Posted By Thomas Perez. June 15, 2010 at 11:32pm. Copyright 2010.
Question One: Were the New Testament Authors Influenced By Pagan Legends?
We have already seen that if the NT authors were influenced by pagan religions of the day, then they did not show it very well! The image painted of Jesus of Nazareth does not seem similar enough to the other possible religious figures to prompt us to suspect ‘borrowing’ or ‘dependence’. But to continue this study, I want to look now at the NT authors and ask the basic question of influences.
Question One: How would they have come in contact with these religions?
Question Two: Why might they have accepted some of these religious ideas (and correspondingly, interpreted Jesus in those categories)?
Question Three: What factors would have retarded their acceptance of these foreign-to-Judaism notions?
Question Four: Where there any public ‘checks and balances’ that would have hindered publication of these views by the early Christian community, even if a lone NT author would have accepted them?
Question Five: What does the literature and/or history they produced tell us about the views they accepted?
We will look at seven major authors in the NT: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Paul, James, Peter. (I will be using the position of the early church on authorship-I judge their “closer-to-the-data” testimony (and the Mss. Testimony) to be more likely to be true than our “modern” judgments based on ‘internal factors’.) I will also examine two related issues: (1) were there Jewish “legends” that might have influenced these writers (such as miracle-working holy men); and (2) did the gospel writers write ‘legendizing’ midrash?
Question One: How would he have come in contact with these religions?
What do we know about Matthew/Levi?
He was a tax-collector (customs official) in the small town of Capernum, in the country of Galilee.
So, what do we know about tax-collectors, Capernum, and Galillee, with regard to foreign influences?
In the time frame we are concerned with (basically, the lifespan of each reputed NT author prior to meeting Jesus-probably 15 BC To 30 AD), there were several different kinds of taxes levied in the different parts of Palestine. There were the Roman taxes on property and people (e.g. the poll-tax), there were the import/export customs on trade, there were regional/municipal levies, and there were religious taxes, such as the temple-tax.The Roman taxes were the responsibility of the head of state in each country, and the religious taxes were the responsibility of local groups throughout the world [JPB:52, 84,156]. However, customs taxes were auctioned/leased out to the highest bidder, and administered through a network [HJP:1.2.17, p.71ff]. In the case of Matthew, he was a lower level customs collector, probably from Capernaum, who reported up through a chain of command to Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee, who lived in the city of Tiberas. The proceeds from the toll went into Antipas’ pockets, not Rome’s-with the collectors pocketing a good bit of the overcharge themselves.Matthew would have had a toll-both on the major thoroughfare into Gaulanitis (Golan Heights) [SHJ:136]. Capernaum was connected via the Wadi Beth ha-Kerem to Acco-Ptolemais [NTSE:93], /from Tyre and the regions east of the Sea of Galilee-Philip’s territory and the Decapolis [GLA:16].
Tax-collectors were a wealthy lot, although they were ostracized by the local populace (probably) and religious authorities of Judaism (definitely). They had social connections with other tax-collectors (e.g. Mt 9:10: “While Jesus was having dinner at Matthew’s house, many tax collectors and ‘sinners’ came and ate with him and his disciples”), and would have had enough wide linguistic skills to maintain social contacts with other ‘outcasts’ such as Gentiles, certain types of herdsmen, and usurers.
On the other hand they were both despised by the locals and altogether rejected by the religious establishment of Jewry. Since they levied tariffs on even the basic necessities of life needed by the peasantry, they were despised by the locals [HFJ:229].
But it is the religious and civic rejection that is most striking in this case. The later Rabbinic writings (seeming to agree with the general picture of the Gospels) portray the religious establishment as rendering the tax-collector as almost impossible to save. Jeremias, in discussing the “despised trade lists” in the literature [JTJ:chapter 14], shows the almost irredeemable nature of tax-collectors [p. 310-311]:
“In the same way experience had shown that tax- collectors and publicans, whose post went to the highest bidder, together with their subordinates, almost always abused their position to enrich themselves by dishonesty. ‘For herdsmen, tax collectors and publicans is repentance hard’, it was once said (b. B.K. 94b Bar.). The reason was that they could never know every person they had injured or cheated, and to whom they must make amends.”
E.P. Sanders points out that this judgment was based on the conviction that these trades were usurious [HJ:34-35], and a radical violation of Leviticus 25.36-38.But it gets worse…The literature about tax-collectors (of all types, by the way) is almost unanimous in painting tax-collectors as greedy and dishonest, with only one exception by Josephus [HFJ:228-229]. In fact, in the Rabbinic material (Nedarim iii.4) it was okay for the common Jew to lie to one about his property (!), and beggars and merchants were not even supposed to take money from their cash-box (Baba kamma 10.1,2) [for discussion, see Schurer, HJP:1.2.17, p. 71, note 108].
But it gets worse yet…If the later rabbinic traditions DO have a substantial measure of applicability to the earlier setting we are discussing, then Jeremias’ discussion of ‘official’ viewpoints of tax-collectors points to abject civil rejection as well [JTJ:311-312]:
“Characteristically, linguistic custom associates tax-collectors and thieves (M. Toh. vii.6), publicans and robbers (M.B.K. x.2; b. Shebu. 39a Bar.; cf. Luke 18.II; M. Ned. iii.4; Derek eres 2); tax-collectors, robbers, money-changers and publicans (Derek eres 2); publicans and sinners (Mark 2.I5f; Matt. 9.10f.; Luke 5.30; Matt. 11.19 par. Luke 7.34; Luke 15.If) ; publicans and Gentiles (Matt. 18.17); publicans and harlots (Matt. 21.31f); extortioners, impostors, adulterers and publicans (Luke 18.11); murderers, robbers and taxgatherers (M. Ned. iii.4); indeed ‘publican’ was generally almost a synonym for ‘sinner’ (Luke 19.7). It was forbidden to accept alms for the poor or to use money for exchange, from ‘the counter of excise men or from the wallet of tax-gatherers’, for such money was tainted. If tax-collectors and publicans had belonged to a Pharisaic community before taking on the office, they were expelled and could not be reinstated until they had given up the posts (T. Dem. iii.4, 49; j. Dem. ii.3, 23a.10).””But men who followed the trades in list IV were not only despised, nay hated, by the people; they were de jure and officially deprived of rights and ostracized. Anyone engaging in such trades could never be a judge, and his inadmissibility as a witness put him on the same footing as a gentile slave (M.R. Sh. i.8). In other words he was deprived of civil and political rights to which every Israelite had claim, even those such as bastards who were of seriously blemished descent. This makes us realize the enormity of Jesus’ act in calling a publican to be one of his intimate disciples (Matt. 9.9 par; 10.3), and announcing the Good News to publicans and ‘sinners’ by sitting down to eat with them.”
On the other hand, we have no way of knowing to what extent these rabbinic admonitions and perspectives would have been shared by the populace of Capernaum – although, as Galileans they were certainly in conflict with other rabbinic traditions in other settings. Although only 5% of the Palestinian populace of the day was even associated with a “party” (i.e. Pharisee, Sadducee, Zealot, Essene) [NTF:90], the Pharisees played a very important part in public life, due largely to their close connection with country, lay-run synagogues [NTF:80, 85-86].But overall, we get a view of Matthew as a wealthy, unpopular, ostracized Jew in the town of Capernaum. His employer would have been Herod Antipas (not as bad as his predecessors, but not really popular at the time-see below). He would have not had access to the traditional Jewish cultic rituals that presupposed Jerusalem or official sanction (e.g. public feasts). As a highly literate individual (and probably selected for the post in part due to that), and as probably a Jew, he would have had perhaps better-than-average access to the biblical materials as well. His social circles would have been with “outcasts” (many wealthy and/or aristocratic and/or official personages).
What do we know about Capernaum at the time?
Population: Estimates range from “a thousand at most” [AHSG:114], to the standard estimate of 12-15K [SHJ:136], up to 20K [GLA:27]. It is understood to have been one of the most densely populated areas in the Roman world [SHJ:136]. This would have been a mixture of Jew and Gentile-but predominately Jewish-so Matthew presumably would have had access to gentiles as well [NTSE:83].
Economics: The economic conditions at the time were mixed. There was growth in the economy due to the economic expansion programs of Herod Antipas, but this would have also had a negative impact due to increased taxation. The principal export of the city was salted fish, with some grain and vegetable trade as well[SHJ:136]. The family of James and John, recruited by Jesus there, was apparently a large enough operation as to warrant hired help (Mark 1.19-20). As noted above, however, it was also a major boundary city between the various areas of the region, and as such, would have had an economy also influenced by distribution and export/import.
Organization: There are several indications of the internal organization and administration of the city.
The presence of a Roman military detachment. In Matthew 8.5 – and on, we read:
When Jesus had entered Capernaum, a centurion came to him, asking for help. 6 “Lord,” he said, “my servant lies at home paralyzed and in terrible suffering.” 7 Jesus said to him, “I will go and heal him.” 8 The centurion replied, “Lord, I do not deserve to have you come under my roof. But just say the word, and my servant will be healed. 9 For I myself am a man under authority, with soldiers under me. I tell this one, `Go,’ and he goes; and that one, `Come,’ and he comes. I say to my servant, `Do this,’ and he does it.” 10 When Jesus heard this, he was astonished and said to those following him, “I tell you the truth, I have not found anyone in Israel with such great faith.
This soldier would not actually have been a Roman centurion, but an auxilliary centurion, likely chosen from the surrounding areas of Caesarea and the Decapolis [RLRS:124; GLA:104], perhaps even commanding a group of Hellenistic-Jewish soldiers [EBC, in. loc. Matt 8.5] in service to Herod. On a border town, especially a major trade route, they would be a ‘peacekeeping’ force. There was a Roman road there, which typically had soldiers stationed there for police activities (e.g. retarding bandits and brigands) [Atlas of the Roman World, Facts on File:1982, p. 156-157].This centurion is painted in glowing terms by Luke (in his parallel account), in virtue of his attitude toward the Jews of the city, with the additional historical detail (Luke 7.2f):The centurion heard of Jesus and sent some elders of the Jews to him, asking him to come and heal his servant. 4 When they came to Jesus, they pleaded earnestly with him, “This man deserves to have you do this, 5 because he loves our nation and has built our synagogue.” 6 So Jesus went with them.
There is an interesting piece of archaeological data that illuminates this [BAFCSP:203-204]:
“Perhaps archaeology also has something to contribute. The splendid limestone synagogue visible today in Capernaum is to be dated to the end of the 4th century AD. But underneath the assembly hall lies a basalt building of the same ground plan. By means of the ceramics below the walls that earlier building was dated by S. Loffreda to the 3rd century AD. Exactly under the central nave of the two later buildings is located a pavement of basalt stones dating back to the 1st century AD. According to Loffreda we have here the remains of the centurion’s synagogue. Nearby, but separated by an uninhabited piece of land, V. Tsaferis found other houses of the 1st century AD. They were built in a better fashion than the houses of the main settlement, and one of them was a typical Roman bathhouse. We may think of the centurion living here, separated as a pagan mercenary (cf. Lk 7.6) from the Jewish village.”
Although in normal circumstances one could expect the Roman soldiers to be “missionaries” for the imperial cult (and in a century or two later, for the cult of Mithras), in the case of local militia/mercenaries, this would not typically be the case. Instead, they would be ‘carriers’ for the local religions of THEIR source of origin. In this case we have a centurion who was obviously impressed with the beauty and strength of the core Jewish faith.
A local administrator of Herod’s was there. In John 4.46ff we have the following account:
Once more he visited Cana in Galilee, where he had turned the water into wine. And there was a certain royal official whose son lay sick at Capernaum. 47 When this man heard that Jesus had arrived in Galilee from Judea, he went to him and begged him to come and heal his son, who was close to death. 48 “Unless you people see miraculous signs and wonders,” Jesus told him, “you will never believe.” 49 The royal official said, “Sir, come down before my child dies.” 50 Jesus replied, “You may go. Your son will live.” The man took Jesus at his word and departed. 51 While he was still on the way, his servants met him with the news that his boy was living. 52 When he inquired as to the time when his son got better, they said to him, “The fever left him yesterday at the seventh hour.” 53 Then the father realized that this was the exact time at which Jesus had said to him, “Your son will live.” So he and all his household believed.
The term ‘royal official’ probably refers to an officer of Herods (so Morris, NICNT: in.loc.). He was probably the local representative in Capernaum, overseeing the town and reporting up through the toparch intermediary (see below). He could very easily have been a Jew, but there is no indication one way or another in the passage. That he is called “royal” indicates a close connection with Herodian authority.
