultural and Religious Life and Institutions. S. Safai and M. Stern (eds.). Fortress:1974.
[HI:JPH] Josephus & the Politics of Historiography: Apologetic and Impression Management in the Bellum Judaicum. Gottfried Mader. Brill:2000.
[HI:JRCM] The Jewish Roots of Christological Monotheism. Newman, Davila, and Lewis (eds). Brill:1999.
[HI:JRJ] Jude and the Relatives of Jesus in the Early Church. Richard Bauckham. T&TClark:1990.
[HI:JSGRP12] Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period: Summary and Conclusions, volume 12. Erwin R. Goodenough. Pantheon:1965.
[HI:JSS53] Jesus and the Suffering Servant: Isaiah 53 and Christian Origins, William Bellinger, Jr’, and William Farmer (eds), Trinity Press:1998.
[HI:JSZ] John, the Son of Zebedee: The Life of a Legend. R. Alan Culpepper. Fortress:1994/2000,
[HI:JTANS] The Jewish Temple: A Non-biblical Sourcebook, C.T.R. Hayward, Routledge:1996.
[HI:JTOT] Jesus the Only Teacher: Didactic Authority and Transmission in Ancient Israel, Ancient Judaism, and the Matthean Community, Samel Byrskog, Almqvist & Wiksell Intl (Stockholm): 1994.
[HI:JURR] The Jews under Roman Rule, From Pompey to Diocletian: A Study in Political Relations. E. Mary Smallwood. Brill:2001.
[HI:JWANT] The Jewish World around the New Testament. BakerAcademic:2008.
[HI:JWSTP] Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period: Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Qumran Sectarian Writings, Philo, Josephus. Michael E. Stone (ed.), Fortress:1984.
[HI:KAMSOG] King and Messiah as Son of God: Divine, Human, and Angelic Messianic Figures in Biblical and Related Literature. Adela Yarbro Collins and John J Collins. Eerdmans:2008.
[HI:KDAW] Kinship Diplomacy in the Ancient World. Christopher Jones. Harvard/Cambridge:1999.
[HI:KMIANE] King and Messiah in Israel and the Ancient Near East. John Day (ed). JSOT/Sheffield:1998.
[HI:KRAMER2] Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium BC (Rev.ed). Samuel Noah Kramer. Upenn:1972.
[HI:KTABT] The Karaite Tradition of Arabic Bible Translation. Meira Polliack. Brill:1997.
[HI:KTGA] Key to A Grammar of Akkadian (Second Ed). John Huehnergard. Eisenbrauns:2005.
[HI:LAB] The Limits of Ancient Biography. Brian McGing and Judith Mossman (eds). ClassicalPressOfWales:2006.
[HI:LAD] Life after Death: A History of the Afterlife in Western Religion. Alan Segal. Doubleday:2004.
[HI:LADIEJ] Life after Death in Early Judaism: The Evidence of Josephus. CD Elledge. MohrSiebeck:2006.
[HI:LAE] Light from the Ancient East. Adolf Deissman. Hendrickson:1927. (old work, still constantly cited).
[HI:LANE] Labor in the Ancient Near East. Marvin Powell (ed). American Oriental Society:1987.
[HI:LBI] Life in Biblical Israel. Philip King and Lawrence Stager. WJK:2001.
[HI:LCANE] Life and Culture in the Ancient Near East. Averbeck, Chavalas, Weisberg (eds). CDL:2003.
[HI:LCCAI] Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel. Moshe Aberbach, Magnes: 1994.
[HI:LDSU] The Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur. Piotr Michalowski. Eisenbrauns:1989.
[HI:LEAP] Land and Economy in Ancient Palestine, Jack Pastor, Routledge:1997
[HI:LEMT] Literacy, Education and Manuscript Transmission in Byzantium and Beyond. Catherine Holmes and Judith Waring (eds). Brill:2002.
[HI:LFAW] Lies and Fiction in the Ancient World. Christopher Gill and T.P. Wiseman (eds). Utexas:1993.
[HI:LG] The Living Goddesses. Marija Gimbutas, with Miriam Robbins Dexter. Ucal:1999.
[HI:LGRW] Literature in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A New Perspective. Oliver Taplin (ed). Oxford:2000.
[HI:LHOC] The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia—and How it Died. Philip Jenkins. Lion:2008.
[HI:LHPEE] Latin Historiography and Poetry in the Early Empire: Generic Interactions. John Miller and AJ Woodman (eds). Brill:2010.
[HI:LIANE] Language in the Ancient Near East, Parts 1 and 2. L Kogan, N Koslova, S Loesov and S Tishchenko (eds). Eisenbrauns:2010.
[HI:LJC] Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Larry Hurtado. Eerdmans:2003.
[HI:LKA] Legends of the Kings of Akkade–The Texts. Joan Goodnick Westenholz. Eisenbrauns:1997.
[HI:LLAH] Latin Literature-A History, Gian Biagio Conte (trans. By JB Solodow), John Hopkins:1994 ed.
[HI:LLAR] Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome. J.P.V.D. Balsdon. Phoenix:1969.
[HI:LLR] Law and Life of Rome, 90 BC-AD 212. J. A. Crook. Cornell:1967.
[HI:LM] The Lost Messiah: In Search of the Mystical Rabbi Sabbatai Sevi. John Freely. Overlook:2001.
[HI:LON] The Libraries of the Neoplatonists. Cristina D’Anona (ed). Brill:2007.
[HI:LPIAW] Literacy and Power in the Ancient World, Alan K. Bowman and Gref Woolf (eds.), Cambridge:1994.
[HI:LRR] Literature and Religion at Rome: Cultures, Contexts, and Beliefs. Denis Feeney. Cambridge:1988.
[HI:LSFNAP] The Lower Stratum Families in the Neo-Assyrian Period. Gershon Galil. Brill:2007.
[HI:LTCT] Libraries, Translations, and ‘Canonic’ Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. Giuseppe Veltri. Brill:2006.
[HI:LTF] Leaving the Fold: Apostates and Defectors in Antiquity. Stephen G Wilson. Fortress:2004.
[HI:LWMAI] Letter-Writing Manuals and Instruction from Antiquity to the Present. Carol Poster and Linda C Mitchell (eds). USCarolina:2007.
[HI:LXXACS] The Septuagint as Christian Scripture: Its Prehistory and the Problem of its Canon. Martin Hengel (Mark Biddle, trans). T&TClark:2002.
[HI:LXXC] The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible, Natalio Fernandez Marcos, Brill:2000.
[HI:M2N] The Mishnah: A New Translation. Jacob Neusner. Yale:1988.
[HI:MAIAC] Mimesis and Intertextuality in Antiquity and Christianity. Dennis MacDonald (ed). TrinityPress:2001.
[HI:MAintro] Mesopotamian Astrology: An Introduction to Babylonian and Assyrian Celestial Divination. Ulla Koch-Westenholz. UCopenhagen/Museum Tuscalanum Press: 1995.
[HI:MAMEW] Mystical and Mythological Explanatory Works of Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars. Alasdair Livingstone. Eisenbrauns:2007.
[HI:MATT25] The Least of My Brothers–Matthew 25:31-46 A History of Interpretation. Sherman Gray. SBL:1989.
[HI:MB4H] Mesopotamia Before History. Petr Charvat. Routledge:2002.
[HI:MB4J] The Messiah before Jesus: The Suffering Servant in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Israel Knohl. Ucal:2000.
[HI:MC] Mission and Conversion: Proselytizing in the Religious History of the Roman Empire. Martin Goodman. Oxford:1994.
[HI:MCAG] Morality and Custom in Ancient Greece. John Dillon. IndianaUP:2004.
[HI:MCAW] Mystery Cults of the Ancient World. Hugh Bowden. PrincetonUP:2010.
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[HI:TLA] The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Texts. Satterthwaite, Hess, and G. Wenham (eds.), Paternoster:1995.
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[HI:TNIA] The Novel in Antiquity, Tomas Hagg, UCpress:1980/1983
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[HI:TR] The Romans, Andrea Giardina (ed), UchicagoPress:1993.
[HI:TRENT] Traditions of the Rabbis from the Era of the New Testament (Vol 1: Prayer and Agriculture). David Instone-Brewer. Eerdmans:2004.
[HI:TSC] The Second Church: Popular Christianity a.d. 200-400. Ramsay MacMullen. SBL:2009.
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[HI:TTAW] Teachers and Texts in the Ancient World: Philosophers, Jews, and Christians. H. Gregory Snyder. Routledge:2000.
[HI:TTHT] ‘Time and Times and Half a Time’: Historical Consciousness in the Jewish Literature of the Persian and Hellenistic Eras, Ida Frohlich (trans. Bea Vidacs), Sheffield:1996.
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[HI:TTOA] The Tongues of Angels: The Concept of Angelic Languages in Classical Jewish and Christian Texts. John Porier. MohrSiebeck:2010.
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[HI:UNQ] The Use of Numbers and Quantifications in the Assyrian Royal Inscriptions. Marco De Odorico. Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project:1995.
[HI:UONTCR] The Use of the Old and New Testaments in Clement of Rome. Donald A. Hagner, Brill:1973.
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[HI:WAH] Writing Ancient History. Nelville Morley. Cornell:1999.
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[HI:WILF] Wisdom in Loose Form: The Language of Egyptian and Greek Proverbs in Collections of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods. Nikolaos Lazaridis. Brill:2007.
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[JE] Jesus, Craig A. Evans, Baker: 1992. (A bibliography of current Jesus research.)
[JJ] Jesus the Jew, Geza Vermes, Fortress: 1973, pp.284.
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[JNT2] Josephus and the New Testament. Steve Mason. Hendrickson:2003 (2nd ed).
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[JosephusNew] The New Complete Works of Josephus (rev/expanded). Whiston and Paul Maier. Kregel:1999.
[JOT] Jesus and the Old Testament. France, R.T. , Intervarsity Press, 1971.
[JPB] Judaism: Practice and Belief 63BCE-66CE, E.P. Sanders, SCM: 1992, 595p.
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[JSOTGP3] Gospel Perspectives, volumes III. Edited by R.T. France and David Wenham. JSOT: 1980-1983.
[JTJ] Jews in the Time of Jesus–an Introduction, Stephen Wylen, Paulist Press: 1996.
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[JUF] Jesus Under Fire–Modern Scholarship Reinvents the Historical Jesus., Wilkins and Moreland (eds), Zondervan: 1995.
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[KD] Keil & Delitzch commentaries on the OT.
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[KOC] The Origins of Christianity, Howard Clark Kee, Prentice Hall: 1973.
[Kramer] Mythologies of the Ancient WorldS.N. Kramer, Doubleday: 1961.
[KTJM] Knowing the Truth about Jesus the Messiah, John Ankerberg and John Weldon, Harvest House:1996.
[LANTH] Luke-Acts & New Testament Historiography, Joel Green and Michael McKeever, Baker: 1994. (A biblio on the subject.)
[LCMAM] Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, Martha T. Roth, Scholars Press:1995.
[LE] The Linguistics Encyclopedia, Kirsten Malmkjaer (ed.), Routledge: 1991.
[LHC] A History of Christianity, by Kenneth Latourette, Harper & Row: 1975 (2vols)
[LIB] The Language and Imagery of the Bible, G.B. Caird, Westminster:1980.
[LOF] Living on the Fringe–The Archeology and History of the Negev, Sinai and Neighboring Regions in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Israel Finkelstein, Sheffield Academic:1995.
[LPJG] The Past of Jesus in the Gospels, Eugene Lemcio, Cambridge: 1991.
[LS:LBI] Linguistics and Biblical Interpretation. Peter Cotterell & Max Turner. IVP:1989.
[LS:MAT] Metaphor and Thought, Andrew Ortony, ed., Cambridge: 1993 (2nd ed), 678p.
[LS:SL] Sociolinguistics, Bernard Spolsky, Oxford:1998.
[LSAC] Legacy-the Search for Ancient Cultures by Michael Wood. Sterling (NY), 1994.
[LSNTG] Linguistics for Students of New Testament Greek: A Survey of Basic Concepts and Applications, by David Alan Black, Baker:1995 (2nd ed.)
[LTJM] The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, Alfred Edersheim, Hendrickson:1993.
[MCMF] Mesopotamian Civilization: The Material Foundations, D.T. Potts, Cornell: 1997.
[ME] The Medieval Experience:300-1400, by Jill Claster, NYU Press: 1982.
[MEOT] Messianic Expectation in the Old Testament, Joachim Becker, T&T Clark: 1977.
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[MHSNT] More Hard Sayings of the New Testament, Peter H. Davids, IVP: 1991.
[MJ] A Marginal Jew–Rethinking the Historical Jesus, John P. Meier, Doubleday: 1991
[MJJT] Middle Judaism: Jewish Thought 300BCE to 200CE, Boccaccini, Fortress: 1991
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[MMA] The Mind of the Middle Ages, by F.B. Artz, Univ. of Chicago: 1980.
[MNT] The Making of the New Testament: Origin, Collection, Text and Canon., Patzia, IVP: 1995.
[MSECT] Miracle Stories of the Early Christian Tradition , Gerd Theissen, T&T Clark: 1983
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[MTNT3] The Text of the New Testament–Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration, Bruce Metzger, Oxford 1992 (3rd ed).
[MWR] Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning, and the Gods, Jean Bottero, Univ of Chicago:1992.
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[NDIEC4] New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity (volume 4). G.H.R. Horsley, Ancient History Documentary Centre, Macquarie University:1987.
[NDIEC5] New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity (volume 5). G.H.R. Horsley, Ancient History Documentary Centre, Macquarie University:1989.
