Posted By Thomas Perez. June 5, 2011 at 5:57pm. Copyright 2011.
Schools of Thought
1. The first possibility is the thought that Cain married his sister. Those who uphold this theory claim that the Mosaic laws of forbidden incest was not (at this time) a factor to be reckoned with because the law was not itched in stone at that time. They use chapter 4:14 to justify this particular school of thought. Moreover, most have assumed that the ‘others’ whom Cain feared were his sisters and brothers already born, but not yet mentioned, or those yet to be born. This idea is based on the wording of 5:4, “and he (Adam) had sons and daughters”
2. The second school of thought is the proposition that God created others outside the Garden of Eden. To support this claim critical scholars in or about the 19th century have suggested that the Pentateuch, including Genesis, was compiled at a later date, perhaps in the 6th century BC. According to this analysis, anonymous editors used at least four documents to piece together the Pentateuch. However, just because something is compiled at a later date, is no reason to think that the actual date of the original recordings were at or around the same time frame of the 6th century. Remember, it was a compilation of sorts, not reflecting upon the actual historical authenticity.
The four documents were identified by tracing the divine names, such as Elohim and Yahweh, through the Pentateuch, and by tracing certain variations in phraseology and word choice. The 4 documents are called: The J Document, which uses Yahweh for God; The E Document, which uses Elohim for God; The P or Priestly Document; and The D Document or Deuteronomic Document. However, it is the J & P versions that we must concern our self with in reference to the question asked.
Within the two documents (J & P version), we have two separate creation accounts. In the P version we have the account of the creation as recorded in chapters 1 – 4: 4 (ending at the 1st half of vs. 4). In the J version we have the other recorded account of creation from chapter 4: 4 (the latter half of the verse) starting with the words…“In the day the Lord God made the Earth and the Heavens“, etc, and onward.
I tend to favor the second school of thought. Two documents, two different styles, two accounts of creation, yet one act of God in creation! Thus the second version (J version), we have the story of Adam and Eve, a particular story, a very important story because it is through this linage that the Messiah would come forth (Gen 3:15), as the second Adam to restore all things lost due to sin and death (I Cor 15: 45, 2 Cor 5:18-19).
One may argue two points. One objection would be the fact that the Bible teaches that it was Adam who sinned 1st, so if that is the case, then how can the sin of Adam effect all humanity outside of Adam, wouldn’t they have to sin also? The scripture that gives support for this objection is found in Rom 5:12 “Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for all have sinned”. The Greek word for passed in this instance is “dierchomai’, which denotes to pass through or over, to pierce through‘, to travel, walk through. Similar to a virus that travels in and through the air into the very fabric of life causing sickness, disease, and death. It is also interesting to note that everything was affected, even outside of Adam, such as the earth, ground, and universe. The cancer of sin had spread like a forest fire.
The second objection is the proposed argument in relation to the authorship of the Pentateuch. If this objection is valid then the supposed authorship pertaining to the book of Isaiah can also be drawn into discussion. Critical scholars have concluded that there were two or three different authors for the book of Isaiah. The first being called the so called Proto-Isaiah (or “first Isaiah”) covering chapters 1-39. The second is called Deutero-Isaiah (or “second Isaiah”), which covers Isaiah’s message to the discouraged exiles in Babylon – chapters 40-55. The rest of the book, chapters 56-66 addresses the controversies that surrounded the postexilic community in the second half of the 6th cent BC. Thus, this last section is called the Trito-Isaiah (or “third Isaiah”). Concerning the book of Isaiah, this school of thought is widely accepted now. Possibly various priests of Isaiah wrote and collaborated where Isaiah left off after his martyrdom by getting sawed in two.
However in relation to the Pentateuch, this much is certain as for Genesis, Moses, through the inspiration of The Holy Spirit used records that were handed down from previous generations from oral and possibly from pictorial illustrations. Sometimes these sources are identified (see 5:1). As for Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, they all had to do with his own life’s work, and in no doubt, were written under his own personal direction and that of Yahweh, except for the last chapter of Deuteronomy which recorded his death in the 3rd person, possibly Joshua (Ex 17:14, 24:4, 34:27, Num 17:2, 33:2, Deut 6:9, 24:1-3, 27: 3-4, 31:19, 24, 34:1-12).