There was a synagogue there. Although early synagogues functioned both as religious centers and as “town halls” [AHSG:chapter 6], their presence is typically indicative of the influence of Pharisaism at his time. This would suggest that Jerusalem also had considerable influence and authority in the city.
There was Matthew, a customs official. This in itself indicated a large enough and important enough city to warrant a paid-employee of the hierarchy. This would have been true for any border town with significant enough trade routes to warrant a military presence.
There would have been a local village council, probably presided over by the royal official, to maintain order, taxation, judicial functions of a minor nature [GLA:67].
Jesus used it as a base of operations (Mk 1.29; 2.1; 7.17; 9.33-the home of Simon and Andrew). From this point, He made his travels into Galilean villages, Tyre and Sidon, the Greek free cities in the Decapolis, the Hellenistic cities in Philip’s region (e.g. Bethsaida), and Caesarea Philippi.
So, what do we know about Galilee?
The population was concentrated in small towns, rather than the big cities. “The vast majority of Jews in Jesus’ lifetime in Galilee, Transjordan, and Judea lived in small towns, not in the large cities such as Tiberias and Jerusalem” [NTSE:83].
The populace would have been predominately Jewish in religion. The Maccabees (c. mid 1st century BC) forced all the Gentiles in Palestine to either leave or convert to Judaism. The result was a predominantly Jewish cast to the culture, in most of the land [NTSE:82].
The Jews in the villages were generally alienated from the Jews living in the cities: “It remains true, however, that the Jews living in the towns of Capernum and Tarichaea were alienated from the Jews in the Greek cities of Sepphoris and Tiberias” [NTSE:104; SHJ:109, 118], with this being not altogether unrelieved [GLA:71].
Galilee had 204 villages, organized into 5 regions called toparchies, which reported into Herod Antipas, whose headquarters were in the city of Tiberias [BSNT:43ff]. The region was densely populated[GLA:55].
The capital of Galilee was Tiberias, although the only other large city-Sepphoris-constantly battled with it for the place of administrative preeminence [GLA:67 ]. They were both being either rebuilt or refurbished, adding to the tax burden of the area [SHJ:104].
The capital cities were predominately Jewish in populaton, but were thoroughly Hellenistic [SHJ:84; GLA:17; NTSE:90] in organization and administration. Herod build Tiberias on a graveyard and used animal figures as decorations-both practices were anathema to strict Jews-and forced Jews to live there (but compensated them with land grants) [SHJ:86, 89, 108f; GLA:17]. Sepphoris was a few miles northwest of Nazareth had all the features of a Hellenistic city-“including a theater, hippodrome, and temples” [GLA:15], although it was a “priestly city, populated by wealthy Jewish landowners who favored the Romans during the Jewish wars” [NTSE:92].
Galilee was surrounded by Hellenism: “As Hengel points out, Galilee was completely surrounded by hellenistic culture, with Acco-Ptolemais, Tyre and Sidon in the west and north-west, Panias-Caesarea Philippi, Hippos and Gadara in the north-east, east and south-east, and Scythopolis and Gaba in the south” [SHJ:135].
Hellenism had made considerable impact on Galilean trade, political organization, language, and commerce [SHJ:105; NTSE:89], but in matters of religion, the regular pilgrimage of Galileans to Jerusalem “demonstrates the religious and cultural loyalty of Galilean Jews to the Temple of Jerusalem” [NTSE:94]. Their loyalty to Jerusalem did NOT imply their acceptance of the full range of Pharisaic demands-for example, the rural populace simply did NOT observe their purity laws [NTSE:103]. So Martin [NTF:91]:
“The common people were alienated from official religion. No matter how much they admired the zeal of the Pharisees and were impressed by the grandeur of the temple ritual, accepting the religious regimen was, for the mass of them, an invitation to assume a heavy yoke.”
Exports were mainly the salted fish of Taricheae [SHJ:110], pottery from Kefar Hanania [SHJ:111], and oil [SHJ:82].
Imports typically came through Acco-Ptolemais, and originated in such regions as Babylon (beer), Egypt (barley beer, smoked fish, lentils, parchment, papyrus, jewelry), Bythinia (cheese), Spain (mackerel), Lydia (wines, asses), and Tyre (dye).
Given this background, which religious ideas would he have come in contact with?
Well, what are the possibilities?
Most historical reference works on this period/area do not mention the religions of the Far East as plausible candidates for ‘influence’. So John Ferguson, in his book The Religions of the Roman Empire [Cornell:1970] does not even list or discuss these religions as players. The only references to India and China are Post-Jesus (Apollonius, p. 51; and Basilides, p. 131). Likewise, NTSE surveys the practical options, describing three basic options in the core NT setting: Olympian deities (Greek/Roman gods), the Imperial Cult (“Emperor” worship), Mystery Religions (MR’s)-both Greek and Oriental-but does NOT list other ‘candidates’ such as Buddhism or Hinduism. And most of the references to ‘influence’ are too late for our period. So Frend, mentions Buddhist influences on Mani (early 3rd century AD heretic) and on Clement of Alexandria (same time period) [FRC:315ff; 372]. His quote about Clement shows that this situation was a novel one for the West, and one that by its time-frame, would not have been operative in NT times [p.372]:
“Nonetheless, Clement’s ideal would not have been unacceptable to his Gnostic opponents and seemed even to be more Buddhist than Christian. His knowledge of Indian religion, shown by his numerous if critical references to Indian customs and the correct distinction he bade between the Brahmins and Sarmanians, may be more relevant to his outlook than is sometimes admitted. The early third century saw strong links being made between the Roman Empire and India and these links affected thought as well as trade.”
The Silk and Spice routes flourished in the 1st few centuries AD (largely through Egypt) [Atlas of the Greek World, Facts on File, page 186].
The interplay between the Greek/Roman empires and the regions/religions of the Far East is a very, very complex one.
The situation for China is perhaps the easiest to understand [RW:304]:
“Until the opening of the Silk Road in the first century B.C., communication across the land and sea spaces between China and western Asia was too slight to leave traces at either end.”
The situation with Indian thought is a bit more complex but may be summarized under the following ideas:
Greek colonies are known to have existed in India at least since the time of the Buddha in the 6th century B.C. The Buddha actually refers to the Greeks in a discourse in the Middle Length Sayings, as he is trying to convince someone against a fixed caste system [WR:AW:3].
Prior to Alexander the Great’s invasion of northern India in 327 BC, what little exchanges had occurred between East and Mid-East was confined to the Indus Valley, and was probably trade-based [RW:298-9]. Alexander’s invasion brought Hellenism to India during the rise of the brilliant Mauryan empire (322-185bc) in Northern India, and had significant impact on the upper class and urban segments. So, McNeill [RW:298]:
“On the whole, diffracted elements of Hellenistic civilization attracted a larger share of favorable attention than did the achievements of any of the other cultures of the world between 200 B.C. and 200 A.D. The history of art gives the clearest evidence for this; for both Indian and Chinese art styles of the period were profoundly affected by Greek sculpture. In religion and in science, a parallel, though less striking, process may be detected. Mahayana Buddhism, for example, shows influence of Hellenistic religious conceptions, while Indian and Chinese astronomy and astrology appropriated numerous Hellenistic elements, though important local differences of course remained.”
And again [RW:304]:
“To sum up: India’s development to the time of Alexander’s invasion appears to have pursued lines laid down at the beginning of the fifth century or before. With the new intimacy between India and the hellenistic world that resulted from Alexander’s venture, and with the rise of the ‘philhellenic’ Mauryan dynasty within India itself, new, though still comparatively superficial, foreign influences upon Indian society became apparent. The royal court patronized a westernizing art style, and perhaps promulgated Greco-Iranian patterns of administration and political theory.”
We know, for example, of an early Buddhist sculptor in Gandhara (now Pakistan) who copied in stone a scene from a sub-Homeric epic showing the wooden horse at the fall of Troy-which he used as a miracle of the Buddha. Similarly, we have a silver cup from Tibet “of the finest post-Greek workmanship” with a scene on it which began life as an illustration to Euripides [Atlas of the Greek World, p. 189].
Although the most significant cultural impact was eastward, from the Greeks to the Indians, there was also a brief spurt of knowledge flow that went from India to Greece in the subsequent period.
After Alexander died, his empire divided into several pieces-one of which was called the Seleucid dynasty. In spite of the fact that the Seleucid and Mauryan dynasties were border-competitors, they still had a great deal of friendly interchange between them, and the first two kings of the Mauryan dynasty are referred to in Greek sources. The peace treaty between them in 303 BC included a marriage alliance, and Seleucus’ ambassador Megasthenes lived for 10 years and traveled extensively in the Mauryan empire [WR:HI:71] during the reign of the founding king Chandragupta (Sandrocottos in the greek). Megasthenes gathered huge amounts of information about India and wrote a book (which is lost), many parts/information of which are preserved in the writings of Strabo, Arrian, and Diodorus [HSC:197].There were two other Greek-oriented contacts made with that empire-the 2nd Seleucid ambassador Deimarchos, and Dionysios an envoy from Ptolemaios Philadelphos-but neither of these left any writings [HSC:198]. Any information about religious practices of India at this point would have been concerning the brahmanical system. So Bachelor in WR:AW:7-8:
“Megasthenes lived for an entire decade in the heartland of the Buddha’s dispensation, less than two hundred years after the Buddha’s death-but there is no mention in the Indika of Buddhist monks. At the time of Megasthenes, Buddhism was a small sect with no influential followers. Chandragupta, a staunch upholder of brahmanical values, was certainly no Buddhist. And Kautilya, Chandragupta’s chief minister, fails to even mention Buddhism in his famous book on statecraft, the Arthashastra.” Yet within fifty years of Megasthenes’ departure from India Buddhism had exploded across the subcontinent as the imperial philosophy of Chandragupta’s grandson Ashoka. Europe, however, was to wait another fifteen hundred years (until 1255) before it received a first-hand report of Buddhism and its practices.”
The most famous of the three kings was the last-Ashoka. He was originally Hindu, but converted to Buddhist while on the throne. Although he is not mentioned in any greek sources, he “records having sent missions from India bearing his message of the victory of the Dharma [i.e. Buddhism in his life] to the Greek kings Antiochus II of Syria, Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) of Egypt, Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia, Magas of Cyrene and Alexander of Epirius…There is no mention in Western sources, however, of the arrival of any such missions.” [WR:AW:9]. Until his death in 232 BC, he maintained frequent communications with the south and the west [WR:HI:73], even sending missionaries to Ceylon (definitely) and to the West (probably) [HSC:204]. As the data and quotes above show, there was some, but very sporadic and limited information about the religious content of proto-Hinduism transmitted to the West, and even less about Buddhism.
At this point in time, the window of exchange simply closes. The last two centuries B.C. saw the rise of the Parthian empire, which quickly became a barrier to cultural exchange. So HSC:521-2:
“The essential difference between the Parthian empire and the Seleucid one which it partly replaced lies in the fact that the Seleucid rulers were of Greek origin and the main champions of Hellenism in Asia, while the Arsacids were Scythians or Asiatics, who were not at all hypnotized by Greek culture.””All considered, it would seem that the Parthian empire was (at least in pre-Christian times) a barrier to the Hellenization of the East and the Orientalization of the West, rather than a channel for them. It was not a solid barrier, however, but a kind of grille or trellis permitting a little silk, as well as peaches and apricots, to move westward and pomegranates to go east.”
Most of our information about East-West exchanges after this comes from post-Christian times [HSC:523]. The transmission of information about the East at this point came through traveling merchants, many of whom passed through Egypt and Alexandria. Bachelor describes some of these [WR:AW:25]:
“Commerce between Asia and the Roman Empire increased; luxury goods were imported from China; a community of Indian merchants was settled in Alexandria; an Indian holy man immolated himself in public in Athens; and a Ceylonese embassy reached the court of Claudius in Rome.”
These are, of course, all post-NT situations and the first mentions in the West of the Buddha were 2nd and 3rd century AD figures such as Clement and Basilides of Alexandria [WR:AW:27ff].
In summary, the influence and dissemination of Hindu and Buddhist thought from India far enough west to make a difference simply had not occurred by the time of the arrival of Jesus of Nazareth on the scene.