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[NDIEC8] New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity (volume 8). S.R. Llewelyn, Ancient History Documentary Centre, Macquarie University:1997.
[NDIEC9] New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity, Volume 9: A Review of the Greek Inscriptions and Papyri. S R Llewelyn (ed). Eerdmans:2002.
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[NICNT] : New International Commentary on the New Testament
[NICOT] : New International Commentary on the Old Testament
[NIDNTT] : New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Colin Brown, eds. Zond.
[NIDOTTE] : New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis, William A. VanGemeren (gen.ed.). Zondervan:1997+ (5 vols)
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[NS:CREET] The Changing Role of the Embryo in Evolutionary Thought: Roots of Evo-Devo. Ron Amundson. CambridgeUP:2005.
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[NS:DAFSK] Divine Action in the Framework of Scientific Knowledge: From Quantum Theory to Divine Action. Christoph Lameter. ChristianityInThe21stCentury(NewarkCA):2006.
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[NS:DPE] Development Plasticity and Evolution. Mary Jane West-Eberhard. OxfordUP:2003.
[NS:DSB] Darwin Strikes Back: Defending the Science of Intelligent Design. Thomas Woodward. Baker:2006.
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[NS:ESC] Evolution of the Social Contract. Brian Skyrms. CambridgeUP:1996.
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[NS:GGG] Genes, Genesis, and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History, Holmes Rolston III, Cambridge:1999.
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[NS:LAD] Life After Death: The Evidence. Dinesh D’Souza. RegneryPub:2009.
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[NS:NBC] Not by Chance!–Shattering the Modern Theory of Evolution. Lee Spetner. Judaica Press:1997. (by a biophysicist…E. Simon (prof. of biology at Purdue: “certainly the most rational attack on evolution that I have ever read”)…information vs. randomness approach)
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[NS:SD] Science Declares Our Universe is Intelligently Designed. Robert Herrman. XulonPress:2002.
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[NS:THW] Thought in a Hostile World: The Evolution of Human Cognition. Kim Sterelny. Blackwell:2003.
[NS:THX] The Triple Helix: Gene, Organism, and Environment. Richard Lewontin. Harvard:2000.
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[NS:TMM] The Meme Machine. Susan Blackmore. Oxford:1999. (forward and recc. by R. Dawkins…has a chapter on religion as memplex)
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[NS:TWA] Thinking with Animals: New Perspectives on Anthropomorphism. Lorraine Daston and Gregg Mitman (eds). ColumbiaUP:2005.
[NS:VD] Vital Dust: Life as a Cosmic Imperative, Christian de Duve. BasicBooks:1995.
[NS:WCD] When Cells Die: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Apoptosis and Programmed Cell Death. Lockshin, Zakeri, and Tilly (eds.). Wiley-Liss:1998
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[NS:WWABG] Why Would Anyone Believe in God? Justin Barrett. Altamira:2004.
[NT:1GF2] One Gospel from Two: Mark’s Use of Matthew and Luke. Peabody/Cope/McNicol (eds). Trinity:2002.
[NT:4G1G] The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ: An Investigation of the Collection and Origin of the Canonical Gospels. Martin Hengel. Trinity:2000.
[NT:7CAGAC] The Seven Cities of the Apocalypse & Greco-Asian Culture. Roland H. Worth, Jr. Paulist:1999.
[NT:7CARC] The Seven Cities of the Apocalypse & Roman Culture. Roland H. Worth, Jr. Paulist:1999.
[NT:AAJ] Authenticating the Activities of Jesus. Bruce Chilton and Craig A. Evans (eds). Brill:1999.
[NT:ACL] Apostle of the Crucified Lord: A Theological Introduction to Paul and His Letters. Michael Gorman. Eerdmans:2004.
[NT:ACM] Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power, Marvin Meyer and Richard Smith (eds.), 1994.
[NT:AGAC] The Aramaic Gospels and Acts Companion: A Text Transliteration. Joseph Pashka. Xulon:2003.
[NT:AGATT] The Aramaic Gospels and Acts: Text and Translation. Joseph Pashka (trans). Xulon:2003.
[NT:AGJ] Archaeology and the Galilean Jesus: A Re-examination of the Evidence. Johnathan Reed. Trinity:2000.
[NT:AHOC] A Hymn of Christ: Philippians 2:5-11 in Recent Interpretation & in the Setting of Early Christian Worship, Ralph Martin, IVP:1997(3rd ed).
[NT:AIALC] Acts in Its Ancient Literary Context: A Classicist Looks at the Acts of the Apostles. Loveday C A Alexander. TTClark:2005.
[NT:AITSV] And I Turned to See the Voice: The Rhetoric of Vision in the New Testament. Edith Humphrey. Baker:2007.
[NT:AJIG] Anti-Judaism in Galatians? Exegetical Studies on a Polemical Letter and on Paul’s Theology. Michael Bachmann, Robert Brawley (trans).Eerdmans:2008.
[NT:AOSSC] Arguments from Order in Synoptic Source Criticism: A History and Critique, David Neville, Mercer:1994.
[NT:APM] A Preface to Mark: Notes of the Gospel in its Literary and Cultural Settings, Christopher Bryan, Oxford:1993.
[NT:ASMG] Aramaic Sources of Mark’s Gospel. Maurice Casey. Cambridge:1998.
[NT:ATNTS] Ancient Texts for New Testament Studies–A Guide to the Background Literature. Craig Evans. Hendrickson:2005.
[NT:BAC] Buddha and Christ: Nativity Stories and Indian Traditions. Zacharias Thundy. Brill:1993.
[NT:BAD] Baptism on Account of the Dead (1 Cor 15:29)–An Act of Faith in the Resurrection. Michael Hull. SBL:2005.
[NT:BASHH] The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic History, Colin Helmer, Eisenbrauns:1989.
[NT:BCPCAM] The Background and Content of Paul’s Cultic Atonement Metaphors. Stephen Finlan. SBL:2004.
[NT:BEAP2] Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period (2nd Ed). Richard N. Longenecker. Eerdmans/Regent:1999.
[NT:CALC] Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ, Harold Hoehner, Zondervan:1977
[NT:CAP] The Cross and the Prodigal: Luke 15 Through the Eyes of Middle Eastern Peasants. Kenneth Bailey (revd). IVP:2005.
[NT:CAQ] The Case Against Q: Studies in Markan Priority and the Synoptic Problem. Mark Goodacre. Trinity:2002.
[NT:CBDSS] Christian Beginnings and the Dead Sea Scrolls. John J Collins and Craig Evans (eds). BakerAcademic:2006.
[NT:CFRJJ] Caiaphas–Friend of Rome and Judge of Jesus? Helen Bond. WJK:2004.
[NT:CHGM] A Comparative Handbook to the Gospel of Mark: Comparisons with Pseudepigrapha, the Qumran Scrolls, and Rabbinic Literature. Brill:2010.
[NT:CHIC] The Colossian Hymn in Context. Matthew Gordley. MohrSiebeck:2007.
[NT:CITM1] Christianity in the Making, Volume 1: Jesus Remembered. James Dunn. Eerdmans:2003.
[NT:CJ] Constructing Jesus: Memory, Imagination, and History. Dale Allison Jr. Baker:2010.
[NT:CNC] A Challenge to the New Perspective: Revisiting Paul’s Doctrine of Justification. Peter Stuhlmacher. IVP:2001.
[NT:CNTUOT] Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament. GK Beale and DA Carson (eds). Baker:2007.
[NT:COJ] The Christology of Jesus, Ben Witherington III, Fortress:1990.
[NT:CRP] The City in Roman Palestine, Daniel Sperber, Oxford:1998.
[NT:CTENTM] The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts. Philip W. Comfort and David P. Barrett (eds.). Baker:1999.
[NT:CTT] The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance, Bruce M. Metzger, Oxford:1987.
[NT:DD] Dialogue and Drama: Elements of Greek Tragedy in the Fourth Gospel. Jo-Ann A Brant. Hendrickson:2004.
[NT:DictJG] Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Joel Green, Scot McKnight, I Howard Marshall (eds.), IVP:1992.
[NT:DictLNT] Dictionary of the Later New Testament and its Development. Ralph Martin and Peter Davids (eds.), IVP:1997.
[NT:DictPL] Dictionary of Paul and his Letters. Gerald Hawthorne, Ralph Martin, Daniel G. Reid (eds.), IVP:1993.
[NT:DLPTC] Daily Life in Palestine at the Time of Christ. Henri Daniel-Rops. Phoenix:1961/62.
[NT:DMG] The Date of Mark’s Gospel: Insight from the Law in Earliest Christianity. James Crossley. TTClark:2004.
[NT:DNTE] Dictionary of New Testament Exegesis
[NT:DTWW] Doing Things with Words in the First Christian Century. F Gerald Downing. Sheffield:2000.
[NT:DYNR] Do You Not Remember? Scripture, Story and Exegesis in the Rewritten Bible of Pseudo-Philo. Bruce Norman Fisk. Sheffield:2001.
[NT:ECHJ] Early Christianity and Hellenistic Judaism, T&T Clark:1996.
[NT:EE1C] The Educated Elite in 1 Corinthians–Education and Community Conflict in Graeco-Roman Context. Robert S Dutch. TTClark:2005.
[NT:EG] The Earliest Gospels: The Origins and Transmission of the Earliest Christian Gospels–The Contribution of the Chester Beatty Gospel Codex P45. Charles Horton (ed). TTClark:2004.
[NT:EITS] Elect in the Son: A Study of the Doctrine of Election, Robert Shank, Bethany:1970/1989.
[NT:ENC] Early Narrative Christology: The Lord in the Gospel of Luke. C Kavin Rowe. WalterDeGruyter:2006.
[NT:FJ] Fabricating Jesus: How Modern Scholars Distort the Gospels. Craig Evans. IVP:2006.
[NT:FSS] Father, Son and Spirit: The Trinity and John’s Gospel. A Kostenberger and SR Swain. IVP:2008.
[NT:FVW] From a Virgin Womb: The Apocalypse of Adam and the Virgin Birth. Andrew Welburn. Brill:2008.
[NT:GAC] The Gospels for All Christians: Rethinking the Gospel Audiences, Richard Bauckham (ed), Eerdmans:1998.
[NT:GAJC] The Gospel according the John, by D.A. Carson, Eerdmans:1991.
[NT:GECNT] The Greek-English Concordance to the New Testament (NIV). Kohlenberger III, Goodrick and Swanson, Zondervan:1997.
[NT:GH] The Gospel Hoax: Morton Smith’s Invention of Secret Mark. Stephen C Carlson. BaylorUP:2005.
[NT:GMPIT] The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, including the Demotic Spells, Hans Deiter Betz (ed.), UChicago:1992 (vol 1, 2nd ed).
[NT:GMSRC] The Gospel of Mark: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary. Ben Witherington III. Eerdmans:2001.
[NT:GRCGJ] Greco-Roman Culture and the Galilee of Jesus. Mark Chancey. CambridgeUP:2005.
[NT:HCJF] The Historical Christ and the Jesus of Faith: The Incarnational Narrative as History, C. Stephen Evans, Oxford:1996.
[NT:HEGM] The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark. Dennis R. MacDonald. Yale:2000.
[NT:HFENT] Hymn Fragments Embedded in the New Testament: Hellenistic Jewish and Greco-Roman Parallels. Lawrence DiPaolo Jr. EdwinMellen:2008.
[NT:HJFCC] The Hellenization of Judea in the First Century After Christ, Martin Hengel, SCM/Trinity:1989.
[NT:HPKP] Honor, Patronage, Kinship & Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture. David A. deSilva. IVP:2000.
[NT:HRI] Hellenistic Religions–An Introduction. Luther H. Martin. Oxford:1987.
[NT:HROJG] The Historical Reliability of John’s Gospel–Issues and Commentary. Craig L. Blomberg. IVP:2001.
[NT:HWSPP] Hearing the Story: the Politics of Plot in Mark’s Gospel, Richard Horsley, WJK:2001.
[NT:IDWAG] In Dialog with Another Gospel? The Influence of the Fourth Gospel on the Passion Narrative of the Gospel of Luke. Mark Matson. SBL:2001.
[NT:INTMTT] An Introduction to The New Testament Manuscripts and Their Texts. DC Parker. CambridgeUP:2008.
[NT:IP] Index Patristicus, Goodspeed, Hendrickson:1993.
[NT:ITSP] Is There a Synoptic Problem? Rethinking the Literary Dependence of the First Three Gospels, Eta Linnemann, Baker:1992.
[NT:JAGI] Jesus and the God of Israel: God Crucified and Other Studies on the New Testament’s Christology of Divine Identity. Richard Bauckham. Eerdmans:2008.
[NT:JAHD] Jesus and His Death: Historiography, the Historical Jesus, and Atonement Theory. Scot McKnight. BaylorUP:2005.
[NT:JBJ] James, Brother of Jesus. Pierre-Antoine Bernheim. SCM:1996/7.
[NT:JCJM] The Jewish Context of Jesus’ Miracles. Eric Eve. 2002.
[NT:JEW] Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony. Richard Bauckham. Eerdmans:2006.
[NT:JFHD] Jesus and the Fundamentalism of His Day. William Loader. Eerdmans:2001.
[NT:JGIS] Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey, Craig L. Blomberg, Broadman & Holman:1997.
[NT:JH01] Judaism and Hellenistic: Studies in their Encounter in Palestine during the Early Hellenistic Period, Martin Hengel, Fortress:1974 (Note: there is a later edition of this in the 90’s that is out of print.)
[NT:JHC] Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies, Craig Evans, Brill:1995. (Excellent book. Situates Jesus squarely in His Jewish (as opposed to Cynic) setting. $163, but a killer. Covers all the messianic passages from Qumran.)