So that basically leaves us with the three options of NTSE:
Olympian deities: These were the Greek gods (and Roman versions of them) that were honored by leading families in Roman cities. As a tax-collector, Matthew would have been in the hire of the cities, WITHOUT the responsibility to collect Roman taxes (e.g. poll tax and property tax). Rural Galilee, per se, was Hellenized only in areas of economy, city organization, and language. There is virtually no Hellenistic influence on religious praxis in the smaller cities and villages. Capernaum’s only exposure to these deities would be through the frequent local traveler (who generally would not stay long enough to do any serious evangelism work!) on his way through or to the Roman administrative centers at Caesarea or Sepphoris. There was also a strongly pharisaic element at Capernaum, which having lost its political power under the persecutions of Herod, became a distinctly religious force in “urban” parts of Galille [NTSE:101]. This tended to discourage the public display or discussion relative to foreign cults. [Local indigenous cults had been virtually destroyed in the ‘forced conversion’ to Judaism enforced by the Hasmoneans 142-63 bc.] So, there would have been little chance for substantial exposure to these ideas in Capernaum.
The imperial cult (or ruler cult): This was the worship of the emperor, involving traditional elements-images, shrines, temples, sacrifices, prayers, etc. This tended to exist among the wealthy, Roman families, and occasionally among aristocratic families in the cities-families that would have had ties to Rome. It would have also been manifest in Roman soldiers, although not in the case of local auxiliary militia (as in Capernaum). In the case of Capernaum, the number of aristocratic families that would have strong ties to Rome would be few indeed. Actually, the Jews of these smaller Galilean towns had little respect for those aristocratic Jews. So NTSE:104:
“It remains true, however, that the Jews living in the towns of Capernum and Tarichaea were alienated from the Jews in the Greek cities of Sepphoris and Tiberias.”
Presumably, Matthew would have seen aspects of this in scattered contacts with magistrates and soldiers, but the absence of any regular center of the cult in Capernaum reduces the probability of influence considerably.
The Mystery Cults (both Greek and Oriental): We have seen earlier that there are some chronological problems with having these be a major influence ANYWHERE in the early 1st century AD, but this is specifically acute in regards to areas outside of Greece and Asia Minor. The MR’s were originally local-only cults of various agricultural and nature deities, and hence were largely confined to their specific locality [NTSE:132ff]. At this time in history, they would not have been a presence in lower Galilee, including Capernaum. Again, however, we would have the possibility of some traveling merchant, bring his god with him (as was done often in cases of colonists and migration-cf. NTSE:41-42). Since these are systems with rather elaborate ritual and paraphernalia, they are not quite as ‘portable’ as others-they require some level of critical mass to take root. Again, this would entail very minimal exposure for Matthew.
Question Two: Why Might They (i.e. Matthew) Have Accepted Some of These Religious Ideas and Correspondingly, Interpreted Jesus In Those Categories?
It is difficult to construct a plausible scenario in which Matthew would find any foreign ideas more attractive than the rudimentary Jewish faith that he no doubt originally had as a local resident.
One can easily see why Matthew would be disenchanted with official Judaism (since it would have radically marginalized and excluded him from specific forms of community ritual), but it is difficult to see how he would have abandoned a more basic form of personal faith in favor of the elaborate trappings of the foreign cults. The simple fact that he responded positively to a Galilean messianic figure so easily (Matt 9.9: As Jesus went on from there, he saw a man named Matthew sitting at the tax collector’s booth. “Follow me,” he told him, and Matthew got up and followed him. ) indicates at least some adherence to aspects of messianic Judaism. The most plausible scenario would have him as an aware, but non-practicing Jew, and not rather as a practicing member of the imperial cult (e.g. emperor worship) nor of any of the more exotic Olympian deities.
We do know that he did have a social circle constituted by other ‘sinners’, which would have included other of the despised trades (e.g. gamblers, camel drivers, bath attendants, select types of merchants). These would have been local Jews as well, at various levels of non-practice. How much social interaction he had with the higher-ups in the Hellenistic cities is unclear, but even the hierarchy in which he was positioned was generally filled with Jews. For example, the one good example of a tax collector was a Jew in Caesarea, and the ‘bad’ examples scorned by Josephus and Philo of Alexandria were also from large cities. His “social pressures” would have been still that of non-practicing or culturally-hellenized Judaism-NOT the pagan religions with which we are concerned here.
Given the infrequent contact that he would have had with any foreign religion (he would not have been at his ‘post’ ALL the time, plus he probably shared some of his duties with others-cf. Mt 9.10), it is likewise difficult to see how he would have been persuaded by any foreign “savior” figures or motifs, nor would he accrue any social and/or membership advantages of such religions.
In short, there does not seem to be any compelling reason (or even opportunity) for Matthew to adopt foreign religious theologies/praxis, and we actually have data that indicates his more basic Jewish faith.
Question Three: What Factors Would Have Retarded Their Acceptance of These Foreign-to-Judaism Notions?
Here we want to look at the opposite-what ‘influences’ would be operating on Matthew AGAINST adoption of foreign cults?
There are some factors in this category, which are mostly community and social.
The local communities of Galilee did not “take kindly” to defilement of the land by foreign idols. Cultic practices involving pagan temples/shrines (as all of the ‘candidate’ cults would have had) were seen as affecting the very community, and NOT simply the individual. There would have been a strong negative pressure on Matthew to avoid adopting (or at least to avoid displaying) such practices.
There was actually a small social force on him from the Centurion who loved the Jewish people. As an authority figure, this would have exerted exemplar-force (i.e. “the foreign gods must not be really any better that the Jewish God, or this fellow would not have ‘converted”)
The sheer wealth-addiction issue would have militated against Matthew/Levi from adopting ANY vigorous religion-irrespective of land of origin.
There is a distinct possibility that many of the foreign cults would have been somewhat incomprehensible to him. Some of the proto-Gnostic notions in some early MR’s, for example, require an understanding of Greek metaphysics of spirit/matter. Although Matthew would have been fluent in Greek, the probability that he was versed in Greek philosophy to the degree required to understand some of the subtleties of the oriental cults/MR’s is extremely minute.
There would have been a political force from Antipas that would have retarded adoption of pagan deities. Herod Antipas had built Tiberias in defiance of Jewish scruples, but in deference to them had not put images on his coinage [SHJ:86]. He had learned from his father’s mistakes and made genuine attempts at compromise around Jewish religious sensibilities. This policy of limited-agitation would have frowned upon overtly antagonistic practices (esp. practice of pagan religions in the rural areas-the main source of rebels!) by those in the employ of Herod (i.e. Matthew).
In the aggregate, the forces/influences on him NOT to adopt foreign practices are probably much stronger than the forces/influences on him TO adopt foreign practices.
Question Four: Where There Any Public ‘Checks and Balances’ That Would Have Hindered Publication of These Views By the Early Christian Community, Even if a Lone NT Author Would Have Accepted Them?
This question is a fascinating one, and the data indicates a STRONG ‘check and balance’ environment This data falls into three categories: (1) indication that the NT documents are mostly group products; (2) indications of close interactions/associations among the authors; and (3) indications of relatively close apostolic oversight of the spread of the gospel content.
Indications that the NT documents are mostly GROUP products:
To state this in summary form is Ellis in GAG:46:
“Although the (synoptic) evangelists are probably identified correctly by the second-century sources, their individual role may be overstated there and indeed, with the possible exception of Luke, it is difficult to assess with any precision. In some of these sources, however, Matthew, Mark, and John are presented as arrangers of gospel traditions whose work, in the case of Mark and John, is then ratified by others. That is, they are participants in a corporate enterprise”
Matthew was said by Papias to have ‘collected the sayings’ (Eusebius, HE, 3.39.16)
Papias also recounted the tradition that Mark “became Peter’s expositor/interpreter and wrote…Peter ratified (kurosai) the writing for study” (Eusebius, HE, 3.39.15; 2.14f).
The Muratorian Canon has this comment: “When (John was) exhorted by his fellow disciples and bishops (to write)…it was revealed to Andrew, on of the apostles, that John was to write all things in his own name, and they were all to certify”
Ellis points out that Luke’s “mention of the ‘many’ who drew up a narrative possibly refers to the corporate composition of one document, as the singular may suggest, rather than the individual composition of many narratives” [GAG:46].
The usage of prior sources by the evangelists points to at least one dimension of collegial effort. Mark certainly used sources-esp. the pre-Markan passion narrative [Pesch, in GAG:106ff]-and Matthew uses “special exegetical traditions that appear to reflect the work of a circle of highly skilled prophets and/or teachers” [GAG:47] Since “prior documents” would be kept in official places, this appears to be activity that takes place in a scribal/school setting.
John actually indicates (or at least hints) that collaboration was involved in his gospel:
Instead, one of the soldiers pierced Jesus’ side with a spear, bringing a sudden flow of blood and water. 35 The man who saw it has given testimony, and his testimony is true. He knows that he tells the truth, and he testifies so that you also may believe. (John 19.34-35)This is the disciple who testifies to these things and who wrote them down. We know that his testimony is true. (John 21.24)
Stendahl in the classic The School of St. Matthew argues that Matthew 13.52 (He said to them, “Therefore every teacher of the law who has been instructed about the kingdom of heaven is like the owner of a house who brings out of his storeroom new treasures as well as old.” ) indicates a scribal school setting.
The letters of the NT consistently manifest group-construction data. The usage of amanuenses (dictation scribes) is well attested: Rom 16.22; I Cor 16.21; Col 4.18; 2 Thess 3.17; Phlm 19. These co-writers often influenced the wording, which in the case of the gifted individuals used by Paul, would be expected.
Another more important piece on the epistles is the use of a “co-sender” which would have had considerable impact on the content. For example, we have these in I Cor 1.1 (Sosthenes); 2 Cor 1.1 (Timothy ); Gal 1.2 (“all the brothers with me”); Phil 1.1 (Timothy). So, PLW:
“Such contemporary data suggests that the mention of those associated with Paul in the address should be explained in terms of the letter; that is, he selected them to play a role in the creation of the epistle as coauthors. It seems obvious that the recipients of such letters would have taken the ‘we’ at face value as referring to the senders.” (p. 19)”How did co-authorship work in practice? In light of what Pliny the Younger has said about his working habits (Letters 9.36)…,we might reasonably assume that, whereas Pliny communed with himself, Paul consulted his companions and, as the lead, did the actual dictation. Within this broad framework, however, circumstances influenced the exact procedure in each letter…At the time of the composition of 1 and 2 Thessalonians, Paul was still a neophyte both as a leader and a writer. The committee of three (note: Paul, Silas, Timothy) produced the letters, and Paul kept his personal comments to the minimum. As the one dictating, however, he could interject without difficulty…The circumstances of 1 Corinthians were different.” (p. 33)
The epistle of Peter manifests this as well-I Pet 5.12 cites Silas as co-author. Indeed, Wenham suggests as the best explanation for the basic order in the synoptic material, that:
“The canonical gospels, especially Matthew and Luke, were major works, written by leaders of great competence, and it is unlikely that knowledge of their projected books was kept secret. Rather, we would expect one evangelist to be glad of another’s help while preparing his own work.” [RMML:10].
In the case of Paul, the “corporate” nature of his letters extends to his mission as well. So Gamble, BREC:99:
“It was Paul’s custom to name others together with himself as co-senders of his letters. This was probably not a formality but a reflection of the involvement of his associates in the conception, if not in the composition, of many of the letters. The evidence strongly suggests that Paul’s missionary enterprise had a corporate structure and a school dimension…”
This stream of data strongly suggests that “the same apostolic circles were involved in the formation and/or transmission of both gospel and epistolary traditions” (E. Earle Ellis, in GAG:52). The fact that the NT literature was a group-effort or collaborative in nature would have acted as a significant barrier to the individual writers “smuggling in” pagan and/or foreign images of Jesus.
Indications of close interactions/associations among the authors:
It is quite easy to demonstrate that the various writers/sources of NT documents were in constant communication and collaborative work. Some of the data are as follows:
The letters of James, I Peter, and the Pauline letters were written by apostles who-according to Paul and his sometime companion Luke–worked together. The data is extensive: Gal 1.18; 2.1, 9; I cor 3.22-4.1; 9.5; 11.16, 23ff; 14.33ff; 15.3-7; Rom 15.25; Acts 11.29f; 12.25; 15.6-35; 21.17f; cf. 2 Pet 3.15f; Jude 17f with I Tim 4.1).
The letters and the Book of Acts connect their authors with the synoptic authors:
Peter and Paul with Mark (Col 4.10f;2 Tim 4.11; Phlm 24; I Pet 5.13; Acts 12.12-25; 13.5, 13; 15.37ff).