[NT:JIM] Jesus in Memory: Traditions in Oral and Scribal Perspectives. Werner Kelber, Samuel Byrskog (eds). BaylorUP:2009.
[NT:JISSG] Jesus and the Impurity of Spirits in the Synoptic Gospels. Clinton Wahlen. MohrSiebeck:2004.
[NT:JJCO] James the Just and Christian Origins. Bruce Chilton and Craig A. Evans (eds.). Brill:1999.
[NT:JLH] Jesus and the Logic of History, Paul Barnett, Eerdmans: 1997.
[NT:JLW1] Jesus’ Last Week: Jerusalem Studies in the Synoptic Gospels – Volume One. Steven Notley, Marc Turnage, and Brian Becker (eds). Brill:2006.
[NT:JMD] Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora, T&T Clark:1996.
[NT:JMOJPG] The Jesus Mysteries: Was the “Original Jesus” a Pagan God? Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy. Harmony:1999.
[NT:JMW] Jesus the Miracle Worker: A Historical and Theological Study, Graham H. Twelftree, IVP:1999.
[NT:JRFF] Jesus’ Resurrection: Fact or Figment: A Debate between William Lane Craig and Gerd Ludemann. Paul Copan and Ronald K. Tacelli (eds). IVP:2000.
[NT:JRS] Jesus Reads Scripture—The Function of Jesus’ Use of Scripture in the Synoptic Gospels. Emerson Powery. Brill:2003.
[NT:JSPP] Jesus the Seer–The Progress of Prophecy. Ben Witherington III. Hendrikson:1999.
[NT:JTFD] Jesus, The Final Days: What Really Happened. Craig Evans and NT Wright (Troy Miller, ed). WJK:2009.
[NT:JTHPUP] Jesus the Healer: Paradigm or Unique Phenomenon, Keith Warrington, Paternoster:2000.
[NT:JTJLT] The Jewish Targums and John’s Logos Theology. John Ronning. Hendrickson:2010.
[NT:JTMEE] Jesus Through Middle Eastern Eyes: Cultural Studies in the Gospels. Kenneth Bailey. IVP:2008.
[NT:JTT] Jesus the Temple. Nicholas Perrin. BakerSPCK:2010.
[NT:L7C] The Letters to the Seven Churches, Updated Edition, W. M. Ramsey (edited by Mark W. Wilson), Hendrickson:1994.
[NT:LFD] Life in the Face of Death: The Resurrection Message of the New Testament, Richard Longnecker (ed.), Eerdmans:1998.
[NT:LGQ] The Lost Gospel Q, Borg (consulting ed.), Ulysses Press: 1996.
[NT:LOOH] The Laying On of Hands in the New Testament: Its Significance, Techniques, and Effects. John Fleter Tipei. UniversityPressOfAmerica:2009.
[NT:LTG] The Living Text of the Gospels, D.C. Parker, CambridgeUPress:1997.
[NT:LTJN] Living in the Time of Jesus of Nazareth. Peter Connolly. Steimatzky:1983.
[NT:LW] Living Words: The Words of Christ in Aramaic-English Interlinear Edition. Joseph Elias (ed). Elias/uPublish:2002.
[NT:MEC] Modelling Early Christianity: Social-Scientific studies of the New Testament in its Context. Philip Esler (ed). Routledge:1995.
[NT:MJPP] The Missions of James, Peter, and Paul: Tensions in Early Christianity. Bruce Chilton and Craig Evans (eds). Brill:2005.
[NT:MMMNTT] Medicine, Miracle, and Magic in New Testament Times. Howard Clark Kee. Cambridge:1986.
[NT:MNTD] The Making of the New Testament Documents. E.E. Ellis. Brill:1999. (major reappraisal of gospel formation theories–looks good so far)
[NT:MOG] Mark’s Other Gospel: Rethinking Morton Smith’s Controversial Discovery. Scott G Brown. CanadianCorporationforStudies in Religion: 2005.
[NT:MOJ] Memories of Jesus: A Critical Appraisal of James D G Dunn’s Jesus Remembered. Robert Stewart and Gary Habermas (eds). BHAcademic:2010.
[NT:MT] Misquoting Truth: A Guide to the Fallacies of Bart Ehrman;s Misquoting Jesus. Timothy Paul Jones. IVP:2007.
[NT:MTAT] Memory, Tradition, and Text: Uses of the Past in Early Christianity. Alan Kirk and Tom Thatcher (eds). SBL:2005.
[NT:NDIEC6] New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity, Vol 6., Llewelyn and Kearsley, Ancient History Documentary Research Centre/Macquarie Univ: 1992.
[NT:NDIP] Narrative Dynamics in Paul: A Critical Assessment. Bruce Longenecker (ed). WJK:2002.
[NT:NJC] Nazarene Jewish Christianity–from the End of the New Testament Period until its Disappearance in the Fourth Century, Ray Pritz, Magnes Press:1988.
[NT:NLEK] The New Linguistic and Exegetical Key to the Greek New Testament. Cleon Rogers JR and Cleon Rogers III. Zondervan:1998.
[NT:NPJ] A New Perspective on Jesus: What the Quest for the Historical Jesus Missed. James DG Dunn. Baker:2005.
[NT:NTDOTT] New Testament Development of Old Testament Themes, by F.F. Bruce, Eerdmans:1968.
[NT:NTTIHM] New Testament Theology: Many Witnesses, One Gospel. I. Howard Marshall. IVP:2004.
[NT:NTWICA] The New Testament World: Insights from Cultural Anthropology. Bruce J. Malina. WJK:1993 (rev.ed).
[NT:OMMCCD] The Origins of Mark: The Markan Community in Current Debate. Dwight Peterson. Brill:2000.
[NT:OTRELA] On the Road Encounters in Luke-Acts: Hellenistic Mimesis and Luke’s Theology of the Way. Octavian D. Baban. Paternoster:2006.
[NT:P] Paul, by E.P. Sanders, Oxford:1991.
[NT:PACL] Paul: A Critical Life, by Jerome Murphy-O’Connor OP, Oxford:1996.
[NT:PAH] Paul and Hellenism, by Hyam Maccoby, SCM/Trinity:1991.
[NT:PAL] Paul and the Law: A Contextual Approach, by Frank Thielman, IVP:1994.
[NT:PAP] Power and Prejudice: The Reception of the Gospel of Mark. Brenda Deen Schildgen. WayneState:1999.
[NT:PAPP] Paul and the Popular Philosophers. Abraham Malherbe. Fortress:1989.
[NT:PATJ] Paul and the Jews. Andrew Das. Hendrickson:2003.
[NT:PATS] Paul and the Stoics. Troels Engberg-Pedersen. WJK:2000.
[NT:PBDA] Paul between Damascus and Antioch, Martin Hengel and Anna Maria Schwemer, WJK:1997
[NT:PBJHD] Paul Beyond the Judaism/Hellenism Divide. Troels Engberg-Pedersen (ed). WJK:2001.
[NT:PC] Pauline Christology: An Exegetical-Theological Study. Gordon Fee. Hendrickson:2007.
[NT:PCP] The Pre-Christian Paul, Martin Hengel, SCM/Trinity:1991.
[NT:PEC] Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, David E. Aune, Eerdmans:1983.
[NT:PEP] Paul’s Early Period: Chronology, Mission Strategy, Theology. Rainer Riesner. Eerdmans:1998.
[NT:PES] The Pre-existent Son: Recovering the Christologies of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Simon Gathercole. Eerdmans:2006.
[NT:PIC] Paul’s Idea of Community—The Early House Churches in their Cultural Setting. Robert Banks. Hendrickson:1994 (rev.ed)
[NT:PITJ] Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts. KC Hanson and Douglas Oakman. Fortress:1998.
[NT:PJGR] Paul: Jew, Greek, and Roman. Stanley Porter (ed). Brill:2008.
[NT:PJJAD] Paul, Judaism, and Judgment According to Deeds. Kent Yinger. Cambridge:1999.
[NT:PJT] Paul the Jewish Theologian: A Pharisee among Christians, Jews, and Gentiles, Brad H. Young, Hendrickson:1997.
[NT:PLW] Paul the Letter Writer. M Luther Stirewalt, Jr. Eerdmans:2003.
[NT:PM2W] Paul: A Man of Two Worlds. CJ den Heyer. Trinity:1998.
[NT:PMG] The Problem of Markan Genre: The Gospel of Mark and the Jewish Novel. Michael E Vines. SBL:2002.
[NT:PML] Paul and the Mosaic Law. James G. Dunn (ed). Eerdmans:1994.
[NT:PNP] Paul and the New Perspective: Second Thoughts on the Origin of Paul’s Gospel. Seyoon Kim. Eerdmans:2002.
[NT:PONP] Perspectives Old and New on Paul: The Lutheran Paul and his Critics. Shephen Westerholm. Eerdmans:2004.
[NT:PP] Pauline Parallels, Fred Francis and J. Paul Sampley, Fortress:1984 (2nd ed).
[NT:PPCG] Pauline Parallels: A Comprehensive Guide. Walter Wilson. WJK:2009.
[NT:PTC] Paul’s True Rhetoric: Ambiguity, Cunning, and Deception in Greece and Rome. Mark Given. Trinity:2001.
[NT:PW] Paul’s World. Stanley Porter (ed). Brill:2008.
[NT:QQ] Questioning Q: A Multidimensional Challenge. Mark Goodacre and Nicholas Perrin (eds). IVP:2004.
[NT:RCJ] The Ruling Class of Judea: The Origins of the Jewish Revolt against Rome A.D. 66-70, Martin Goodman, CambridgeUpress:1987.
[NT:RG] The Rhetoric of the Gospel: Theological Artistry in the Gospels and Acts. Clifton Black. Chalice:2001.
[NT:RJIB] Rabbi Jesus–An Intimate Biography. Bruce Chilton. Image/DoubleDay:2000.
[NT:RNTTC] Rethinking New Testament Textual Criticism. David Alan Black (ed). Baker:202.
[NT:RPMC] Religious Propaganda & Missionary Competition in the New Testament World, Lukas Bormann, Kelly Del Tredici, & and Angela Standhartinger (eds), Brill:1994. (Well over half of it is in German.)
[NT:RSOG] The Resurrection of the Son of God. NT Wright. Fortress:2003.
[NT:RSP] Rethinking the Synoptic Problem. David Alan Black and David R Beck (eds). Baker:2001.
[NT:SEC] Studies in Early Christology. Martin Hengel, T&T Clark: 1995.
[NT:SGOM] Studies in the Gospel of Mark. Martin Hengel. WipfNStock:1985.
[NT:SHEGNTP] Scribal Habits in Early Greek New Testament Papyri. James Royse. Brill:2008.
[NT:SHHS] Story as History, History as Story: The Gospel Tradition in the Context of Ancient Oral History. Samuel Byrskog. Brill:2002
[NT:SITI] Sharing in the Inheritance: Identity and the Moral Life in Colossians. Allan Bevere. SBL:2003.
[NT:SLJAP] Servant Leadership: Jesus and Paul. Chalice:2005.
[NT:SSCGJ] Social-Science Commentary on the Gospel of John. Bruce Malina and Richard Rohrbaugh. Fortress:1998.
[NT:SSCSG] Social-Science Commentary on the Synoptic Gospels. Bruce Malina and Richard Rohrbaugh. Fortress:1992.
[NT:SSEF] Subversive Symmetry: Exploring the Fantastic in Mark 6.45-56. George W Young. Brill:1999.
[NT:SSSK] Saint Saul: A Skeleton Key to the Historical Jesus. Donald Harman Akenson. Oxford:2000.
[NT:TAODNT] The Atonement: The Origins of the Doctrine in the New Testament. Martin Hengel. WipfNStock:1980.
[NT:TCC] The Colossian Controversy: Wisdom in Dispute at Colossae. Richard DeMaris. SBL:1994.
[NT:TCIJ] This Christ is Jesus: Metamorphosis, Possession, and Johannine Christology. Pamela Kinlaw. Brill/SBL:2005.
[NT:TCS] The Colossian Syncretism: The Interface between Christianity and Folk Belief at Colossae. Clinton Arnold. Baker:1996.
[NT:TG2N] The Gospel to the Nations: Perspectives on Paul’s Mission. Peter Bolt and Mark Thompson (eds). IVP/Apollos:2000.
[NT:TITE] The Intertextuality of the Epistles: Explorations of Theory and Practice. Thomas Brodie, Dennis MacDonald, and Stanley Porter (eds). SheffieldPhoenix:2006.
[NT:TJL] The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition. Paul Rhodes Eddy and Gregory A Boyd. Baker:2007.
[NT:TMP] The Midrashic Process, Irving Jacobs, Cambridge:1995.
[NT:TPG] Tannaitic Parallels to the Gospels. Morton Smith. SBL:1951.
[NT:TSH] The Two-Source Hypothesis: A Critical Appraisal. Arthur Bellinzoni, Jr (ed.). Mercer UP:1985. (Out of print, but one of the most thorough and balanced discussion I had seen on this.)
[NT:TSOG] The Son of God: The Origin of Christology and the History of Jewish-Hellenistic Religion. Martin Hengel. WipfNStock:1976.
[NT:TSOQ] The Shape of Q: Signal Essays on the Sayings Gospel, John Kloppenborg (ed.), Fortress: 1994.
[NT:WAM4TH] Women and Men in the Fourth Gospel: A Genuine Discipleship of Equals. Margaret Beirne. T&TClark:2003.
[NT:WDJD] What Did Jesus Do? Gospel Profiles of Jesus’ Personal Conduct. F Scott Spencer. TrinityPress:2003.
[NT:WIB] Where is Boasting? Early Jewish Soteriology and Paul’s Response in Romans 1-5. Simon J. Gathercole. Eerdmans:2002.
[NT:WOTW] Walking on the Water: Reading Mt 14:22-33 in the Light of its Wirkungsgeschichte. Rachel Nicholls. Brill:2008.
[NT:WSPRS] What Saint Paul Really Said–Was Paul of Tarsus the Real Founder of Christianity?, by N.T. Wright, Eerdmans:1997.
[NT:Z] The Zealots, Martin Hengel (trans. David Smith), T&T Clark:1989.
[NTA] New Testament Apocrypha, Wilhelm Schneemelcher (ed) and R. McL. Wilson (trans.), Westminster/John Knox:1991 (2 vols)
[NTB] The New Testament Background, C.K.Barrett (ed), Harper Collins: 1987.
[NTCI] New Testament Criticism and Interpretation, eds. D.A. Black and D.S. Dockery. Zondv: 1991, 600+pp.
[NTD] The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable?, F. F. Bruce, Eerdmans: 1943.
[NTF] New Testament Foundations: A Guide for Christian Students–Vol.1: The Four Gospels, Ralph P. Martin, Eerdmans: 1975.
[NTLE] The New Testament in Its Literary Environment. Aune, David E., Westminster, 1987.
[NTPG] The New Testament and the People of God, N. T. Wright, Fortress: 1992.
[NTSE] The New Testament in its Social Environment, Stambaugh and Balch, Westminster: 1986.
[NTTJ] New Testament Theology: The Theology of the Gospel of John, by D. Moody Smith, Cambridge: 1995.
[NWNTI] Noncanonical Writings and New Testament Interpretation, Craig Evans, Hendrickson: 1992.
[OB] The Origin of the Bible, P.W. Comfort (ed.), Tyndale: 1992.
[OCS] The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, B.D. Ehrman, Oxford: 1993.
[OT:2NDIS] The Second Isaiah–Introduction, Translation and Commentary to Chapters XL-LV. Christopher R North. WipfNStock:1964.
[OT:2STDS] Double Standards in Isaiah: Re-evaluating Prophetic Ethics and Divine Justice. Andrew Davies. Brill:2000.
[OT:9C] The Nine Commandments: Uncovering the Hidden Pattern of Crime and Punishment in the Hebrew Bible. David Noel Freedman. Doubleday:2000.
[OT:AAI] The Archeology of Ancient Israel, Amnon ben-Tor (ed.), Yale:1992.
[OT:ABC] Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles. A. K. Grayson. Eisenbrauns:1975/2000.
[OT:ACUP] Archaeology of the City: Urban Planning in Ancient Israel and its Social Implications. Ze’ev Herzog. TelAviv:1997.
[OT:AEBA] The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. Erik Hornung. Cornell:1999.
[OT:AEOT] Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament, John D. Currid, Baker:1997.
[OT:AHBSF] Atra-Hasis: The Babylonian Story of the Flood. W.G. Lambert and A.R. Millard. Eisenbrauns:1999 reprint of 1969 OUP.
[OT:AHT] The History of Tyre (Revised Edition). H.J. Katzenstein, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press/Beer Sheeva:1997. (Only covers up to 539 BCE)
[OT:AIIN] Ancient Israel and Its Neighbors: Interaction and Counteraction. Nadav Na’aman. Eisenbrauns:2005.
[OT:AIIS] Ancient Israel in Sinai: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Wilderness Tradition. James K Hoffmeier. OUP:2005.
[OT:ALANE] Archives and Libraries in the Ancient Near East, 1500-300 BC, Olof Pedersen, CDL Press: 1998.
[OT:ALB2] Archaeology of the Land of the Bible Volume II: The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Periods (732-332 BCE), Ephraim Stern, AnchorBible/Doubleday:2001.
[OT:ALTB] Archaeology and the Land of the Bible, Amihai Mazar, Doubleday:1992 (Anchor Bible series)
[OT:ANCANE] Aspects of Nonverbal Communication in the Ancient Near East. Biblical Institute Press:1980.
[OT:ANE3K] The Ancient Near East c. 3000-330bc, Amelie Kuhrt , Routledge:1995 (2 vols.)
[OT:ANSCIG] Abraham in the Negev: A Source-Critical Investigation of Genesis 20:1-22:19. T. Desmond Alexander. Paternoster:1997. (Decides that existing Source-Critical /JEDP theories are contra-indicated by the data…)
[OT:AOT] Archaeology and the Old Testament, Alfred J. Hoerth, Baker:1998.
[OT:AP] State Archives of Assyria, volume IX: Assyrian Prophecies. Simo Parpola. Helsinki UP:1997.
[OT:AS] The Age of Solomon: Scholarship at the Turn of the Millennium. Lowell Handy (ed). Brill:1997.
[OT:ASM] Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. Hermann Hunger and David Pingree. Brill:1999.
[OT:AST] The Amarna Scholarly Tablets. Shlomo Isre’el. Styx:1997.
[OT:ATSHB] Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible: A Guide to the Background Literature. Kenton Sparks. Hendrickson:2005.
[OT:BAIW] The Bible as It Was, James L. Kugel, Harvard:1997.
[OT:BANE] The Bible and the Ancient Near East, Cyrus Gordon and Gary Rendsburg, Norton:1997 (4th ed).
[OT:BANER] The Bible and the Ancient Near East—Collected Essays. J J M Roberts (ed). Eisenbrauns:2002.
[OT:BBC1] The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Genesis-Deuteronomy, John H. Walton & Victor Matthews, IVP:1997.
[OT:BBCALL] The IVP Bible Background Commentary–Old Testament. Walton, Matthews, & Chalvalas. IVP:2000. [Outstanding.]
[OT:BDCR1] The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception (Vol One). John J. Collins and Peter W. Flint (eds.). Brill:2001.
[OT:BDCR2] The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception (Vol 2). John Collins and Peter Flint (eds). Brill:2002.
[OT:BGE] The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition, and Cuneiform Texts (2 vols). A. R. George. Oxford:2003.
[OT:BHI] A Biblical History of Israel. Provan, Long, Longman III. WJK:2003.
[OT:BOT] Bringing out the Treasure: Inner Biblical Allusion in Zechariah 9-14. Mark Boda and Michael Floyd (eds). JSOT:2003.
[OT:BPE] Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, and Early Israel. Ann Killebrew. Brill/SBL:2005.
[OT:BT] The Balaam Traditions: Their Character and Development. SBL:1990.
[OT:BWL] Babylonian Wisdom Literature. WG Lambert. Eisenbrauns:1996 (1960).
[OT:CAANEB] Creation Accounts in the Ancient New East and in the Bible. Richard J. Clifford. Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series:1994.
[OT:CAD] Creation and Destruction: A Reappraisal of the Chaoskampf Theory in the Old Testament. David Tsumura. Eisenbrauns:2005.
[OT:CANE] Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Jack M. Sasson (ed.). Hendrickson:1995 (4vols)
[OT:CANELC] A Comparison of Ancient Near Eastern Law Collections Prior to the First Millennium BC. Samual Jackson. Gorgias:2008.
[OT:CCAE] Canaan and Canaanite in Ancient Egypt. Alessandra Nibbi. (Self):1989.
[OT:CEANE] The Care of the Elderly in the Ancient New East. Marten Stol and Sven P. Vleeming (eds.). Brill:1998.
[OT:CIANE] Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Near East. Guy Bunnens (ed). Peeters Press, Louvain: 1996.
[OT:CIC] Cuneiform in Canaan: Cuneiform Sources from the Land of Israel in Ancient Times. Wayne Horowitz and Takayoshi Oshima, with Seth Sanders. Israel Exploration Society:2006.
[OT:CityAM] The Ancient Mesopotamian City, Marc Van De Mieroop, Oxford-Clarendon: 1997.
[OT:CKIJ] TheChronology of the Kings of Israel & Judah, Gerson Galil, Brill:1996.
[OT:CMHE] Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic. Frank Moore Cross. Harvard:1973.
[OT:CML] Canaanite Myths and Legends (2nd ed). JCL Gibson. T&TClark:1976.
[OT:COHC] Chieftains of the Highland Clans: A History of Israel in the 12th and 11th Centuries BC. Robert Miller II. Eerdmans:2005.
[OT:COTK] Chronicle of the Old Testament Kings. John Rogerson. Thames and Hudson:1999.
[OT:COU] The City of Ugarit at Tell Ras Shamra. Marguerite Yon. Eisenbrauns:2006.
[OT:CRLTU] Canaanite Religion according to the Liturgical Texts of Ugarit. G. del Olmo Lete (trans. Wilfred G.E. Watson). CDL Press:1999.
[OT:CSME] Creation Stories of the Middle East. Ewa Wasilewska. Jessica Kingsley:2000.
[OT:CSP] Chronicles and its Synoptic Parallels in Samuel, Kings, and Related Biblical Texts. Eds: John Endres, William Millar, John B. Burns. Glazier/Liturgical: 1998.
[OT:CTWH] Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History. Marc van de Mieroop. Routledge:1999.
[OT:CU] Chaos Uncreated: A Reassessment of the Theme of Chaos in the Hebrew Bible. Rebecca S Watson. WalterDeGruyter:2005.
[OT:DAAE] Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt, John H. Taylor, UChicago:2001.
[OT:DAR] Domination and Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant, 1300-1185 BC. Michael G Hasel. Brill:1998.
[OT:DESB] Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. R Campbell Thompson. Kessinger: 1903 (reprnt)
[OT:DGHW] Did God Have a Wife? Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel. William G Dever. Eerdmans:2005.
[OT:DictOT5] Dictionary of the Old Testament Pentateuch, T. Desmond Alexander and David W. Baker (eds). IVP:2003.
[OT:DLAM] Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Karen Rhea Nemet-Nejat. Greenwood Press:1998.
[OT:DOTE] Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis, Willem A. VanGeren (gen. Ed.), Zond:1997 (5 vols).
[OT:DSPS] The Dead Sea Psalms Scrolls and the Book of Psalms. Peter Flint. Brill:1997.
[OT:EANEL] Early Ancient Near Eastern Law: A History of Its Beginnings–The Early Dynastic and Sargonic Periods (rev.ed). Claus Wilke. Eisenbrauns:2007.
[OT:EEE] Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence, E.S. Frerichs and L.H. Lesko (eds), Eisenbrauns:1997.
[OT:EEERP] Egyptianization and Elite Emulation in Ramesside Palestine–Governance and Accommodation on the Imperial Periphery. Carolyn Higginbotham. Brill:2000.
[OT:EFTP] Echoes from the Past: Hebrew and Cognate Inscriptions from the Biblical Period. Selected and Annotated by Shmuel Ahituv. Carta:2008.
[OT:EIAI] Education in Ancient Israel: Across the Deadening Silence, James L. Crenshaw, Doubleday: 1998.
[OT:EML] Early Mesopotamian Law. Russ VerSteeg. Carolina Academic:2000.
[OT:ESK] Epics of Sumerian Kings: The Matter of Aratta. Herman Vanstiphout. SBL:2003.
[OT:ETHB] The Earliest Text of the Hebrew Bible: The Relationship between the Masoretic Text and the Hebrew Base of the Septuagint Reconsidered. Adrian Schenker (ed). SBL:2003.
[OT:EWTDMI] The Encounter with the Divine in Mesopotamia and Israel. HWF Saggs. UlondonAthlonePress:1978.
[OT:EXR] Exodus Retold: Ancient Exegesis of the Departure from Egypt in Wis 15-21 and 19:1-9. Peter Enns. SBL:1997.
[OT:FAA] Fictional Akkadian Autobiography: A Generic and Comparative Study. Tremper Longman III. Eisenbrauns:1991.
[OT:FAI] Families in Ancient Israel, L.G. Perdue, Blenkinsopp, John J. Collins, Carol Meyers, WJK:1997.
[OT:FBA] The Future of Biblical Archaeology: Reassessing Methodologies and Assumptions. Hoffmeier and Millard (eds). Eerdmans:2004.
[OT:FBM] The Five Books of Moses, Everett Fox (trans), Schocken: 1995.
[OT:FBTJ] From Balaam to Jonah: Anti-Prophetic Satire in the Hebrew Bible. David Marcus. SBL:1995.
[OT:FETS] From Ebla to Stellenbosch: Syro-Palestinian Religions and the Hebrew Bible. Izak Cornelius and Louis Jonker (eds). Harrassowitz-Verlag:2008.
[OT:FHiero] Fascinating Hieroglythics: Discovering, Decoding, and Understanding the Ancient Art, Christian Jaq, Sterling:1996.
[OT:FRIB] Family Religion in Babylonia, Syria, and Israel. Karel van der Toorn. Brill:1996.
[OT:FRJ] The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem–Judah under Babylonian Rule. Oded Lipschits. Eisenbrauns:2005.
[OT:FSN] The Final Sack of Nineveh. John Malcolm Russell. Yale:1998.
[OT:GA] Gilgamesh and Akka. Dina Katz. Styz:1993.
[OT:GBH] A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Paul Jouon and T Muraoka. EditricePontificioIstitutoBiblico(Roma):2006.
[OT:GCDSS] Graphic Concordance to the Dead Sea Scrolls, James H Charlesworth, WJK:1991.
[OT:GEN1] The Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins Debate. John Walton. IVP:2009.
[OT:GGIG] Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel. Othmar Keel and Christoph Uehlinger. Fortress:1998.
[OT:GOE] The Gods of Egypt. Claude Traunecker. Cornell:2001.
[OT:HAE] A History of Ancient Egypt. Nicolas Grimal. Barnes&Noble/Blackwell:1994.