Paul and James with Luke (Paul: Col 4.14; 2 Tim 4.11; Phlm 24; Acts 16.10-17; 20.5-21.17; 27.1-28.16 [“we”]; James: Acts 21.17f [“we”]). Acts puts James and Matthew together in Jerusalem (Acts 1.13f with 12.12-17, 25). The epistles reveal that Paul and Peter and James know a number of synoptic traditions [GAG:44] Paul: I Cor 7.10; 9.14 (I tim 5.18); I Cor 11.23; 15.3; cf. Col2.8; see GP:II:345-375 for a substantial list of Pauline overlaps with the Synoptic Apocalypse. Peter: I Pet 1.10ff (Luke 10.24=Matt 13.17); 2.7 (Mark 12:10); 2.12 (Matt 5.16); 4.13f (Matt 5.11f=Luke 6.22f). James shows special affinities to Matthew: 1:5,6, 22f; 2:5, 13; 4.10; 5.12. Peter was apparently the source of much information for Paul-Gal 1.18.
The NT writers were in constant communication and collaboration with each other, and demonstrate this in their writings. It would have been difficult if not impossible for one of this group to have held to foreign, pagan notions without it becoming widely known. We even know of disagreements within the early church, and that they are surfaced quite visibly-such as Peter vs. Paul in Galatians and the circumcision issue in Acts 14-15. All the indications along these lines are well within Jewish-Christian thought, and foreign notions do not start to show up until after the NT era at the earliest.
Indications of relatively close apostolic oversight of the spread of the gospel content:
The early church had a center (Jerusalem) and leaders (apostles).
When the church expanded into Samaria, there was interaction with the leaders of the founding church (Acts 8.14): “When the apostles in Jerusalem heard that Samaria had accepted the word of God, they sent Peter and John to them”. [By all accounts, Peter and John would have been closest to ANY information about Jesus’ acts/words.]
When the church expanded into Antioch, we see the same pattern occur (Act 11:22): “News of this reached the ears of the church at Jerusalem, and they sent Barnabas to Antioch.”
When the issue of circumcision came up, the church in Antioch appointed Paul and Barnabas “to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question” (Acts 15.2)
The first church council was held at Jerusalem (Act 15:23-29)
The reference in Acts 15:24-“We have heard that some went out from us without our authorization and disturbed you…”-is a STRONG indication of a ‘sense of control’!…as is 16.6: “As they traveled from town to town, they delivered the decisions reached by the apostles and elders in Jerusalem for the people to obey. Paul accepted the importance of the Jerusalem center (Gal 2.1-2): “Fourteen years later I went up again to Jerusalem, this time with Barnabas. I took Titus along also. I went in response to a revelation and set before them the gospel that I preach among the Gentiles. But I did this privately to those who seemed to be leaders, for fear that I was running or had run my race in vain.”
Davids points out how significant this was [GP:I:87f]:
“Confirmation of the picture in Acts comes from the fact that even Paul felt the power and authority of the Jerusalem church and the apostles. While Paul insists that his legitimacy as an apostle comes directly from Christ, he still reports that he found it necessary to go to Jerusalem at least twice and on one occasion to seek formal approval of his gospel from the apostles (Gal. 2.1-10). This would be most astounding if Paul did not feel that the apostles had at least some type of authority over the content of the tradition. Thus although Paul refuses to become dependent upon Jerusalem, he has the highest respect for the role of the community as a stronghold of pure doctrine and tradition”.
At Jerusalem, Paul was welcomed and sent to the Gentiles (Gal 2.9f): “James, Peter and John, those reputed to be pillars, gave me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship when they recognized the grace given to me. They agreed that we should go to the Gentiles, and they to the Jews. All they asked was that we should continue to remember the poor, the very thing I was eager to do.”
Paul (a native of Tarsus!) returned to Jerusalem after EACH missionary journey. Even Peter is subject to the apostles as a group (Acts 8.4). The leading apostles and evangelists had traveling ministries, bringing them into contact with churches and believers everywhere. The early churches did NOT live in a vacuum. They corresponded with each other (cf. I Clement, a letter from Rome to Corinth, a.d. 95, see ATNT:48-49) and exchanged NT documents (cf. Col. 4.16).
Bauckham summarizes the authority succinctly [BAFCSPS:450]:
“The Jerusalem council presupposes the authority of Jerusalem to decide the issue of Gentile Christians’ obedience to the Law (Acts 15). Its decision binds not only Antioch and its daughter churches (15.22-31) but also the churches founded by Paul and Barnabas (16.4). When James recalls the decision in 21.25, the effect is to imply that Paul’s Gentile mission is still subject to it.”
This controlling group of apostles and elders would have been a serious ‘check and balance’ against any foreign notions, held by any individual or minority. The “Net” of this is clear: there were CONSIDERABLE ‘checks and balances’ in place during this early period, which would have prohibited the introduction of individual foreign elements into the content of the NT. The NT literature was generally a group-product, the authors were in frequent communication/co-work with each other, and the original apostolic community oversaw the development and transmission of the gospel content. Even novel elements that could be produced by the pneumatic and prophetic ministries of the Spirit were to be ‘judged’ by the core content and authoritative followers of Jesus (cf. I Cor 14.29; I Thess 5.19-21; I John 4.1-3).
Question Five: What does the Literature They Produced, and/or Post-Easter History Tell Us about the Views They Accepted?
In the case of Matthew, the issue of post-Easter history is easy-we have very, very little information about him. By far and away the most consistent data we have has to do with his authorship of the Gospel! Early tradition is unanimous in stating that Matthew wrote his gospel in Hebrewa and for Hebrews. Wenham discusses these witnesses in RMML, chapter 5 (i.e. Papias, Irenaeus, Pantaenus, Origen, Eusibius, Epiphanius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Jerome, Gregory of Nazianzus, Chrysostom, Augustine, et. al.!).
The issue of literature is a bit more straightforward:
It is widely agreed (as well as obvious to the most casual reader!) that Matthew is the most “Jewish” of the gospels (see NT Wright’s discussion in NTPG:384ff, and standard commentaries).
We have seen already in Part A of this study that pagan elements do not manifest themselves in Matthew’s portrayal of Christ.
It would have been evangelistic ‘suicide’ to have appealed to the Jewish population in 1st century Roman-occupied Palestine on behalf of a Jesus colored by pagan associations (transmitted by gentile merchants or slaves) or the imperial cult (transmitted by Roman soldiers or the oppressive Hellenistic/Roman elite)!!!
The very argumentation content and methods of Matthew reflect the basic milieu of the Jewish community-not the argument forms of pagan theologies [BEAP:140-152].
Matthew’s argument for the Messianic status of Jesus is NOT from his ‘divine powers’, but from His fulfillment of OT scriptures–the opposite approach of pagan deities.
Jesus appears in a number of non-Jewish or Hellenistic cities (e.g. Phoenicia, Decapolis, Caesarea Philippi), but there is NO hint that Matthew (or Jesus) tries to ‘relate’ to the pagan theological figures/concepts that were present in those areas. This would have been the perfect setting for Matthew to “smuggle” those associations into the narrative.
Likewise, the visit of the pagan Magi in Matthew 2.1-12 would have been a great place to insert something about Persian and/or Iranian legends, but he didn’t.
In short, not only do we have no indication of pagan notions in Matthew, but the ABSENCE of such notions in places in the text which would have been perfect places to insert those notions counts heavily against his carrying these in his belief system.
We have seen that:
Matthew had minimal contact with outside religions.
Matthew had minimal forces on him to adopt such outside religious ideas.
Matthew had non-trivial forces upon him to avoid adopting outside religious ideas.
Production of the NT literature (including Matthew’s gospel) would have been largely a group effort, in constant review/feedback with apostolic figures, and under the authority of the ‘keepers of the tradition’ in Jerusalem.
The very character of Matthew’s literary production demonstrates a strong argument that he did not maintain foreign religious ideas.
We have seen Matthew’s portrait of Jesus as unique, and not a mere copy of pagan religious motifs; in this study we can understand part of why that was the case.
Common abbreviations: DSS (Dea Sea Scrolls); mss (manuscripts); NT (New Testament); OT (Old Testament/Tanach); ANE (Ancient New East). Books with an X: prefix are NOT in my library.
Citations / Notes
[AAA] Atlas of Ancient Archaeology, Jacquetta Hawkes (ed), Barnes and Nobles: 1994.
[AAF] Answering a Fundamentalist, Albert J. Nevins, M.M., Our Sunday Visitor Publishing:1990.
[AB] Atlas of the Bible, John Rogerson, Facts on File: 1985.
[ABC] Atlas of the Bible and Christianity, Tim Dowley (ed.), Baker:1997.
[ABD] Anchor Bible Dictionary, David Noel Freedman (main ed.), DoubleDay:1992
[ABH] Archeology and Bible History, Free and Vos, Zondervan:1992.
[ABWT] Archaic Bookkeeping: Writing and Techniques of Economic Administration in the Ancient Near East, Hans Nissen / Peter Damerow / Robert Englund (trans. Paul Larsen), U.Chicago: 1993.
[ACAEC] Early Civilizations: Ancient Egypt in Context, Bruce G. Trigger, American University in Cairo:1993.
[ACCS:Mark] Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture. Thomas Oden and Christopher Hall (eds.). IVP:1998.
[ACH] Atlas of Classical History, Michael Grant, Oxford: 1994.
[AEC] The Archaeology of Early Christianity–A History, William Frend, Fortress:1996.
[AEL1] Ancient Egyptian Literature (3 vols), Miriam Lichtheim, Univ of Cal:1973, 1976, 1980.
[AEL2] Ancient Egyptian Literature (3 vols), Miriam Lichtheim, Univ of Cal:1973, 1976, 1980.
[AEL3] Ancient Egyptian Literature (3 vols), Miriam Lichtheim, Univ of Cal:1973, 1976, 1980.
[AHANE] Archeological History of the Ancient Near East, Jack Finegan, Barnes&Nobles:1979.
[AHSG] Archaeology, History, and Society in Galilee–the Social Context of Jesus and the Rabbis, Richard A. Horsley, Trinity Press: 1996.
[AI] Ancient Israel. de Vaux, Roland, McGraw-Hill, 1965.two vols.
[AILCC] Ancient Israelite Literature in its Cultural Context, John H. Walton, Zondervan: 1989.
[AL] Ancient Literacy, William V. Harris, Harvard:1989.
[AM] Ancient Mesopotamia, Leo Oppenheim-completed by Erica Reiner, Univ.Chicago: 1977 (2nd ed).
[ANET] Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Relating to the Old Testament, with supplement. James B. Pritchard. PrincetonUP:1969 (3rd ed)
[ANL] Archeology and Langauge: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins, Colin Renfreq, Cambridge: 1987.
[ANT] The Archeology of the New Testament-The Life of Jesus and the Beginnings of the Early Church, Jack Finegan, Princeton: 1992 (revised edition)
[AOOT] Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Kitchen, K.A. ,Intervarsity Press, 1966.
[AOTI] Approaches to Old Testament Interpretation (2nd ed), by John Goldingay, IVP:1990.
[AP:CBW] Can a Bishop be Wrong?–Ten Scholars Challenge John Shelby Spong, Peter C. Moore (ed.), Morehouse:1998.
[AP:IDFB] In Defense of the Faith: Biblical Answers to Challenging Questions, Dave Hunt, Harvest House:1996.
[ART] Aspects of Rabbinic Theology, Solomon Schechter, Jewish Lights: 1909/1993.
[ATNT] The Text of the New Testament, Aland and Aland, Eerdmans/EJ Brill: 1989 (2nd ed).
[ATRD] As the Romans Did: A Sourcebook in Roman Social History, Jo-Ann Shelton, Oxford: 1988.
[BABY] Babylon, Joan Oates, Thames and Hudson: 1986 (rev.ed.)
[BAFCSALS] The Book of Acts in its First Century Setting: Ancient Literary Setting, Bruce Winter and Andrew Clarke (eds.), Eerdmans: 1993.
[BAFCSDS] The Book of Acts in its First Century Settting: Diaspora Setting, by Irina Levinskaya, Eerdmans/Paternoster:1996 (vol 5 in the series)
[BAFCSGR] The Book of Acts in its First Century Settting, vol 2: Graeco-Roman Setting, David W. Gill and Conrad Gempf, eds. Eerdmans: 1994.
[BAFCSP] The Book of Acts in its First Century Setting: Vol 4–Palestinian Setting, ed. R. Bauchkham, Eerdmans: 1995, 526pp.