[OT:HAILXX] Hebrew/Aramaic Index to the Septuagint, Keyed to the Hatch-Redpath Concordance. Takamitsu Muraoka, Baker:1998.
[OT:HBW] Homicide in the Biblical World. Pamela Barmash. Cambridge:2005.
[OT:HHWAI] History and Historical Writing in Ancient Israel: Studies in Biblical Historiography. Tomoo Ishida. Brill:1999.
[OT:HIBAJW] A History of Israel from the Bronze Age through the Jewish Wars. Walter C. Kaiser Jr., Broadman and Holman: 1998.
[OT:HLAE] Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt, Rosalie David, FactsonFile:1998.
[OT:HLBT] Hebrew Law in Biblical Times, Ze’ev Falk, Eisenbrauns:2001(2nd ed).
[OT:HLTTG] Hammurabi’s Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary. M. E. J. Richardson. SheffieldAcademic:2000.
[OT:HP] Hittite Prayers. Itamar Singer. SBL:2002.
[OT:HPI] A History of Prophecy in Israel, Joseph Blenkinsopp, WJK:1996 (revised and enlarged edition).
[OT:HVS] Hebrew Verse Structure. M. O’Connor, Eisenbrauns:1980/97. [the standard work]
[OT:HWBP] Handbook on the Wisdom Books and Psalms. Daniel J Estes. BakerAcademic:2005.
[OT:I] The Israelites, B.S.J. Isserlin, Thames and Hudson:1998.
[OT:IA] Introduction to the Apocrypha: Message, Context, and Significance. David deSilva. Baker:2002.
[OT:IAKOLI] Israel-Ancient Kingdom or Late Invention? Daniel L Block (ed). BnHacademic:2008.
[OT:IBHS] An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Bruce Waltke and M. O’Connor, Eisenbrauns:1990.
[OT:IBPNSI] Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200-539 BCE. Lawrence Mykytiuk. SBL:2004.
[OT:ICWS] The Invention of Cuneiform: Writing in Sumer. Jean-Jaques Glassner. JohnsHopkins:2000/2003 (trans)
[OT:IGAMM] Is God a Moral Monster–Making Sense of the Old Testament God. Paul Copan. Baker:2011.
[OT:IIE] Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition, James K. Hoffmeier, Oxford: 1997.
[OT:ILAN] Implied Law in the Abraham Narrative. James Bruckner. Sheffield/JSOT:2001
[OT:ILANE] Intellectual Life of the Ancient Near East. Jiri Prosecky (ed.). Oriental Institute (Prague):1998.
[OT:INW] The Image of the Netherworld in the Sumerian Sources. Dina Katz. CDL:2003.
[OT:IOT2] An Introduction to the Old Testement, Revised Edition. Tremper Longman III and Raymond B Dillard. Zondervan:2006.
[OT:IPIWR] Interested Parties: The Ideology of Writers and Readers of the Hebrew Bible. David J.A. Clines. JSOT/Sheffield:1995.
[OT:IRI] The Implied Reader in Isaiah 6-12. Archibald van Wieringen. Brill:1998.
[OT:ISH] Insearch of History: Historiography in the Ancient World and the Origins of Biblical History, John Van Seters, Eisenbrauns: 1997.
[OT:ISL] Introduction to the Semitic Langauges: Text Specimens and Grammatical Sketches, Gotthelf Bergstrasser (trans. and notes. By Peter T. Daniels), Eisenbrauns:1983 (original text in 1928)
[OT:ISOE] In the Shelter of Elyon: Essays on Ancient Palestinian Life and Literature. Barrick and Spencer (eds). JSOT:1984.
[OT:ISPEI] In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel. John Day (ed). TTClark:2004.
[OT:ITB] In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew Language. Joel Hoffman. NYU:2004.
[OT:ITUVD] Influences and Traditions Underlying the Vision of Daniel 7:2-14–the Research History from the End of the 19th Century to the Present, Jurg Eggler, UFribourg:2000.
[OT:IVI] Intertextuality in Ugarit and Israel. Johannes de Moor (ed). Brill:1998.
[OT:JIBA] Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period. Andrew Vaughn and Ann Killebrew (eds). SBL:2003.
[OT:JRSP] Joshua Retold: Synoptic Perspectives. A. Graeme Auld. T&T Clark:1998.
[OT:JUS] Joel’s Use of Scripture and the Scripture’s Use of Joel: Appropriation and Resignification in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity. John Strazicich. Brill:2007.
[OT:KH] The Kingdom of the Hittites. Trevor Bryce. Clarndon/Oxford:1998.
[OT:KP] Kingdom of Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel. Eugene Merrill. Baker:1987/96.
[OT:LABS] State Archives of Assyria, Vol X: Letters from Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars. Simo Parpola. Helsinki UP:1993.
[OT:LAE] Letters from Ancient Egypt, Edward Wente, ScholarsPress:1990.
[OT:LAL] Leviticus as Literature. Mary Douglas. Oxford:1999.
[OT:LC10] Literate Culture and Tenth-Century Canaan: The Tel Zayit Abecedary in Context. Ron Tappy and P Kyle McCarter Jr (eds). Eisenbrauns:2008.
[OT:LEM] Letters from Early Mesopotamia, Piotr Michalowski, ScholarsPress:1993.
[OT:LFHK] Letters from the Hittite Kingdom. Harry Hoffner Jr. SBL:2009.
[OT:LIANE] Life in the Ancient Near East, 3100-332 BCE, Daniel C. Snell, Yale:1997.
[OT:LLIB] Law, Legend, and Incest in the Bible—Leviticus 18-20. Calum Carmichel. Cornell:1997.
[OT:LPKEA] Letters from Priests to the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal. Steven Cole and Peter Machinist (eds). HelsinkiUP:1998.
[OT:LSOT] The Literary Structure of the Old Testament: A Commentary on Genesis-Malachi. David Dorsey. Baker:1999.
[OT:LXXI] LXX-Isaiah as Translation and Interpretation: The Strategies of the Translator of the Septuagint of Isaiah. Ronald Troxel. Brill:2008.
[OT:MAB] Mesopotamia and the Bible: Comparative Explorations. Mark Chavalas and K. Lawson Younger. Baker:2002.
[OT:MALXX] Messianism and the Septuagint–Collected Essays by J Lust. K Hauspie (ed). LeuvenUP:2004.
[OT:Mari] Mari and the Bible. Abraham Malamat. Brill:1998.
[OT:MASW] The Messenger in the Ancient Semitic World. Samuel A. Meier. Harvard/Scholars Press:1988.
[OT:MC] Mesopotamian Chronicles. Jean-Jacques Glassner. SBL:2004.
[OT:MCR] The Myth of Cosmic Rebellion: A Study of its Reflexes in Ugaritic and Biblical Literature. Hugh Rowland Page Jr. Brill:1996.
[OT:MIC] Mesopotamia—The Invention of the City. Gwendolyn Leick. Penguin:2001.
[OT:MM] Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Stephanie Dalley. Oxford:1989.
[OT:MPHB1] Major Poems of the Hebrew Bible at the Interface of Hermeneutics and Structural Analysis (vol 1). J. P. Fokkelman. Van Gorcum:1998.
[OT:MPP] Military Practice and Polemic: Israel’s Laws of Warfare in Near Eastern Perspective. Michael G Hasel. AndrewsUP:2005.
[OT:NAZE] Noah’s Ark and the Ziusudra Epic. Robert Best. Enlil Press:1999.
[OT:NSBG] New Studies in Bereshit Genesis. Nehama Leibowitz & Aryeh Newman (trans). Haomanim Press/Eliner Library (Israel): n.d.
[OT:ORNEI] The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age. Walter Burkert. Harvard:1992.
[OT:OROT] On the Reliability of the Old Testament. K A Kitchen. Eerdmans:2003.
[OT:OTDATRR] The Old Testament Documents: Are They Reliable and Relevant?, Walter C. Kaiser, Jr. IVP:2001.
[OT:OTOT] The Old Testament of the Old Testament: Patriarchal Narratives and Mosaic Yahwism, R.W.L. Moberly, Fortress:1992.
[OT:OTPFOC] Old Testament Prophecy: From Oracles to Canon, by Ronald E. Clements, WJK:1996.
[OT:OWWW] Oral World and Written Word, Susan Niditch, WJK:1996.
[OT:PAB] Persia and the Bible, Edwin Yamauchi, Baker:1990/1996.
[OT:PAI] Priesthood in Ancient Israel. William Millar. Chalice:2001.
[OT:PIT] The Philistines in Transition: A History from ca 1000-730 bce. Carl Ehrlich. Brill:1996.
[OT:POU] A Primer on Ugaritic: Language, Culture, and Literature. William Schniedewind and Joel Hunt. CambridgeUP:2007.
[OT:PPANE] Prophets and Prophecy in the Ancient Near East. Martti Nissinen. SBL:2003.
[OT:PPC] Peoples of the Past–Canaanites. Jonathan N. Tubb. Univ. of Oklahoma Press:1998.
[OT:ProvSIBI] Proverbs 1-9: A Study in Inner-Biblical Interpretation. Scott Harris. SBL:1995.
[OT:PRSA] A Prophet Reads Scripture: Allusion in Isaiah 40-66. Benjamin D. Sommer. Standford:1998.
[OT:PSIB] Political Satire in the Bible, Ze’ev Weisman, SBL:1998.
[OT:PTLTR] Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, K. A. Kitchen, Aris and Philips: 1982.
[OT:PW] The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies, and Trade, Maria Eugenia Aubet (trans. Mary Turton), CambridgeUpress:1993.
[OT:PWVDM] Pharaoh’s Workers: The Villagers of Deir El Medina, Lenard Lesko (ed), Cornell:1994.
[OT:RAI] The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches. Ziony Zevit. Continuum/Zevit:2001.
[OT:RAIHC] The Reshaping of Ancient Israelite History in Chronicles. Isaac Kalimi. Eisenbrauns:2005.
[OT:RBE] A Reassessment of Biblical Elohim. Joel S Burnett. SBL:2001.
[OT:RDAIJ] Religious Diversity in Ancient Israel and Judah. Francesca Stavrakopoulou and John Barton (eds). TTClark:2010.
[OT:RFT] Remember the Former Things: The Recollection of Previous Texts in Second Isaiah. SBL:1997.
[OT:RIAM] Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia, Jean Bottero, Uchicago:2001.
[OT:RSOT] Reading Scripture in the Old Testament. G. J. Venema. Brill:2004.
[OT:RST] Rewriting the Sacred Text: What the Old Greek Texts Tell Us about the Literary Growth of the Bible. Kristin De Troyer. SBL:2003.
[OT:RTL] Reading the Lines: A Fresh Look at the Hebrew Bible. Pamela Tamarkin Reis. Hendrickson:2002.
[OT:SAAS7] State Archives of Assyria Studies Volume VII: References to Prophecy in Neo-Assyrian Sources, Martti Nissinen, Helsinki:1998.
[OT:SAAS9] State Archives of Assyria Studies Volume IX: Assyrian Prophecies, Simo Parpola, Helsinki:1997.
[OT:SAR] Septuagint and Reception. Johann Cook (ed). Brill:2009.
[OT:SAS] The Scribes and Scholars of the City of Emar in the Late Bronze Age. Yoram Cohen. Eisenbrauns:2009.
[OT:SATROTE] Story as Torah: Reading the Old Testament Ethically, Gordon J. Wenham, TTClark:2000.
[OT:SATS] Sumer and the Sumerians. Harriet Crawford. Cambridge:1991.
[OT:SBEG] State Archives of Assyria Cuneiform Texts, volume I: The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. Simo Parpola. Helsinki UP:1997. (Cuneiform only-NO translation!)
[OT:SBL] Studies in Biblical Law: From the Hebrew Bible to the Dead Sea Scrolls. Gershon Brin (Jonathan Chipman, trans). Sheffield:1994.
[OT:SCMHB] Scribal Culture and the Making of the Hebrew Bible. Karel van der Toorn. HarvardUP:2007.
[OT:SEML] Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature. Gwendolyn Leick. Routledge:1994.
[OT:SHB] Spelling in the Hebrew Bible, Francis Andersen and A. Dean Forbes, Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute: 1986.
[OT:SOG] The Suffering of God: An Old Testament Perspective. Terence E Fretheim. Fortress:1984.
[OT:SPN] Studies in the Personal Names of Genesis 1-11. Richard Hess. Eisenbrauns:2009.
[OT:SQVP] The Search for Quotation: Verbal Parallels in the Prophets. Richard L. Schultz. JSOTS:1999.
[OT:SSMJ] Scribes and Schools in Monarchic Judah: A Socio-Archeological Approach, David Jamieson-Drake, Almond Press:1991.
[OT:SWAI] Social World of Ancient Israel 1250-587 BCE. Victor Matthews and Don Benjamin. Hendrickson:1993.
[OT:SWHP] Social World of the Hebrew Prophets. Victor Matthews. Hendrickson:2001.
[OT:TACHB] Texts and Canon of the Hebrew Bible: Collected Studies. Shemaryahu Talmon. Eisenbrauns:2010.
[OT:TAE] Temples of Ancient Egypt, Byron E. Shafer (ed.), Cornell:1997
[OT:TCG] The Chronicler’s Genealogies: Towards an Understanding of 1 Chronicles 1-9. James Sparks. SBL:2008.
[OT:TCHB] Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, Emanuel Tov, Fortress:1992.
[OT:TCHB2] Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (2nd rev. ed). Emanuel Tov. Fortress:2001.
[OT:TCHW] Torah and the Chronicler’s History Work. Judson Shaver. SBL:1989.
[OT:TE] The Egyptians, Sergio Donadoni (ed), Uchicago:1997.