[BAFCSPRC] The Book of Acts in its First Century Setting: Paul in Roman Custody, Brian Rapske, Eerdmans:1994.
[BAM] Berossos and Manetho: Introduced and Translated–Native Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, Gerhard Verbrugghe and Wichersham, U.Mich: 1996.
[BAW] Before Abraham Was: The Unity of Genesis 1-11, Kikawada and Quinn, Ignatius: 1985.
[BBC] The Bible Background Commentary-NT. Keener, Craig. S. , IVP, 1993.
[BCANON] The Canon of Scripture, F. F. Bruce, IVP: 1988.
[BEALE] The Right Doctrine from the Wrong Texts, G. K. Beale (ed.), Baker:1994.
[BEAP] Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period. Longenecker, Richard. , Eerdmans Publishing, 1975.
[BEB] Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible (electronic edition)
[BFC] Beyond Form Criticism: Essays in Old Testament Literary Criticism, Paul R. House (ed.), Eisenbrauns: 1992.
[BHDL] Biblical Hebrew and Discourse Linguistics, Robert D. Bergen (ed.), Summer Institute of Linguistics: 1994.
[BIAI] Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel, Michael Fishbane, Oxford: 1985.
[BKC] Bible Knowledge Commentary, Kenneth L. Barker, Eugene H. Merrill, and Dr. Stanley D. Toussaint (eds). Victory Books.
[BLOM] The Historical Reliability of the Gospels by Craig Blomberg, IVP: 1987.
[BLOM2] The Historical Reliability of the Gospels (2nd Ed). Craig Blomberg. IVP:2007.
[BM] The Birth of the Messiah, by Raymond E. Brown, Doubleday: 1993.
[BNTH] New Testament History. Bruce, F.F., Anchor, 1972.
[BPM] Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs: Popular Movements at the Time of Jesuss, Richard Horsley and John Hanson, Harper & Row: 1985.
[BQI] Beyond the Q Impasse: Luke’s Use of Matthew, Allan J. McNichol (ed), Trinity: 1996. (International Institute for Gospel Studies).
[BREC] Books and Readers in the Early Church, Harry Y. Gamble, Yale: 1995
[BSNT] Behind the Scenes of the New Testament, Barnett, IVP: 1990.
[BTE] The Bauer Thesis Examined: The Geography of Heresy in the Early Christian Church, T.A. Robinson, Edwin Mellen: 1988.
[BTM] Before the Muses–An Anthology of Akkadian Literature (2 vols), Benjamin R. Foster, CDL Press:1996.
[BTT] The Trinity, Edward Henry Bickersteth, Kregel: 1994. Reprint of 19th century work.
[BVS] The Bible, Violence, and The Sacred: Liberation from the Myth of Sanctioned Violence, James G. Williams, HarperCollins: 1991.
[CAE] Constantine and Eusebius, Timothy D. Barnes, Harvard: 1981.
[CAM] Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East, Michael Roaf, Facts of File: 1990.
[CAP] Christianity and Paganism, 350-750, J. N. Hillgarth (ed.), Univ of Penn Press: 1986.
[CASA] Cambridge Annotated Study Apocrypha, Howard Clark Kee (ed.), Cambridge: 1989.
[CBGR] Civilization before Greece and Rome, H.W.F. Saggs, Yale:1989.
[CER] The Civilization of Europe in the Renaissance, John Hale, Simon and Schuster: 1993.
[CFMH] The Classical Foundations of Modern Historiography, Arnaldo Momigliano, U of Ca: 1990.
[CH:DECB] A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs, David W. Bercot (ed), Hendrickson:1998.
[CH:JCW] John Calvin and the Will: A Critique and Corrective, Dewey J. Hoitenga, Jr., Baker:1997.
[ChRE] Chronicle of the Roman Emperors, Chris Scarre, Thames and Hudson: 1995.
[CKC] Chronos, Kairos, Christos: Nativity and Chronological Studies Presented to Jack Finegan, Jerry Vardaman and Edwin Yamauchi, eds. Eisenbrauns:1989.
[CKC2] Chronos, Kairos, Christos II, E. Jerry Vardaman (ed), Mercer UPress: 1998.
[CMM] An Introduction to the New Testament. Carson, D.A.; Moo, Douglas; and Morris, Leon. , Zondervan, 1992.
[CMM2] An Introduction to the New Testament (2nd Ed). DA Carson and Douglas Moo. Zondervan:2005.
[COMFORT] Quest for the Original Text of the New Testament by Philip Wesley Comfort, Baker: 1992.
[COTTD] Celsus On the True Doctrine: A Discourse Against the Christians, trans. R. Joseph Hoffman, Oxford: 1987.
[COWA1] Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (2 vols), Robert W. Ehrich (ed)., Univ of Chicago: 1992.
[COWA2] Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (2 vols), Robert W. Ehrich (ed)., Univ of Chicago: 1992.
[CP] The Chronicle of the Pharoahs, Peter A Clayton, Thames and Hudson:1994
[CR:NLBC] The Natural Limits to Biological Change, Lester & Bohlin, Probe Books: 1989.
[CRCST] Classical Rhetoric and Its Christian & Secular Tradition, George A. Kennedy, Univ. of N.Carolina: 1980.
[CRE] Christianizing the Roman Empire A.D. 100-400, Ramsay MacMullen, Yale:1984.
[CRJ] Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism: A Parallel History of Their Origins and Early Development, Hershel Shanks (ed.), Biblical Archeology Society: 1992.
[CRST] The Christians as the Romans Saw Them, Robert Wilken, Yale: 1984.
[Crux] Crucifixion, Martin Hengel, Fortress: 1977.
[CS] Caesars and Saints–The Rise of the Christian State, Stewart Perowne, Barnes&Nobles: 1962.
[CS:AM] Animal Minds. Griffin, Donald R., Univ of Chicago, 1992.
[CS:APFC] A Place for Consciousness: Probing the Deep Structure of the Natural World. Gregg Rosenberg. OxfordUP:2004.
[CS:AWU] Are We Unique?, James Trefil, Wiley:1997.
[CS:BO] Beyond Ourselves: Second-person issues in the study of consciousness. Evan Thompson (ed). ImprintAcademic:2001.
[CS:BR] Brain Repair, Stein, Brailowsky, and Will, Oxford: 1995.
[CS:CCS] The Chemistry of Conscious States: How the Brain changes its Mind by J. Allan Hobson. Little/Brown: 1994,292pp.
[CS:CD] Cognitive Development (3rd ed), by J. H. Flavell, P.H. Miller, and S. A. Miller, Prentice Hall:1993.
[CS:CE] Conscious Experience, Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Schoningh: 1995.
[CS:CEden] Consciousness Explained by Daniel C. Dennett. BackBay Books: 1991, 500pp.
[CS:CHC] The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch, and Evan Thompson (eds). CambridgeUP:2007.
[CS:CMSM] Cognitive Models and Spiritual Maps. Jensine Andresen and Robert Forman (eds). ImprintAcademic:2000
[CS:CPL] Cognition, Perception, and Language, Volume 2, Handbook of Child Psychology, 5thEd. Damon, Kuhn, Siegler (eds). Wiley:2000.
[CS:CRA] Consciousness Research Abstracts, Imprint Academic.
[CS:CRM] Children’s Reasoning and the Mind. Peter Mitchell. PsychologyPress:2001.
[CS:CT] Children’s Thinking, 4thEd. Robert Siegler and Martha Alibali. PrenticeHall:2004.
[CS:DEERHB] Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain by Antonio Damasio. Grosset/Putnam: 1994,310+pp.
[CS:DM] Deconstructing the Mind, Stephen P. Stich, Oxford: 1996.
[CS:DPSOBB] Dynamic Patterns: The Self-Organization of Brain and Behavior by Scott Kelso. Bradford (MIT), 1995.
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[HI:CACD] The Church of the Ancient Councils: The Disciplinary Work of the First Four Ecumenical Councils, Peter L’Huillier, St. Vladimir’s:1996.
[HI:CAE] A Companion to Ancient Epic. John Miles Foley (ed). Blackwell:2005.
[HI:CAIANE] City Administration in the Ancient Near East. L Kogan, N Koslova, S Loesov and S Tishchenko (eds). Eisenbrauns:2010.
[HI:CAIT] Canaanite in The Amarna Tables: A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan (4 vols). Anson F. Rainey. Brill:1996.
[HI:CAJI] Conceptions of Afterlife in Jewish Inscriptions. Joseph Park. MohrSiebeck:2000.
[HI:CAT2] The Cuneiform Alphabetic Texts from Ugarit, Ras Ibn Hani and Other Places. Dietrich, Loretz, Sanmartin. Ugarit-Verlag:1995 (2nd ed).
[HI:CAW] Chronology of the Ancient World, E.J. Bickerman, Cornell:1980 (2nd rev).
[HI:CB] Constantines Bible: Politics and the Making of the New Testament. David L Dungan. Fortress:2007.
[HI:CCEC] Conflicts and Challenges in Early Christianity. Martin Hengel and C.K. Barrett, Donald Hagner (ed). Trinity:1999.
[HI:CCFJ] The Complete Concordance to Flavius Josephus: Study Edition (2 vols). Karl Heinrich Rengstorf (ed). Brill:2002.
[HI:CD] The Canon Debate. Lee Martin McDonald and James A. Sanders(eds). Hendrickson:2002.
[HI:CDA] A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. J Black, A George, N Postgate (eds). Harrassowitz Verlag:2000 (second/corrected printing).
[HI:CEC] Children in the Early Church: Children in the Ancient World, the New Testament and the Early Church. W. A. Strange. Paternoster:1996.
[HI:CFEC] Community Formation in the Early Church and in the Church Today. Richard Longenecker (ed). Hendrickson:2002.
[HI:CGEC] Charismatic Gifts in the Early Church. Ronald Kydd. Hendrickson:1984.
[HI:CGLCE] The Coptic Gnostic Library: A Complete Edition of the Nag Hammadi Codices (5 vols), James Robinson (gen.ed), Brill:2000.
[HI:CHC2] The Cambridge History of Christianity, volume 2: Constantine to c. 600. Augustine Casiday and Frederick Norris (eds). CambridgeUP:2007.
[HI:CIAB15] Christiansin Asia before 1500. Ian Gillman and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit. Umichigan:1999.
[HI:CityAI] The City in Ancient Israel, Volkmar Fritz, Sheffield Academic:1995.
[HI:CLC] Classical Literary Criticism, D.A. Russell and Michael Winterbottom (eds). Oxford:1989.
[HI:CLUC] A Comparative Lexicon of Ugaritic and Canaanite. Issam KH Halayqa. Ugarit-Verlag:2008.
[HI:CM3] Classical Myth (3rd ed). Barry Powell. PrenticeHall:2001.
[HI:CMS] Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World: Means of Transmission and Cultural Interaction. Rollinger and Ulf (eds). Verlag:2004.
[HI:CMTCOB] Classic Midrash: Tannaitic Commentaries on the Bible. Reuven Hammer (trans/ed). Paulist:1995.
[HI:CMW] The Creation of Man and Women: Interpretations of the Biblical Narratives in Jewish and Christian Traditions. Gerard Luttikhuizen (ed). Brill:2000.
[HI:CMY6] Classical Mythology (6th ed), Mark Morford and Robert Lenardon. Longman:1999.
[HI:CNDN] Canonization and Decanonization. A van der Kooij and K van der Toorn (eds). Brill:1998.
[HI:CNJS] The Children of Noah: Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times. Raphael Patai. Princeton:1998.
[HI:COAI] Civilizations of Ancient Iraq. Benjamin Foster and Karen Foster. PrincetonUP:2009.
[HI:COBW] Cities of the Biblical World: An Introduction to the Archaeology, Geography, and History of Biblical Sites, Lamoine DeVries, Hendrickson:1997.
[HI:COCCL] The Concise Oxford Companion to Classical Literature, Howatson & Chilvers (eds), Oxford:1993.
[HI:COH] The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. David Goldenberg. Princeton:2003.
[HI:Comet44] The Comet of 44 B.C. and Caesar’s Funeral Games, John T. Ramsey and A. Lewis Licht, Scholars:1997.
[HI:COTS] The Commerce of the Sacred: Mediation of the Divine among Jews of the Graeco-Roman Diaspora. Jack N Lightstone. ScholarsPress:1984.
[HI:CP48C] Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries, Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1997.
[HI:CSLman] Comparative Semitic Linguistics–A Manual. Patrick Bennett. Eisenbrauns:1998.