[OT:THTO] The Harps That Once…Sumerian Poetry in Translation. Thorkild Jacobsen. Yale:1987.
[OT:TIPE] The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, K.A. Kitchen, Aris&Philips: 1986, London.
[OT:TLOAS] The Literature of Ancient Sumer. Jeremy Black, Graham Cunningham, Eleanor Robson and Gabor Zolyomi (trans/intro). OUP:2004.
[OT:TPI] The Prophecy of Isaiah, J. Alec. Motyer, IVP:1993.
[OT:TROI] The Religion of Israel: From Its Beginnings to the Babylonian Exile. Yehezkel Kaufman and Moshe Greenberg (trans). Schocken:1960.
[OT:TT] A Test of Time, David Rohl, Arrow/Random:1995.
[OT:UEGT] Under Every Green Tree: Popular Religion in Sixth-Century Judah. Susan Ackerman. Eisenbrauns:2001.
[OT:VG] The Vengeance of God, H.G.L. Peels, Brill:1995.
[OT:WALWAI] Writing and Literacy in the World of Ancient Israel: Epigraphic Evidence from the Iron Age. Christopher A Rollston. SBL:2010.
[OT:WBCMPS] War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage. Lawrence H. Keeley. Oxford:1996.
[OT:WDBWK] What did the Biblical Writers Know & When did they Know it?, William G. Dever, Eerdmans:2001.
[OT:WHAE] Wit and Humor in Ancient Egypt. Patrick Houlihan. Rubicon:2001.
[OT:WIAG] What is a God?–Anthropomorphic and Non-Anthropomorphic Aspects of Deity in Ancient Mesopotamia. Barbara Nevling Porter (ed). CascoBay:2009.
[OT:WIAI] Worship in Ancient Israel–An Essential Guide. Walter Brueggemann. Abingdon:2005.
[OT:WLMI] Wisdom Literature in Mesopotamia and Israel. Richard Clifford (ed). SBL:2007.
[OT:WOG] The Writing of Gods: The Evolution of Divine Classifiers in the Old Kingdom. Racheli Shalomi-Hen. HarrassowitzVerlag:2006.
[OT:WOT] A Whirlpool of Torment: Israelite Traditions of God as an Oppressive Presence. James Crenshaw. SBL:2008.
[OT:WSIANEP] Writings and Speech in Israelite and Ancient Near Eastern Prophecy, Ehud Ben Zvi and Michael Floyd (eds), SBL:2000.
[OTEC] The Old Testament in Early Christianity: Canon and Interpretation in the Light of Modern Research, E. Earle Ellis, Baker: 1991.
[OTP] The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (2 vols), Charlesworth (ed), Doubleday: 1983.
[OTPs] Old Testament Parallels, Matthews and Benjamin, Paulist: 1991, 276.
[OWC] Old World Civilizations–the Rise of Cities and States, Goran Burenhult, gen. ed. Harper/American Museum of Natural History: 1994.
[PAC] Pagans and Christians, Robin Lane Fox, HarperCollins: 1986.
[PAK] Pharoahs and Kings, David Rohl, Crown: 1995.
[PANE1] The Ancient Near East, Vol I: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures, Pritchard, Princeton: 1958..
[PANE2] The Ancient Near East, Vol II: A New Anthology of Texts and Pictures, Pritchard, Princeton: 1975.
[Pauly] Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopedia of the Ancient World. Cancik/Scheider (ed. Germam) and Christine Salazar/David Orton (ed. English). Brill:2002 and on-going.
[PC] Paul the Convert, Alan F. Segal, Yale: 1990.
[PCE] The Pentateuch in Its Cultural Environment. Livingston, Herbert G., Baker, 1974.
[PCE2] The Pentateuch in Its Cultural Environment (2nd Ed). Livingston, Herbert G., Baker, 1987.
[PCSue] Suetonius: The Twelve Caesars, Penguin Classics.
[PCTAIR] Tacitus: The Annals of Imperial Rome, Penguin Classics.
[PCTTH} Tacitus: The Histories, Penguin Classics.
[PE] Prophets and Emperors: Human and Divine Authority from Augustus to Theodosius, David Potter, Harvard: 1994.
[PFJFC] Paul–Follower of Jesus or Founder of Christianity?, David Wenham, Eerdmans: 1995.
[PH:APJ] Atheism: A Philosophical Justification. Michael Martin. Temple:1990.
[PH:ASO] A Social Ontology. David Weissman. Yale:2000.
[PH:ATMS] Animals and Their Moral Standing, Stephen R.L. Clark, Routledge:1997.
[PH:Audi2] Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge, Routledge:1998.
[PH:AVN] Alienation and Value-Neutrality. AJ Loughlin. Ashgate(UK):1998.
[PH:BE] Bayesian Epistemology. Luc Bovens and Shephan Hartmann. OxfordUP:2003.
[PH:BTS] Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. Daniel Dennett. Viking:2006.
[PH:CDE] Contemporary Debates in Epistemology. Matthias Steup and Ernest Sosa (eds). Blackwell:2005.
[PH:CEPR] A Concise Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Religion. Anthony Thiselton. BakerAcademic:2002.
[PH:CGBT] Can God be Trusted? Faith and the Challenge of Evil. John G. Stackhouse, Jr.Oxford:1998.
[PH:CGBT2] Can God be Trusted? Faith and the Challenge of Evil (2nd Ed). John Stackhouse. IVP:2009.
[PH:CPRE] Contemporary Perspectives on Religious Epistemology. Douglas Geivett and Brendan Sweetman (eds). Oxford:1992.
[PH:CWT1] Christianity and Western Thought: Volume 1, From the Ancient World to the Age of Enlightenment. Colin Brown. IVP:1990.
[PH:CWT2] Christianity and Western Thought—A History of Philosophers, Ideas & Movements (vol2), Faith and Reason in the 19th Century. Steve Wilkens and Alan Padgett. IVP:2000.
[PH:DDW] Divine Discourse: Philosophical Reflection on the Claim that God Speaks, Nicholas Wolterstorff, Cambridge:1995.
[PH:DH] Divine Hiddenness–New Essays. Daniel Howard-Snyder and Paul K. Moser (eds). Cambridge:2002.
[PH:DMT] Divine Motivation Theory. Linda Zagzebski. Cambridge:2004.
[PH:DNNHE] Dark Nature: A Natural History of Evil. Lyall Watson. Harper:1995.
[PH:DOMT] Dimensions of Moral Theory: An Introduction to Metaethics and Moral Psychology. Jonathan Jacobs. Blackwell:2002.
[PH:EAE] The Evidential Argument from Evil. Daniel Howard-Snyder. IndianaUP:1996.
[PH:EBIV] Epistemology: Becoming Intellectually Virtuous, W. Jay Wood, IVP:1998. (In the Contours of Christian Philosophy series)
[PH:EG] Eternal God: A Study of God without Time. Paul Heim. Oxford:1988.(Defends the logical coherence of a God “outside of” time.)
[PH:EIHVC] Evil: Inside Human Violence and Cruelty. Roy F Baumeister. Freeman:1997/99.
[PH:EIMT] Evil in Modern Thought: An Alternative History of Philosophy. Susan Neiman. Princeton:2004.
[PH:EOFRTB] Experience of God and the Rationality of Theistic Belief. Jerome Gellman. Cornell:1997.
[PH:EOT] The Epistemology of Testimony. Jennifer Lackey and Ernest Soa (eds). OxfordUP:2006.
[PH:EPHJ] Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment. Michal Bishop and JD Trout. OxfordUP:2005.
[PH:FAR] Faith and Rationality: Reason and Belief in God, Alvin Plantinga and Nicholas Wolterstorff (eds), NotreDame:1983.
[PH:FP2O] From Philo to Origen: Middle Platonism in Transition. Robert Berchman. SBL:1984.
[PH:FWPS] Free Will–A Philosophical Study. Laura Waddell Ekstrom. Westview/Perseus:2000.
[PH:GAE] God and Evil: An Introduction to the Issues. Michael L. Peterson. Westview:1998. (An excellent technical book on the POE in its various forms.)
[PH:GN] Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals, Frans De Waal, Harvard:1996. (Fascinating–field documentation of social cooperation in higher primates.)
[PH:GPT] Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon. FE Peters. NYUpress:1967.
[PH:GPV] The Greek Philosophical Vocabulary. JO Urmson. Duckworth:1990.
[PH:GTE] God the Evidence: The Reconciliation of Faith and Reason in a Postsecular World. Patrick Glynn. Forum/Prima:1997/99.
[PH:HEGG] Horrendous Evils and the Goodness of God. Marilyn McCord Adams. Cornell:1999.
[PH:HPSMF] How Postmodernism Serves My Faith: Questioning Truth in Language, Philosophy and Art. Crystal Downing. IVP:2006.
[PH:IDNT] In Defense of Natural Theology: A Post-Humean Assessment. James Sennett and Douglas Groothuis (eds). IVP:2005.
[PH:IEE] Issues in Evolutionary Ethics, Paul Thompson (ed.), SUNY:1995.
[PH:JRAW] Justice: Rights and Wrongs. Nicholas Wolterstorff. PrincetonUP:2008.
[PH:LWFW] Living Without Free Will. Derk Pereboom. Cambridge:2001.
[PH:MH] Metaphysical Horror. Leszek Kolakowski. UChicago:1988.
[PH:ML] Modal Logic. Patrick Blackburn, Maarten de Rijke, and Yde Venema. CambridgeUP:2001.
[PH:NewEncyPH] Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2nd Ed, 10vols). Donald Borchert (ed). Macmillian:2006.
[PH:NIML] A New Introduction to Modal Logic. GE Hughes and MJ Cresswell. Routledge:1996.
[PH:NLHU] The Nature and Limits of Human Understanding. Anthony Sanford (ed). T&TClark:2003.
[PH:ONN] Objectivity is Not Neutrality: Explanatory Schemes in History. Thomas Haskell. JohnsHopkins:1998.
[PH:OV] The Origins of Virtue: Human Instincts and the Evolution of Cooperation, Matt Ridley, Viking:1996.
[PH:PANTW] Philodemus and the New Testament World. John Fitzgerald, Dirk Obbink, and Glenn Holland (eds). Brill:2004.
[PH:PLIP] Putting Logic in its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief. David Christensen. OxfordUP:2004.
[PH:POER] The Problem of Evil (Oxford Readings in Philosophy). Marilyn McCord Adams and Robert Merrihew Adams (eds.). Oxford:1990.
[PH:POP] The Problem of Pain. C.S. Lewis. Simon/Schuster:1962
[PH:PTCD] Philosophical Theology and Christian Doctrine. Brian Hebblewaite. Blackwell:2005.
[PH:PTE] Probability and Theistic Explanation. Robert Prevost. Oxford:1990.
[PH:PVI] Political Visions and Illusions: A Survey and Christian Critique of Contemporary Ideologies. David T. Koyzis. IVP:2003.
[PH:RAA] Responsibility and Atonement. Richard Swinburne. OxfordUP:1989.
[PH:RE] Rethinking Evil: Contemporary Perspectives. Maria Pia Lara (ed). UCal:2001.
[PH:RHW] Reason for the Hope Within. Michael Murray (ed.). Eerdmans:1999. (Absolutely the best book I have read on philosophical apologetics ever! EVERY Christian college student should read this book carefully.)
[PH:RMPG] Why Believe? Reason and Mystery as Pointers to God. C. Stephen Evans. Eerdmans/IVP:1996.
[PH:ROC] The Revenge of Conscience: Politics and the Fall of Man. J. Budziszewski. Spence:1999.
[PH:SOG] The Science of God. Alister McGrath. Eerdmans:2004.
[PH:TCPPP] Truth or Consequences: The Promise and Perils of Postmoderism, Millard J. Erickson, IVP:2001.
[PH:TDD] The Dawkins Delusion: Atheist Fundamentalism and the Denial of the Divine. Alister and Joanna Collicutt McGrath. IVP:2007.
[PH:TEE] The Temptations of Evolutionary Ethics, Paul Lawrence Farber, UCpress:1994. (Excellent survey of the history of evolutionary ethics.)
[PH:TEG] The Elusive God: Reorienting Religious Epistemology. Paul K Moser. CambridgeUP:2008.
[PH:THP1] The Hellenistic Philosophers, Volume 1: Translations of the Principal Sources, with Philosophical Commentary. AA Long and DN Sedley. CambridgeUP:1987.
[PH:THP2] The Hellenistic Philosophers, Volume 2: Greek and Latin Texts with Notes and Bibliography. AA Long and DN Sedley. CambridgeUP:1987.
[PH:TLT] The Liar’s Tale: A History of Falsehood. Jeremy Campbell. Norton:2001.
[PH:TMP] The Middle Platonists: 80 BC to AD 220. John Dillon. Duckword:1996(RevEd).
[PH:TOA] The Twilight of Atheism: The Rise and Fall of Disbelief in the Modern World. Alister McGrath. Doubleday-Galilee:2004/2006.
[PH:VE] Virute Ethics: A Critical Reader, Daniel Statman (ed.), EdinburghUpress:1997.
[PH:WAFF] Walking Away from Faith: Unraveling the Mystery of Belief and Unbelief. Ruth A. Tucker. IVP:2002.
[PH:WDWD] What Do W Deserve? A Reader on Justice and Desert. Louis Pojman and Owen McLeod (eds). OxfordUP:1999.
[PH:WOTH] Written on the Heart–The Case for Natural Law. J. Budziszewski. IVP:1997.
[PJC] On Pagans, Jews, and Christians, Arnaldo Momigliano, Wesleyan Univ. Press: 1987.
[PLG] The Preface to Luke’s Gospel–Literary convention and social context in Luke 1.1-4 and Acts 1.1, Loveday Alexander, Cambridge: 1993.