[HI:CTBSAW] Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World. John G. Gager. Oxford:1992.
[HI:CTH] Companion to Historiography. Michael Bentley (ed). Routledge:1997.
[HI:DAH] Disease and History, Cartwright and Biddiss, Barnes&Nobles:1972.
[HI:DAS] The Development of the Arabic Scripts. Beatrice Gruendler. Harvard:1993.
[HI:DCH] The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (Volume III). David J. A. Clines (ed), Sheffield Academic:1996.
[HI:DFG] Dying for God: Martyrdom and the Making of Christianity and Judaism. Daniel Boyarin. Stanford:1999.
[HI:DFRC] Decline and Fall of the Roman City. JHWG Liebeschuetz. Oxford:2001.
[HI:DGBM] Did the Greeks Believe in Their Myths?: An Essay on the Constitutive Imagination. Paul Veyne (trans. By Paula Wissing). UChicago:1983/1988t.
[HI:DGSP] Dialect Geography of Syria-Palestine, 1000-586 BCE. W Randall Garr. Eisenbrauns:2004 (reprint of 1985).
[HI:DIA] Diasporas in Antiquity. Shaye Cohen and Ernest Frerichs (eds). ScholarsPress:1993
[HI:DictJBP] Dictionary of Judaism in the Biblical Period. Jacob Neusner and William Scott Green (eds.). Hendrickson:1996.
[HI:DictNTB] Dictionary of New Testament Background. Craig Evans and Stanley Porter (eds). IVP:2000. [Fourth in the Dictionary series]
[HI:DID] The Didache: A Commentary, Kurt Niederwimmer (Linda Maloney, trans.), Fortress:1998.
[HI:DIERL] Deviancy in Early Rabbinic Literature: A Collection of Socio-Anthropological Essays. Simcha Fishbane. Brill:2007.
[HI:DLAG] Daily Life of the Ancient Greeks. Robert Garland. Greenwood:1998.
[HI:DLAR] Daily Life in Ancient Rome. Jerome Carcopino. Yale:2003 (2nd ed).
[HI:DLIBT] Daily Life in Biblical Times. Oded Borowski. SBL:2003.
[HI:DOD] The Death of Death: Resurrection and Immortality in Jewish Thought, Neil Gillman, Jewish Lights Publishing:1997.
[HI:DOGAF] The Doctrine of Grace in the Apostolic Fathers. Thomas F Torrance. WipfNStock:1948/1996.
[HI:DOTW] Dynasties of the World–a Chronological and Geneaological Handbook. John Morby. Oxford:1989.
[HI:DRE] The Divinity of the Roman Emperor. Lily Ross Taylor. Scholars:1931.
[HI:DRR] Dictionary of Roman Religions. Lesley Adkins and Roy Adkins. Oxford:1996.
[HI:DSFC] Diodorus Siculus and the First Century. Kenneth S. Sacks. Princeton:1990.
[HI:DSS50A] The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years (vol 1). Peter Flint and James Vanderkam (eds.). Brill:1998.
[HI:DSS50B] The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years (vol 2). Peter W. Flint and James C. Vanderkam (eds). Brill:1999.
[HI:DSSB] The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English. Martin Abegg, Jr., Peter Flint, and Eugene Ulrich. Harper:1999. (English translation of the biblical texts of the DSS. Has ‘pierced’ for Ps 22, by the way…)
[HI:DSSOB] The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Origins of the Bible. Eugene Ulrich. Eerdmans/Brill:1999.
[HI:DSSSE] The Dead Sea Scrolls—Study Edition. Martinez and Tigchelaar (eds). Brill/Eerdmans:1997/98 (2 vols).
[HI:EAI] Education in Ancient India. Hartmut Scharfe. Brill:2002.
[HI:EAR] Education in Ancient Rome, Stanley F. Bonner, UCalPress:1977.
[HI:ECA] The Earliest Christian Artifacts: Manuscripts and Christian Origins. Larry W Hurtado. Eerdmans:2006.
[HI:ECBIE] Early Christian Books in Egypt. Roger Bagnall. PrincetonUP:2009.
[HI:ECCC] Early Christianity and Classical Culture–Comparative Studies in Honor of Abraham J Malherbe. John Fitzgerald, Thomas Olbricht, and L Michael White (eds). SBL:2003.
[HI:ECF] Early Christian Fathers. Cyril C. Richardson (ed.). Macmillan:1970.
[HI:ECGLL1] Early Christian Greek and Latin Literature–A Literary History: Volume One, From Paul to the Age of Constantine. Claudio Moreschini and Enrico Norelli. Hendrickson:2005.
[HI:ECGLL2] Early Christian Greek and Latin Literature–A Literary History: Volume Two, From the Council of Nicea to the Beginning of the Medieval Period. Claudio Moreschini and Enrico Norelli. Hendrickson:2005.
[HI:ECM1] Early Christian Mission, Volume 1: Jesus and the Twelve. Eckhard Schnabel. IVP:2004.
[HI:ECM2] Early Christian Mission, Volume 2: Paul and the Early Church. Eckhard Schnabel. IVP:2004.
[HI:ECOW] Early Civilizations of the Old World: The Formative Histories of Egypt, The Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China. Charles Keith Maisels. Routledge:1999.
[HI:EDF] Enoch and Daniel: A Form Critical and Sociological Study of Historical Apocalypses. Stephen Breck Reid. Bibal:1989.
[HI:EDSS] Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls (2 vols). Lawrence Shiffman and James VanderKam (eds). Oxford:2000.
[HI:EFHWAE] The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. M. L. West. Clarendon/Oxford:10997.
[HI:EGALT] Editing Greek and Latin Texts. John Grant (ed). AMSpress:1989.
[HI:EGAT] Enoch and the Growth of an Apocalyptic Tradition. James C. VanderKam. CBQMonograph Series: 1984.
[HI:EGE] The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic. Jeffrey Tigay. Bolchazy-Carducci:2002 (reprt of 1983 ed).
[HI:EGM1] Early Greek Mythography Volulme 1: Text and Introduction. Robert L. Fowler. Oxford:2000.
[HI:EIE] Eden in the East: The Drowned Continent of Southeast Asia. Stephen Oppenheimer. Phoenix:1998.
[HI:EJ] Early Judaism: The Exile to the Time of Jesus. Frederick J. Murphy. Hendrickson:2002.
[HI:EJL2TP] Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple Period, Larry R. Helyer, IVP:2002.
[HI:EJPG] Early Jewish Prayers in Greek. Pieter van der Horst and Judith Newman. Wgruyter:2008.
[HI:ELAE] Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt. Lionel Casson. JohnsHopkins:2001 (Rev Ed).
[HI:ELAM] Everyday in Ancient Mesopotamia. Jean Bottero (Antonia Nevill, trans). JohnsHopkins:1992/2001.
[HI:ELAR] Everyday Life in Ancient Rome. Lionel Casson. Johns Hopkins:1998 (rev. ed.)
[HI:EMDSS] Eschatology, Messianism, and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Craig Evans and Peter Flint (eds). Eerdmans:1997.
[HI:EMPI] Exploratio: Military and Political Intelligence in the Roman World from the Second Punic War to the Battle of Adrianople. N.J.E. Austin and N. B. Rankov. Routledge:1995.
[HI:EOB] Exploring the Origins of the Bible: Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspectives. Craig Evans and Emanuel Tov (eds). Baker:2008.
[HI:EOC] Enemies of Civilization: Attitudes toward Foreigners in Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China. Mu-chou Poo. SUNY:2005.
[HI:EOTSR] Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Christofer Beckwith. PrincetonUP:2009.
[HI:EOWC] The Eastern Origins of Western Civilization. John Hobson. Cambridge:2004.
[HI:EQO] Enoch and Qumran Origins: New Light on a Forgotten Connection. Gabriele Boccaccini (ed). Eerdmans:2005.
[HI:ERP] The Economy of Roman Palestine, Ze’ev Safrai, Routledge:1994. (Only applies to the period AFTER the destruction of the 2nd Temple.)
[HI:EUSY] Eusebius–The Church History. Paul Maier (trans/annots). Kregel:1999.
[HI:EWH] Encounters with Hellenism: Studies on the First Letter of Clement. Cilliers Breytenbach and Laurence L Welborn (eds). Brill:2004.
[HI:EWIGRE] Everyday Writing in the Graeco-Roman East. Roger S Bagnall. UChicagoPress:2011.
[HI:F4QMMT] From 4QMMT to Resurrection. FG Martinez, A Steudel, and E Tigchelaar (eds). Brill:2006.
[HI:FAASHI] From Arrian to Alexander: Studies in Historical Interpretation. A. B. Bosworth. Oxford:1988.
[HI:FAGA] The Fortunes of Apuleius and the Golden Ass: A Study in Transmission and Reception. Julia Haig Gaisser. PrincetonUP:2008.
[HI:FAHJC] Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity. Annette Yoshiko Reed. CambridgeUP:2005.
[HI:FAHNJ] Fiction as History: Nero to Julian. G. W. Bowersock. Ucal:1994.
[HI:FAL] Figure and Likeness: On the Limits of Representation in Byzantine Iconoclasm. Charles Barber. PrincetonUP:2002.
[HI:FAMRE] Fairs and Markets in the Roman Empire: Economic and Social Aspects of Periodic Trade in a Pre-Industrial Society. L de Ligt. Gieben(Amsterdam):1993.
[HI:FARNP] The Family in Ancient Rome: New Perspectives. Beryl Rawson (ed). Cornell:1986.
[HI:FCC] The First Christian Centuries–Perspectives on the Early Church. Paul McKechnie. IVP:2001.
[HI:FCCDWS] Forgers and Critics: Creativity and Duplicity in Western Scholarship. Anthony Grafton. Princeton:1990.
[HI:FD] The Fate of the Dead: Studies in the Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. Richard Baukham. Brill:1998.
[HI:FDM] The Forgotten Desert Mothers. Laura Swan. Paulist:2001.
[HI:FFANE] Flight and Freedom in the Ancient Near East. Daniel Snell. Brill:2001.
[HI:FFHPGR] The First Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times. Adrienne Mayor. Princeton:2000.
[HI:FG] The Faces of the Goddess. Lotte Motz. Oxford:1997.
[HI:FH] The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds, Alan E. Bernstein, Cornell:1993.
[HI:FHJA1] Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors (vol1): Historians. Carl Holladay. SBL:1983.
[HI:FHJA2] Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors, Volume 2 Poets. Carl Holladay. Scholars:1989.
[HI:FHJA3] Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors (vol3): Aristobulus. Carl Holladay. SBL:1995.
[HI:FHJA4] Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors (vol4): Orphica. Carl Holladay. SBL:1996.
[HI:FHTH] From Harappa to Hastinapura: A Study of the Earliest South Asian City and Civilization. Piotr Andreevich Eltsov. Brill:2008.
[HI:FIB] Family in the Bible: Exploring Customs, Culture, and Context. Richard Hess and M Daniel Carroll R (eds). Baker:2003.
[HI:FJAA] Flavius Josephus, Translation and Commentary, Volume 10–Against Apion. Steve Mason (ed) and John MG Barclay (trans/comm). Brill:2007.
[HI:FJSME] The Flourishing of Jewish Sects in the Maccabean Era: An Interpretation. Albert Baumgarten. Brill:1997.
[HI:FJTC3] Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary (vol 3). Louis Feldman (trans and comm.) and Steve Mason (ed). Brill:2000.
[HI:FJTC5] Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary (vol 5). Christopher Begg and Paul Spilsbury, Steve Mason (ed). Brill:2005.
[HI:FJTC9] Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary (vol 9), Louis Feldman (trans and comm.) and Steve Mason (ed). Brill:2001.
[HI:FMR] From Myth to Reason? Studies in the Development of Greek Thought. Richard Buxton (ed). Oxford:1999.
[HI:FOTF] Fiction on the Fringe: Novelistic Writing in the Post-Classical Age. Grammatiki Karla (ed). Brill:2009.
[HI:FRSHM] From Reliable Sources: An Introduction to Historical Methods. Martha Howell and Walter Prevenier. Cornell:2001.
[HI:G2C] The Gospels in the Second Century—An Examination of the Critical Part of a Work Entitled ‘Supernatural Religion’. William Sanday. HardPressReprint:1875.
[HI:GA] A Grammar of Akkadian (Second Ed). John Huehnergard. Eisenbrauns:2005.
[HI:GAB3] The Greek Apocalypse of Baruch (3 Baruch) in Hellenistic Judaism & Early Christianity, Daniel C. Harlow, Brill:1996
[HI:GBH] Greece Before Homer: Ancient Chronology and Mythology. John Forsdyke. Norton:1964.
[HI:GBPLA] Greek Biography and Panegyric in Late Antiquity. Tomas Hagg and Philip Rousseau (eds). UCal:2000.
[HI:GCGM] A Geneaological Chart of Greek Mythology. Harold Newman and Jon Newman. UNorthCarolina:2003.
[HI:GFAGH] Galilee from Alexander the Great to Hadrian 323BCE to 135CE: A Study of Second Temple Judaism, Sean Freyne, T&T Clark:1980
[HI:GFL] Greek Fictional Letters. CDN Costa (ed). Oxford:2001.
[HI:GGOE] The Goddessess and Gods of Old Europe: Myths and Cult Images. Marija Gimbutas. Ucal:1982 (rev.ed).
[HI:Ginz] The Legends of the Jews (multivols), Louis Ginzberg, John Hopkins paperbacks of JPS editions:1966.
[HI:GLAA] Greek Literature–An Anthology, Michael Grant, Penguin:1990.
[HI:GLAJJ] Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism (3vols), Menahem Stern, The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities:1980.
[HI:GLGSLA] Guardians of Language: The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity. Robert Kaster. Ucalifornia:1988.
[HI:GLLPT] Guardian of Letters: Literacy, Power, and the Transmitters of Early Christian Literature. Kim Haines-Eitzen. Oxford:2000.
[HI:GMM] Greek Myths and Mesopotamia: Parallels and Influence in the Homeric Hymns and Hesiod. Charles Penglase. Routledge:1994.
[HI:GN] The Gods of the Nations–Studies in Ancient Near Eastern National Theology. Daniel Block. Baker:2000 (2nd ed)
[HI:GRCBANE] Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East. Jan Bremmer. Brill:2008.
[HI:GRM] Greek and Roman Maps, O.A. W. Dilke, JohnsHopkins:1985.
[HI:GRN] Greek and Roman Necromancy. Daniel Ogden. Princeton:2001.
[HI:GUGOAR] Growing Up and Growing Old in Ancient Rome: A life course approach. Mary Harlow and Ray Laurence. Routledge:2002.
[HI:HAAM] Historical Atlas of Ancient Mesopotamia. Norman Bancroft Hunt. CheckmarkBooks:2004.
[HI:HAAP] Herod and Augustus: Papers Presented at the IJS Conference 2005. David Jacobson and Nikos Kokkinos (eds). Brill:2009.
[HI:HAD] The Hungry are Dying: Beggars and Bishops in Roman Cappadocia. Susan Holman. Oxford:2001.
[HI:HAF] Historia and Fabula: Myths and Legends in Historical Thought from Antiquity to the Modern Age. Peter G. Bietenholz. Brill:1994.
[HI:HAI8] History and Imagination: Eight Essays on Roman Culture. TP Wiseman. UExeter: 1994.
[HI:HAIG] Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2nd, Rev. ed). Morten Horning Jensen. MohrSiebeck:2010.
[HI:HANEL] A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law (2 vols). Raymond Westbrook (ed). Brill:2003.
[HI:HATW] The Hittites and Their World. Billie Jean Collins. SBL:2007.
[HI:HAW] The Horse in the Ancient World. Ann Hyland. Sutton:2003.
[HI:HBB] Homer, the Bible, and Beyond: Literary and Religious Canons in the Ancient World. Margalit Finkelberg and Guy Stroumsa (eds). Brill:2003.
[HI:HBC] Handbook of Biblical Chronology, Jack Finegan, Hendrickson:1998 (Rev.ed.)
[HI:HBIAP] A History of Biblical Interpretation Volume 1: The Ancient Period. Alan Hauser and Duane Watson (eds). Eerdmans:2003.
[HI:HCA] A History of Christianity in Asia: Volume I, Beginnings to 1500, Samuel Hugh Moffett, Orbis:1998 (2nd rev).
[HI:HCA2] A History of Christianty in Asia: Volume 2, 1500-1900. Samuel Moffett. Orbis:2005.
[HI:HCRC] Health Care and the Rise of Christianity. Hector Avalos. Hendrickson:1999.
[HI:HCW] Historiography in the Cuneiform World. Abusch, Beaulieu, Huehnergard, Machinist, Steinkeller (eds). CDL:2001.
[HI:HEAI] The History of Education in Ancient India: C 3000 BC to AD 1192. Suresh Ghosh. MunshirmManoharlal:2001.
[HI:HEBL] Harper’s Encyclopedia of Bible Life. Madeline and J Lane Miller. Castle:1996.
[HI:HF] Hidden Futures: Death and Immortality in Ancient Egypt, Anatolia, the Classical, Biblical and Arabic-Islamic World. J. M. Bremer, Th. P. J. van den Hout, R. Peters (eds.). Amsterdam UP:1994.
[HI:HGLF2] History of the Graeco-Latin Fable II: The Fable during the Roman Empire & in the Middle Ages. Francisco Rodriguez Adrados (Leslie A. Ray, trans.). Brill:2000.
[HI:HGLF3] History of the Graeco-Latin Fable, volume 3: Inventory and Documentation of the Graeco-Latin Fable. F R Adrados. Brill:2003.
[HI:HHHALH] LCL496–Homeric Hymns, Homeric Apocrypha, Lives of Homer. Martin West (trans/ed). HarvardUP:2003.
[HI:HHL] A History of the Hebrew Language, Angel Saenz-Badillos (trans. by John Elwolde), Cambridge:1993.
[HI:HHMBI] Historical Handbook of Major Biblical Interpreters, Donald McKim (ed), IVP:1998.
[HI:HHRVEC] Hellenists and Hebrews: Reappraising Division within the Earliest Church. Craig C. Hill. Fortress:1992.
[HI:HI] Holy Images: An Inquiry into Idolary and Image-Worship in Ancient Paganism and in Christianity. Edwyn Bevan. GeorgeAllenUnwin:1940.
[HI:HIBW] Homoeroticism in the Biblical World: A Historical Perspective. Martti Nissinen, Kirsi Stjerna (trans). Fortress:1998.
[HI:HIHL] Hellenism in the Holy Land. John Collins and Gregory Sterling (eds). NotreDame:2001.
[HI:HIMink] Historical Understanding. Louis O. Mink. Cornell:1987.
[HI:HITT] Hebrew Inscriptions and their Translations–Jerusalem Index of Jewish Art, Survey of Synagogues. Bracha Yaniv, Zohar Hanegbi, and Shalom Sabar. HebrewUnivJerusalem:1988.
[HI:HJ] Herod’s Judea: A Mediterranean State in the Classical World. Samuel Rocca. MohrSiebeck:2008.
[HI:HJAELC] The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ. Gary R. Habermas. College Press:1996. (Good discussion on the modern theories of mythicism, the new gnosticism, Jesus Seminar, etc.)
[HI:HKBA] Historical Knowledge in Biblical Antiquity. Jacob Neusner, Bruce Chilton, and William Scott Green (eds). Deo:2007.
[HI:HLAG] Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece, Lesley Adkins and Roy Adkins, Facts on File:1997.
[HI:HLAR] Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome, Lesley Adkins and Roy Adkins, FactsOnFile:1994.
[HI:HLL] Hippocratic Lives and Legends. Jody Rubin Pinault. Brill:1992.
[HI:HLWC] The History of the Library in Western Civilization–From Minos to Cleopatra. K. Staikos. Oak Knoll Press:2004.
[HI:HOED] How on Earth Did Jesus Become God? Historical Questions about the Earliest Devotion to Jesus. Larry Hurtado. Eerdmans:2005.
[HI:HOJA] A History of the Jews of Arabia–From Ancient Times to Their Eclipse Under Islam. Gordon Darnell Newby. UnivSCarolinaPress:1988.
[HI:HOP] The History of Punishment. Lewis Lyons. LyonsPress:2003.
[HI:HOPL] A Handbook of Pali Literature. Von Oskar Hinuber. VerlagWalterDeGruyter:2000.
[HI:HOS] History of the Samaritans. Nathan Schur. Peter Lang:1992 (rev.ed).
[HI:HP] The History of Punishment. Lewis Lyons. LyonsPress:2003.
[HI:HPE] Handbook of Patristic Exegesis: The Bible in Ancient Christianity. Charles Kannengiesser. Brill:2006.
[HI:HRC] Hellenic Religion and Christianization c. 370-529 (2 vols). Frank Trombley. Brill:2001 (2nd ed).
[HI:HRER] Heavenly Realms and Earthly Realities in Late Antiquity Religions. Ra’anan Boustan and Annette Yoshiko Reed (eds). CambridgeUP:2004.
[HI:HS] Homeric Seafaring. Samuel Mark. Texas AM:2005.
[HI:HSJ] Hidden Sayings of Jesus: Words Attributed to Jesus Outside the Four Gospels. William Morrice. Hendrickson:1997.
[HI:HSQCPL] Holy Scripture in the Qumran Commentaries and Pauline Letters, Timothy Lim, Oxford:1997.
[HI:HTG] Honor Thy Gods: Popular Religion in Greek Tragedy. Jon D. Mikalson. UNC/Chapel Hill:1991.
[HI:HTNNAR] Homer the Theologian: Neoplatonist Allegorical Reading and the Growth of the Epic Tradition. Robert Lamberton. Ucalifornia:1986.
[HI:HTRB] How to Read the Bible: A Guide to Scripture, Then and Now. James Kugel. FreePress:2007.
[HI:HWST] Holy Writings, Sacred Test: The Canon in Early Christianity. John Barton. Westminster John Knox:1997.
[HI:IAC] India and Christendom: The Historical Connection Between Their Religions. Richard Garbe, Lydia Robinson (trans). OpenCourtPublishing:1959.
[HI:IAGW] India and the Greek World: A Study in the Transmission of Culture. Jean W. Sedlar. RowanLittlefield:1980.
[HI:IASS] Ignatius of Antioch and the Second Sophistic. Allen Brent. MohrSiebeck:2006.
[HI:IAW] Isis in the Ancient World, R. E. Witt, JohnsHopkins:1971.
[HI:ICON] ICON–Studies in the History of an Idea. Moshe Barasch. NewYorkUP:1992.
[HI:IE] Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages. Richard Salomon. OxfordUP:1998.
[HI:IF] Interpretations of the Flood. Martinez and Luttikhuizen (eds). Brill:1999.
[HI:IGCG] Information Gathering in Classical Greece. Frank S. Russell. UMich:1999.
[HI:IGRTR] Intratextuality: Greek and Roman Textual Relations. Alison Sharrock and Helen Morales (eds). OUP:2000.
[HI:IGSM1] The Influence of the Gospel of Saint Matthew on Christian Literature before Saint Irenaeus: Book 1 – The First Ecclesiastical Writers. Edouard Massaux with Norman Belval and Suzanne Hecht (trans). MercerUP:1990.
[HI:IGSM2] The Influence of the Gospel of Saint Matthew on Christian Literature before Saint Irenaeus: Book 2 – The Later Christian Writings. Edouard Massaux with Norman Belval and Suzanne Hecht (trans). MercerUP:1990.
[HI:IGSM3] The Influence of the Gospel of Saint Matthew on Christian Literature before Saint Irenaeus: Book 3 – The Apologists and the Didache. Edouard Massaux with Norman Belval and Suzanne Hecht (trans). MercerUP:1993.
[HI:IHSJL] An Introduction to the History and Sources of Jewish Law. N.S. Hecht, B.S. Jackson, S. M. Passamaneck, D. Piatello, and A.M. Rabello (eds). Oxford:1996.
[HI:IIBP] Israel in the Biblical Period: Institutions, Festivals, Ceremonies, Rituals. J Alberto Soggin. T&TClark: 2000.
[HI:IIROR] The Impact of Imperial Rome on Religions, Ritual and Religious Life in the Roman Empire. Lukas De Blois, Peter Fluke, and Johannes Hahn (eds). Brill:2006.
[HI:IIW] It is Written: Scripture Citing Scripture, DA Carson and H.G.M. Williamson, Cambridge:1988.
[HI:IJGLHP] The Image of the Jews in Greek Literature: The Hellenistic Period. Bezalel Bar-Kochva. UcalPress:2010.
[HI:IJS] Imperialism and Jewish Society, 200 bce to 640 ce. Seth Schwartz. Princeton:2001.
[HI:INTGRP] The Interpretation of the New Testament in Greco-Roman Paganism. John Granger Cook. Hendrickson:2002.