[PLW] Paul the Letter-Writer, Jerome Murphy-O’Connor, The Liturgical Press: 1995.
[PM] Parallel Myths, J.F. Bieflein, Ballantine: 1994.
[PM:PMF] Philosophical Myths of the Fall. Stephen Mulhall. PrincetonUP:2005.
[PMT] Postmodern Times: A Christian Guide to Contemporary Culture, Gene Edward Veith, jr., Crossway: 1994.
[POTT] Peoples of Old Testament Times D. J. Wiseman, ed. Oxford: 1973.
[POTW] Peoples of the Old Testament World; Hoerth, Mattingly, Yamauchi (eds.), Baker: 1994.
[PPDS] Priest, Prophets, Diviners, Sages, by Lester Grabbe, Trinity Press: 1995.
[PREC] Pagan Rome and the Early Christians, Stephen Benko, Indiana University Press: 1984.
[PRRE] Polybius: The Rise of the Roman Empire, Penguin Classics: 1979.
[PS:AHU] At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity, Stuart Kauffman, Oxford: 1995.
[PS:BAB] Boundaries and Barriers: On the Limits to Scientific Knowledge. JL Casti and Anders Karlqvist (eds). PerseusBooks:1996.
[PS:CAMW] Coming of Age in the Milky Way. Ferris, Timothy, Anchor, 1988.
[PS:DAC] A Different Approach to Cosmology: From a Static Universe through the Big Bang towards Reality. Fred Hoyle, Geoffrey Burbidge, and Jayant V. Narlikar. Cambridge:2000.
[PS:ES] The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the Scientific Age, John Horgan, Addison-Wesley: 1996.
[PS:IB] The Infamous Boundary: Seven Decades of Controversy in Quantum Physics, David Wick, Birkhauser: 1995.
[PS:ID] Intelligent Design, William A. Dembski, IVP:1999.
[PS:IQM] The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics by Roland Omnes. Princeton: 1994, 550pp.
[PS:IRPL] Inventing Reality: Physics as Language by Bruce Gregory, Wiley Science: 1990 (229pp).
[PS:MD] Maxwell’s Demon: Why Warmth Disperses and Time Passes, Hans Christian von Baeyer, Random:1998.
[PS:MT] The Mathematical Tourist (updated), Ivars Peterson, WH Freeman:1998.
[PS:NLU] The Non-Local Universe: The New Physics and Matters of the Mind. Robert Nadeau and Menas Kafatos. Oxford:1999.
[PS:PB] Paradigms and Barriers: How Habits of Mind Govern Scientific Beliefs. Howard Margolis. UChicago:1993.
[PS:SKSR] Schroedinger’s Kittens and the Search for Reality, John Gibbon, Little/Brown: 1995.
[PS:TES] The Edges of Science. Morris, Richard, Simon-Schuster, 1990.
[PS:TIC] Thinking in Complexity, K. Mainzer, Springer-Verlag: 1994.
[PS:TMM] The Matter Myth, Paul Davies and John Gribbin, Touchstone:1992.
[PsC] Pseudonymity and Canon, David G. Meade, Mohr (Siebeck): 1986 (Tubingen)
[PTS] The Place is Too Small for Us: The Israelite Prophets in Recent Scholarship, Robert P. Gordon (ed.), Eisenbrauns: 1995.
[PUT] Philosophy for Understanding Theology, Diogenes Allen, John Knox:1985.
[Q:Haleem] The Qur’an: A New Translation by MAS Abdel Haleem. Oxford:2004.
[RAMBAN] Ramban/Nachmanides’ Commentary on the Torah. Rabbi Chavel (trans). Shilo:1976 (5 vols).
[RC] Rhetorcial Criticism, Phyllis Trible, Fortress: 1994.
[REF:BB] Beyond Babel: A Handbook for Biblical Hebrew and Related Languages. John Kaltner and Steven L McKenzie (eds). SBL:2002.
[REF:DSSC1] The Dead Sea Scrolls Concordance, Volume One, Non-Biblical Texts from Qumran (Parts 1 and 2). Martin Abegg et. al. Brill:2003.
[REF:EBP] Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy: The Complete Guide to Scriptural Predictions and their Fulfillment, J. Barton Payne, Baker:1973.
[RF] Reasonable Faith, William Lane Craig, Crossway Books:1994.
[RFC] Reasonable Faith, Winfried Corduan, Broadman&Holman:1993.
[RG] The Redaction of Genesis, Gary A. Rendsburg, Eisenbraus:1986.
[RI] Risen Indeed–Making Sense of the Resurrection, Stephen T. Davis, Eerdmans: 1993.
[RJJ] The Religion of Jesus the Jew, Geza Vermes, Fortress: 1993.
[RKH] Introduction to the Old Testament. Harrison, R.K. , Eerdmans Publishing, 1969.
[RLRS] Roman Law and Roman Society in the New Testament, A.N. Sherwin-White, Oxford: 1963, reprinted Baker: 1992.
[RMML] Redating Matthew, Mark, and Luke by John Wenham, IVP: 1992.
[RNC] The Rise of Normative Christianity, Arland J. Hultgren, Fortress: 1994.
[RNE] The Roman Near East: 31BC – AD337, Fergus Millar, Harvard: 1993.
[ROC] The Rise of Christianity: A Sociologist Reconsiders History, Rodney Stark, Princeton: 1996.
[RPWAH] Reading Papyri, Writing Ancient History, Roger S. Bagnall, Routledge: 1995.
[RRB] Reason and Religious Belief by Peterson, Hasker, Reichenback, and Basinger, Oxford: 1991.
[RRE] The Religions of the Roman Empire, John Ferguson, Cornell:1970.
[RS] Related Strangers: Jews and Christians 70-170 C.E., Stephen G. Wilson, Fortress: 1995.
[RTG] ReThinking Genesis, Duane Garrett, Baker: 1991.
[RW] The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community, William McNeill, Univ. of Chicago:1991.
[SAI] The Sage in Israel and the Ancient Near East, John Gammie and Leo Perdue (eds.), Eisenbrauns: 1990.
[SC] The Supremacy of Christ, Ajith Fernando, Crossway: 1995.
[SC2] Scripture in Context II: More essays on the Comparative Method, Willaim Hallo, James Moyer and Leo Perdue (eds.), Eisenbrauns:1983.
[SCAP] The Synagoges and Churches of Ancient Palestine, Leslie Hoppe, The Liturgical Press: 1994.
[Schaff] History of the Christian Church, Philip Schaff, AP&A, 3 vols.
[SDFML] Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology, and Legend , Maria Leach (ed.), HarperRow: 1972.
[SHJ] Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research, Bruce Chilton and Craig Evans, eds. Brill: 1994.
[SOC:CPSE] Coercive Power in Social Exchange, Linda D. Molm, Cambridge:1997
[Soden] The Ancient Orient by Wolfram von Soden (translated by Schley), Eerd: 1994.
[SPI] The Synoptic Problem–An Introduction, Robert Stein, Baker: 1987.
[SPP] Sage, Priest, Prophet: Religious and Intellectual Leadership in Ancient Israel, Joseph Blenkinsopp, WJKP:1995.
[SS] The Scepter and the Star–The Messiahs of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Ancient Literature, John J. Collins, Doubleday: 1995.
[ST:CI] Characters of the Inquisition. William Thomas Walsh. Tan:1940.
[ST:CIEJS] Coversos, Inquisition, and the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. Norman Roth. UWisconsin:2002.
[ST:FI] Flesh Inferno: Atrocities of Torquemada and the Spanish Inquisition. Simon Whitechapel. Creation:2003.
[ST:I] Inquisition. Edward Peters. UCal:1988.
[ST:MS] The Marranos of Spain. B. Netanyahu. Cornell:1999 (3rd Ed).
[ST:OIFCS] The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain. B. Netanyahu. NewYorkReview:2001 (2nd Ed).
[ST:SIHR] The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. Henry Kamen. Yale:1997.
[ST:TDRRS] Tasting the Dish: Rabbinic Rhetorics of Sexuality. Michael Satlow. Scholars:1995.
[ST:TSI] The Spanish Inquisition. Cecil Roth. Norton:1964.
[ST:WII] Women in the Inquisition: Spain and the New World. Mary Giles (ed). JohnsHopkins:1999.
[STB] Sacrifice in the Bible, Roger Beckwith and Martin J. Selman, eds. Baker/Paternoster: 1995.
[STOT] The School Tradition of the Old Testament, E.W. Heaton, Oxford: 1994.
[Sumer] The Sumerians, C. Leonard Wooley, Norton:1965.
[SWWRT] The Sages: The World and Wisdom of the Rabbis of the Talmud., Ephraim E. Urbach. Harvard: 1975, trns. 1987.
[TAM] The Ancient Mysteries: A Sourcebook, Marvin Meyer (ed.), HarperCollins:1987.
[TANT] The Apocryphal New Testament: A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation based on M.R. James, J. K. Elliott’s, (Oxford: 1993)
[TAPA] Through the Ages in Palestinian Archeology, Walter E. Rast, Trinity Press: 1992.
[TAW] Smithsonian Timelines of the Ancient World, Chris Scarre, Dorling Kindersley: 1993.
[TC] Textual Criticism–Recovering the Text of the Hebrew Bible, McCarter (Jr), Fortress: 1986. pp.94.
[TCQ] Three Crucial Questions about Jesus, Murray J. Harris, Baker: 1994.
[TCS1] The Context of Scripture: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World, William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger, eds., Brill: 1997.
[TCS2] The Context of Scripture, vol 2: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World. Hallo and Younger (eds.). Brill:2000.
[TCS3] The Context of Scripture, vol 3: Archival Documents from the Biblical World. Hallo and Younger (eds.). Brill:2002.
[TDNT] Theological Dict. of the NT (Kittel)
[TDNTlittle] Theological Dict. Of the NT, Abridged (the “little Kittel”)
[TDOT] Theological Dict. of the OT
[TEAA] To Everyone and Answer: A Case for the Christian Worldview. Beckwith, William Lane Craig, Moreland (eds). IVP:2004.
[TEOM] To Each its Own Meaning: An Introduction to Biblical Criticisms and Their Application, Steven L. McKenzie and Stephen R. Haynes (eds.), WJKP: 1993.
[TFH] The First Historians: The Hebrew Bible and History, Baruch Halpern, Penn State: 1988.
[TGNTC] The Grace New Testament Commentary (2vols). Robert Wilkin (ed). GraceEvangSoc:2010.
[TH:3VEOE] Three Views on Eastern Orthodoxy and Evangelicalism. James Stamoolis (gen. ed.). Zondervan:2004.
[TH:ALPD] Angels of Light, Powers of Darkness. Stephen Noll. IVP:1998.
[TH:ATMAR] Arminian Theology: Myths and Realities. Roger E Olson. IVPacademic:2006.
[TH:BHP] The Bible and Homosexual Practice: Texts and Hermeneutics. Robert Gagnon. Abingdon:2001.
[TH:BMR] Black Man’s Regligion: Can Christianity be Afrocentric? Glenn Usry and Craig S. Keener, IVP:1996]
[TH:BW] Being White: Finding our Place in a MultiEthnic World. Paula Harris and Doug Sharp. IVP:2004.
[TH:CAJG] Christ and the Judgement of God: The Limits of Divine Retribution in New Testament Thought. Stephen Travis. HendricksonPaternoster:2008.
[TH:CSTH] Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. John Boswell. Uchicago:1980.
[TH:D] Deliverance: Psychic Disturbances and Occult Involvement (Second Edition). Michael Perry (ed). SPCK:1996..
[TH:DARNB] Divorce and Remarriage in the Bible: The Social and Literary Context. David Instone-Brewer. Eerdmans:2002.
[TH:DARNC] Divorce and Remarriage in the Church: Biblical Solutions for Pastoral Realities. David Instone-Brewer. IVP:2003.
[TH:DBF] Defending Black Faith: Answers to Tough Questions about African-American Christianity. IVP:1997.
[TH:DDECT] A Different Death: Euthanasia & the Christian Tradition. Edward J. Larson & Darrel W. Amundsen. IVP:1998.
[TH:DF4V] Divine Foreknowledge–Four Views. James Bielby and Paul Eddy (eds), IVP:2001.
[TH:DW] Diverse Worship: African-American, Caribbean & Hispanic Perspectives. Pedrite U. Mayard-Reid. IVP:2000.
[TH:EAE] Exclusion and Embrace: A Theological Exploration of Identity, Otherness, and Reconciliation. Abingdon:1996.
[TH:EB] The Eye of the Beholder: Deformity and Disability in the Graeco-Roman World. Robert Garland. Cornell:1995.
[TH:EC] The Elders of the City: A Study of the Elders-Laws in Deuteronomy. Timothy Willis. SBL:2001.
[TH:EIE] The Erosion of Inerrancy in Evangelicalism: Responding to New Challenges to Biblical Authority. GK Beale. Crossway:2008.
[TH:EJG] Evil and the Justice of God. NT Wright. IVP:2006.
[TH:EP] Election and Predestination: Keys to a Clearer Understanding. Samuel Fisk. Wipf and Stock:1997.
[TH:FASE] The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Neil M Gorsuch. PrincetonUP:2006.
[TH:FGT] Free Grace Soteriology. David R Anderson. Xulon:2010.
[TH:FO] The Faith of the Outsider–Exclusion and Inclusion in the Biblical Story. Frank Anthony Spina. Eerdmans:2005.
[TH:FOC] Free of Charge; Giving and Forgiving in a Culture Stripped of Grace. Miroslav Volf. Zondervan:2005.
[TH:FTC2] The Fire that Consumes: The Biblical Case for Conditional Immortality (rev.ed). Edward William Fudge. Paternoster:1994.
[TH:GAT4V] God and Time–Four Views. Gregory Ganssle (ed). IVP:2001.
[TH:GFFW] Grace, Faith, Free Will: Contrasting Views of Salvation–Calvinism and Arminianism. Robert Picirilli. RandallHouse:2002.
[TH:GTP] God the Peacemaker: How Atonement Brings Shalom. Graham Cole. IVP:2009.
[TH:HAS] Holiness and Sexuality–Homosexuality in a biblical context. David Peterson (ed). Paternoster:2004.
[TH:HB2V] Homosexuality and the Bible–Two Views. Dan Via and Robert Gagnon. Fortress:2003.
[TH:Heaven] Heaven–the Logic of Eternal Joy. Jerry Walls. Oxford:2002.
[TH:HFG] The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. Gerald Schroeder. FreePress:2001.
[TH:HHLHQ] Hell: A Hard Look at a Hard Question. David Powys. Paternoster:1997.
[TH:HITC] Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate. Jeffrey Siker (ed). WJK:1994.
[TH:HLD] Hell: The Logic of Damnation. Jerry L. Walls. UofNotreDame:1992.
[TH:HOFC] Historicism: The Once and Future Challenge for Theology. Sheila Greeve Davaney. Fortress:2006.
[TH:HVS] A High View of Scripture? The Authority of the Bible and the Formation of the New Testament Canon. Craig D Allert. Baker:2007.
[TH:HX] Homosexuality: The Use of Scientific Research in the Church’s Moral Debate. Stanton Jones and Mark Yarhouse. IVP:2000.
[TH:IBIGI] Is Believing in God Irrational? Amy Orr-Ewing. IVP:2008.
[TH:IMBDSS] Israel’s Messiah in the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Richard Hess and M Daniel Carroll R (eds). Baker:2003.
[TH:IML] Injustice Made Legal: Deuteronomic Law and the Plight of Widows, Strangers, and Orphans in Ancient Israel. Harold Bennett. Eerdmans:2002.
[TH:IMPCHS] In My Place Condemned He Stood: Celebrating the Glory of the Atonement. JI Packer and Mark Dever. Crossway:2007.
[TH:IRBE] The Idea of Retribution in the Book of Ezekiel. Ka Leung Wong. Brill:2001.
[TH:ITBI] Is the Bible Intolerant? Amy Orr-Ewing. IVP:2005.
[TH:ITMITT] Is There a Meaning in This Text? The Bible, The Reader, and the Moralityof Literary Knowledge. Kevin Vanhoozer. Zondervan:1998.
[TH:IWG] It was Good: Making Art to the Glory of God (rev/expanded). Ned Bustard (ed). SquareHaloBooks:2006.
[TH:JMCC] Jewish Messianism and the Cult of Christ. William Horbury. SCM:1998.
[TH:JOBW] The Joy of Being Wrong: Original Sin Through Easter Eyes. James Alison. HerderHerderCrossroad:1998.
[TH:JSB] The Jewish Study Bible. Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler (eds). JPS/Oxford:2004.
[TH:KHSOT] Knowing the Holy Spirit Through the Old Testament. Christopher JH Wright. IVPacademic:2006.
[TH:LFCE] Light from the Christian East; An Introduction to the Orthodox Tradition. James R Payton. IVP:2007.
[TH:MAD] The Modern Art of Dying: A History of Euthanasia in the United States. Shai J Lavi. PrincetonUP:2005.
[TH:MGOI] Metaphysics and the God of Israel: Systematic Theology of the Old and New Testaments. Neil B MacDonald. Baker/Paternoster:2006.
[TH:MIT] Method in Theology. Bernard Lonergan. UnivToronto:1971.
[TH:NCP] The New Chosen People: A Corporate View of Election. William W. Klein. Academie/Zondervan:1990.
[TH:NDET] New Dimensions in Evangelical Thought: Essays in Honor of Millard J. Erickson, David Dockery (ed), IVP:1998.
[TH:OSC] The Other Side of Calvinism (revised). Laurence M Vance. VancePubs:1999.
[TH:PAH] Prophecy and Hermeneutics: Toward a New Introduction to the Prophets. Christopher R Seitz. Baker:2007.
[TH:PB] Precious Blood: The Atoning Work of Christ. Richard Phillips (ed). Crossway:2009.
[TH:PDPP] Powers of Darkness: Principalities & Powers in Paul’s Letters. Clinton Arnold. IVP:1992.
[TH:PDREPG] The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in History, Jeffrey Burton Russell, Cornell:1988.
[TH:PFOT] Pierced For Our Transgressions: Rediscovering the Glory of Penal Substitution. Steve Jeffery, Michael Ovey and Andrew Sach. Crossway:2007.
[TH:PHTOT] Preaching Hard Texts of the Old Testament. Elizabeth Achtemeier. Hendrickson:1998.
[TH:POEC] Perspectives on an Evolving Creation: Keith Miller (ed). Eerdmans:2003.
[TH:POFHX] Portraits of Freedom: 14 People Who Came out of Homosexuality, Bob Davies and Lela Gilbert, IVP:2001.
[TH:QFT] The Quest for Truth: Answering Life’s Inescapable Quetions. F. Leroy Forlines. RandallHouse:2001.
[TH:RH] Razing Hell: Rethinking Everything You’ve Been Taught about God’s Wrath and Judgment. Sharon Baker. WJKP:2010.
[TH:SAC] Scripture as Communication: Introducing Biblical Hermeneutics. Jeannine K Brown. Baker:2007.
[TH:SAS] Science and the Soul: Christian Faith and Psychological Research. Scott W VanderStoep (ed). UnivPressOfAmerica:2003.
[TH:SAUBOC] Sex and Uncertainty in the Body of Christ: Intersex Conditions and Christian Theology. Susannah Cornwall. Equinox:2010.
[TH:SGA] The Spirit in the Gospels and Acts–Divine Purity and Power. Craig S. Keener. Hendrickson:1997.
[TH:SSTHR] Self and Self-Transformation in the History of Religions. David Shulman and Guy Stroumsa (eds). Oxford:2002.
[TH:SWH] Slaves, Women, and Homosexuals: Exploring the Hermeneutics of Cultural Analysis. William Webb. IVP:2001.
[TH:TBT] The Boswell Thesis: Essays on Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality. Mathew Kuefler (ed). Uchicago:2006.
[TH:TCFA] The Case for Angels. Peter Williams. Paternoster:2002.
[TH:TCS] The Clarity of Scripture. James Callahan. IVP:2001.
[TH:TGE] The Great Exchange: My Sin for His Righteousness. Jerry Bridges and Bob Bevington. Crossway:2007.
[TH:TGWR] The God Who Risks: A Theology of Providence, John Sanders, IVP:1998. (outstanding explication, and partial defense of the “openness of God” movement)
[TH:TGWR2] The God Who Risks–A Theology of Divine Providence (revised edition). John Sanders. IVP:2007 (2nd ed).
[TH:THFOG] The Human Faces of God: What Scripture Reveals When It Gets God Wrong–and Why Inerrancy Tries to Hide It. Thom Stark. WipfNStock:2011.
[TH:TKTP] To Kill and Take Possession: Law, Morality, and Society in Biblical Stories. Daniel Friedman. Eerdmans:2002.
[TH:TMC] The Torah—A Modern Commentary. W. Gunther Plaut (ed). Union of Hebrew Congregations:1981.
[TH:TMWC] The Meanings We Choose: Hermeneutical Ethics, Indeterminacy, and The Conflict of Interpretations. Charles Cosgrove (ed). TTClark:2004.
[TH:TNH] The Nature of Hell. The Evangelical Alliance. ACUTE:2000.
[TH:TSS] The Suffering Servant: Isaiah 53 in Jewish and Christian Sources. Bernd Janowski and Peter Stuhlmacher (eds). Eerdmans:2004.
[TH:TSST] Trinitarian Soundings in Systematic Theology. Paul Louis Metzger (ed). TTClark:2005.
[TH:TVH] Two Views of Hell: A Biblical and Theological Dialogue. Edward William Fudge and Robert A. Peterson. IVP:2000.
[TH:TWB] Theodicy in the World of the Bible. Antti Laato and Johannes de Moor (eds). Brill:2003.
[TH:TWF] The Way Forward? Christian Voices on Homosexuality and the Church. Timothy Bradshaw (ed). Eerdmans:2003 (2nd ed).
[TH:VHC] Violence, Hospitality, and the Cross–Reappropriating the Atonement Tradition. Hans Boersma. BakerAcademic:2004.
[TH:WBWWW] We Become What We Worship: A Biblical Theology of Idolatry. GK Beale. IVP:2008.
[TH:WDGK] What Does God Know, and When Does He Know It? Millard Erickson. Zondervan:2003.
[TH:WINC] Why I am Not a Calvinist. Jerry Walls and Joseph Dongell. IVP:2004.
[TH:WNHBT] Wounds Not Healed by Time: The Power of Repentance and Forgiveness. Solomon Schimmel. OUP:2002.
[TH:WWA] Wrestling with Angels. Kevin Sullivan. Brill:2004.
[TJL] The Jesus Legend, G.A. Wells, Open Court: 1996.
[TJQ] The Jesus Quest: The Third Search for the Jew of Nazareth, Ben Witherington III, IVP: 1995.
[TK] Two Kingdoms: The Church and Culture through the Ages, Clouse, Pierard, and Yamauchi, Moody:1993.
[TLNT] Theological Lexicon of the New Testament by Ceslas Spicq and translated by James D. Ernest. Hendrikson: 1982, trans 1994. 3 vols.
[TM] The Messiah: Developments in Earliest Judaism and Christianity, James Charlesworth (ed.), Fortress: 1992.
[TMOT] The Messiah in the Old Testament, Walter Kaiser, Jr., Zondervan: 1995, 256p.
[TNTCR] The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research, Ehrman and Holmes, eds., Eerdmans: 1995.
[TOB] The Other Bible, Willis Barnstone (ed.), Harper-Collins: 1984.
[TOH] The Timetables of History (3rd ed), Berhard Grun, Touchstone/Simon-Schuster: 1991.
[TRCRE] Trade Routes and Commerce of the Roman Empire, M.P. Charlesworth, Ares:1926(2).
[TRKW] Rekindling the Word: In Search of Gospel Truth, Carsten Peter Thiede, Trinity Press: 1995.
[TS] The Tablet and the Scroll: Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William W. Hallo, Cohen, Snell, Wiesberg (eds.), CDL Press:1993.
[TTC] The Twelve Caesars, Michael Grant, Barnes&Nobles: 1975.
[TTT] Tracing the Threads: Studies in the Vitality of Jewish Pseudepigrapha, John C. Reeves (ed.), Scholars Press: 1994.
[TWOT] Theological Wordbook of the OT (Waltke et. al)
[TYPOS] Typos, by Goppelt.
[UDNT] Unity and Diversity in the New Testament, James D.G. Dunn, Trinity/SCM: 1990 (2nd ed).
[UDWJ] Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus, Bivin and Blizzard, Destiny Image: 1994 (2nd ed).
[UG] The Unfinished Gospel: Notes on the Quest for the Historical Jesus, by Evan Powell, Symposium Books: 1994.
[VAI] Vital Apologetic Issues, Roy Zuck (ed.), Kregel:1995.
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[WAG] What are the Gospels: A comparison with Graeco-Roman Biography, Richard A. Burridge, Cambridge: 1992.
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[X03:JLFJM] Jewish Law from Jesus to the Mishnah. E.P. Sanders. SCM/Trinity:1990.
[X03:JLFJM2] Jewish Law from Jesus to the Mishnah: A Systematic Reply to Professor E.P. Sanders. Jacob Neusner. ScholarsPress:1993.
[X03:NTMSRHS New Testament Miracle Stories in the Religious-Historical Setting: A Religionsgeschichliche Comparison from a Structural Perspective, Wehner Kahl, Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994.
[X04:MECW] Miracle in the early Christian World: A study in sociohistorical method. Howard Clark Kee. Yale:1983.
[X04:PCCM] Pagan-Christian conflict over miracle in the second century. Harold Remus. Patristic:1983.
[XBI:1MACC] First Maccabees (intro). John Bartlett. Sheffield:1998.
[XBI:2ESDRAS] 2 Esdras (intro). Bruce Longenecker. Sheffield:1995.
[XBI:4MACC] Fourth Maccabees (intro). David de Silva. Sheffield:1998.
[XBI:AdamEve] The Life of Adam and Eve, and Related Literature (intro). Marinus de Jonge and Johannes Tromp. Sheffield:1997.
[XBI:AscIsa] The Ascension of Isaiah (intro). Jonathan Knight. Sheffield:1995.
[XBI:JosAsen] Joseph and Aseneth (intro). Edith Humphrey. Sheffield:2000.
[XBI:Jubilees] The Book of Jubilees (intro). James VanderKam. Sheffield:2001.
[XBI:Sirach] Sirach (intro). Richard Coggins. Sheffield:1998.
[XBI:Test12] Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Study Guide). Robert Kugler. Sheffield:2001.
[XBI:TobJud] Tobit and Judith (intro). Benedikt Otzen. Sheffield:2002.
[XBI:WisSol] Wisdom of Solomon (Study Guide). Lester Grabbe. TTClark:1997.
[XL] Extinct Languages. J. Friedrich, Dorset, 1957.
[ZIBBC] Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (4 vols). Clinton Arnold (ed). Zondervan:2002.
[ZIBBCOT] Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary: Old Testament. John Walton (ed). Zondervan:2009.
[ZPEB] Zondervan Pictorial Ency. of the Bible 1986.