[HI:IPAJ] Interpreting the Past: Ancient Jewelry. Jack Ogden. BritishMuseum:1992.
[HI:IRA] The Impact of the Roman Army 200 BC – Ad 476: Economic, Social, Political, Religious and Cultural Aspects. Lukas de Blois and Elio Lo Cascio (eds) and Olivier Hekster and Gerda de Kleijn (helpers). Brill:2007.
[HI:IRCA] The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. Benjamin Isaac. Princeton:2004.
[HI:IRL] Introduction to Rabbinic Literature. Jacob Neusner. ABRL/Doubleday:1994.
[HI:ISAA] Ideas of Slavery from Aristotle to Augustine, Peter Garnsey, CambridgeUpress:1996.
[HI:ISEC] The Impact of Scripture in Early Christianity. J Den Boeft and ML Van Poll-Van de Lisdonk (eds). Brill:1999.
[HI:ISGM] In Search of God the Mother: The Cult of Anatolian Cybele. Lynn Roller. Ucalifornia:1999.
[HI:IST] In the Shadow of the Temple: Jewish Influences on Early Christianity. Oskar Skarsaune. IVP:2002.
[HI:ITA] Introduction to Akkadian (4th ed). Richard Caplice with Daniel Snell. Pontifical Biblical Institute:2002.
[HI:ITM2] Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, H.L. Strack and Gunter Stemberger, Fortress:1992.
[HI:IWSTH] Integrating Women into Second Temple History. Tal Ilan. Hendrickson:1999.
[HI:J2C] From Joshua to Caiaphas: High Priests after the Exile. James VanderKam. Fortress:2004.
[HI:JAG] Judaism and the Gentiles: Jewish Patterns of Universalism to 135 CE. Terence L Donaldson. Baylor:2007.
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[HI:JATTJ] Judeophobia: Attitudes toward the Jews in the Ancient World. Peter Schafer. HarvardUP:1997.
[HI:Jb4J] Judaism before Jesus: The Events and Ideas that Shaped the New Testament World. Anthony Tomasino. IVP:2003.
[HI:JBIJ] Jewish Believers in Jesus: The Early Centuries. Oskar Sharsaune and Reidar Hvalvik (eds). Hendrickson:2007.
[HI:JBPRP] Jewish Babylonia between Persia and Roman Palestine. Richard Kalmin. OxfordUP:2006.
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[HI:JCGT] Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition. AFJ Klijn. Brill:1992.
[HI:JCPAS] Jews, Christians, and Polytheists in the Ancient Synagogue: Cultural Interaction during the Greco-Roman Period. Steven Fine (ed). Routledge:1999.
[HI:JCR] Jewish Christianities Reconsidered: Rethinking Ancient Groups and Texts. Matt Jackson-McCabe. Fortress:2007.
[HI:Jeru] Jerusalem: Portrait of the City in the Second Temple Period. Lee Levine. JPS:2002.
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[HI:JFCPR] Jewish Funery Customs, Practices and Rites in the Second Temple Period. Rachel Hachlili. Brill:2005.
[HI:JGA] The Jews in the Greek Age, Elias J. Bickerman, Harvard:1988.
[HI:JGGE] The Johannine Gospel in Gnostic Exegesis: Heracleon’s Commentary on John. Elaine Pagels. SBL:1989.
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[HI:JITT] Jesus in the Talmud. Peter Schafer. PrincetonUP:2007.
[HI:JJX] Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition. John Painter. Fortress:1997.
[HI:JLFMM] Jewish Law from Moses to the Mishnah: From bible to torah. Jacob Neusner. HiramCollege:1999.
[HI:JLIRP] Jewish Literacy in Roman Palestine. Catherine Hezser. MohrSiebeck:2001.
[HI:JMA] Jewish Marriage in Antiquity. Michael L Satlow. Princeton:2001.
[HI:JNAW] The Jewish Novel in the Ancient World. Lawrence M Wills. Cornell:1995.
[HI:JOE] The Jews of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian. Joseph Meleze Modrzejewski and Robert Cornman (trans). PrincetonUP:1995.
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[HI:JPCA] The Jewish People in Classical Antiquity from Alexander to Bar Kochba, John H. Hayes and Sara R. Mandell, WJK:1998.
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[HI:JPH] Josephus & the Politics of Historiography: Apologetic and Impression Management in the Bellum Judaicum. Gottfried Mader. Brill:2000.
[HI:JRCM] The Jewish Roots of Christological Monotheism. Newman, Davila, and Lewis (eds). Brill:1999.
[HI:JRJ] Jude and the Relatives of Jesus in the Early Church. Richard Bauckham. T&TClark:1990.
[HI:JSGRP12] Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period: Summary and Conclusions, volume 12. Erwin R. Goodenough. Pantheon:1965.
[HI:JSS53] Jesus and the Suffering Servant: Isaiah 53 and Christian Origins, William Bellinger, Jr’, and William Farmer (eds), Trinity Press:1998.
[HI:JSZ] John, the Son of Zebedee: The Life of a Legend. R. Alan Culpepper. Fortress:1994/2000,
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[HI:JTOT] Jesus the Only Teacher: Didactic Authority and Transmission in Ancient Israel, Ancient Judaism, and the Matthean Community, Samel Byrskog, Almqvist & Wiksell Intl (Stockholm): 1994.
[HI:JURR] The Jews under Roman Rule, From Pompey to Diocletian: A Study in Political Relations. E. Mary Smallwood. Brill:2001.
[HI:JWANT] The Jewish World around the New Testament. BakerAcademic:2008.
[HI:JWSTP] Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period: Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Qumran Sectarian Writings, Philo, Josephus. Michael E. Stone (ed.), Fortress:1984.
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[HI:LCCAI] Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel. Moshe Aberbach, Magnes: 1994.
[HI:LDSU] The Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur. Piotr Michalowski. Eisenbrauns:1989.
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[HI:LG] The Living Goddesses. Marija Gimbutas, with Miriam Robbins Dexter. Ucal:1999.
[HI:LGRW] Literature in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A New Perspective. Oliver Taplin (ed). Oxford:2000.
[HI:LHOC] The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia—and How it Died. Philip Jenkins. Lion:2008.
[HI:LHPEE] Latin Historiography and Poetry in the Early Empire: Generic Interactions. John Miller and AJ Woodman (eds). Brill:2010.
[HI:LIANE] Language in the Ancient Near East, Parts 1 and 2. L Kogan, N Koslova, S Loesov and S Tishchenko (eds). Eisenbrauns:2010.
[HI:LJC] Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Larry Hurtado. Eerdmans:2003.
[HI:LKA] Legends of the Kings of Akkade–The Texts. Joan Goodnick Westenholz. Eisenbrauns:1997.
[HI:LLAH] Latin Literature-A History, Gian Biagio Conte (trans. By JB Solodow), John Hopkins:1994 ed.
[HI:LLAR] Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome. J.P.V.D. Balsdon. Phoenix:1969.
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[HI:LM] The Lost Messiah: In Search of the Mystical Rabbi Sabbatai Sevi. John Freely. Overlook:2001.
[HI:LON] The Libraries of the Neoplatonists. Cristina D’Anona (ed). Brill:2007.
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[HI:LRR] Literature and Religion at Rome: Cultures, Contexts, and Beliefs. Denis Feeney. Cambridge:1988.
[HI:LSFNAP] The Lower Stratum Families in the Neo-Assyrian Period. Gershon Galil. Brill:2007.
[HI:LTCT] Libraries, Translations, and ‘Canonic’ Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. Giuseppe Veltri. Brill:2006.
[HI:LTF] Leaving the Fold: Apostates and Defectors in Antiquity. Stephen G Wilson. Fortress:2004.
[HI:LWMAI] Letter-Writing Manuals and Instruction from Antiquity to the Present. Carol Poster and Linda C Mitchell (eds). USCarolina:2007.
[HI:LXXACS] The Septuagint as Christian Scripture: Its Prehistory and the Problem of its Canon. Martin Hengel (Mark Biddle, trans). T&TClark:2002.
[HI:LXXC] The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible, Natalio Fernandez Marcos, Brill:2000.
[HI:M2N] The Mishnah: A New Translation. Jacob Neusner. Yale:1988.
[HI:MAIAC] Mimesis and Intertextuality in Antiquity and Christianity. Dennis MacDonald (ed). TrinityPress:2001.
[HI:MAintro] Mesopotamian Astrology: An Introduction to Babylonian and Assyrian Celestial Divination. Ulla Koch-Westenholz. UCopenhagen/Museum Tuscalanum Press: 1995.
[HI:MAMEW] Mystical and Mythological Explanatory Works of Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars. Alasdair Livingstone. Eisenbrauns:2007.
[HI:MATT25] The Least of My Brothers–Matthew 25:31-46 A History of Interpretation. Sherman Gray. SBL:1989.
[HI:MB4H] Mesopotamia Before History. Petr Charvat. Routledge:2002.
[HI:MB4J] The Messiah before Jesus: The Suffering Servant in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Israel Knohl. Ucal:2000.
[HI:MC] Mission and Conversion: Proselytizing in the Religious History of the Roman Empire. Martin Goodman. Oxford:1994.
[HI:MCAG] Morality and Custom in Ancient Greece. John Dillon. IndianaUP:2004.
[HI:MCAW] Mystery Cults of the Ancient World. Hugh Bowden. PrincetonUP:2010.
[HI:MCP1] The Mishnah in Contemporary Perspective (part One). Alan Avery-Peck and Jacob Neusner (eds). Brill:2002.
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[HI:MFBW] Marriage and Family in the Biblical World. Ken Campbell (ed). IVP:2003.
[HI:MGRA] Miracles in Greco-Roman Antiquity: A Sourcebook for the study of New Testament Miracle Stories, Wendy Cotter, Routledge:1999
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[HI:MIAN] Maritime Interactions in the Arabian Neolithic–Evidence from H3, As-Sabiyah, an Ubaid-Related Site in Kuwait. Robert Carter and Harriet Crawford (eds). Brill:2010.
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[HI:Mikra] Mikra:Text, Translation, Reading and Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, Martin Jan Mulder (ed.), Fortress:1990.
[HI:MJ] The Missing Jesus: Rabbinic Judaism and the New Testament. Chilton, Evans, Neusner (eds). Brill:2002.
[HI:MJCA] Miracles in Jewish and Christian Antiquity. John Cavadini (ed). NotreDame:1999.
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[HI:MJPC] Memory in Jewish, Pagan and Christian Societies of the Graeco-Roman World. Doron Mendels. T&TClark:2004.
[HI:MKN] The Madness of King Nebuchadnezzar: The Ancient Near Eastern Origins & Early History of Interpretation of Daniel 4. Matthais Herze. Brill:1999.
[HI:MMRP] Markets and Marketing in Roman Palestine. Ben-Zion Rosenfeld and Joseph Menirav (Chava Cassel, trans.). Brill:2005.
[HI:MND] Martyrdom and Noble Death: Selected Texts from Graeco-Roman, Jewish and Christian Antiquity. Jan Willem van Henten and Friedrich Avemarie. Routledge:2002.
[HI:MOT] Memory in Oral Traditions: The Cognitive Psychology of Epic, Ballads, and Counting-out Rhymes. David C. Rubin. Oxford:1995.
[HI:MOU] A Manual of Ugaritic. Pierre Bordeuil and Dennis Pardee. Eisenbrauns:2009.
[HI:MPANEH] Myth and Politics in Ancient Near Eastern Historiography. Mario Liverani (with intro/ed by Zainab Bahrani and Marc Van De Mieroop). Cornell:2004.
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[HI:MRE] Magic, Reason, and Experience: Studies on the Origins and Development of Greek Science. G.E.R.Lloyd. Cambridge(1979) and Hackett:1999.
[HI:MRW] Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians. Naomi Janowitz. Routledge:2001.
[HI:MSFERG] Mishnah and the Social Formation of the Early Rabbinic Guild: A Socio-Rhetorical Approach. Jack N. Lightstone. Wilfred Laurier UP:2002
[HI:MWG] Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook. Daniel Ogden. OUP:2002.
[HI:NAW] The Novel in the Ancient World. Gareth Schmeling (ed). Brill:2003 (Rev.ed).
[HI:NEAR] Near Eastern Archaeology: A Reader. Suzanne Richard (ed). EisenBrauns:2003.
[HI:NJBC] The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Raymond Brown, Joseph Fitzmyer, Roland Murphy. Prentice Hall:1990.
[HI:NKTN] The Nations that Know Thee Not: Ancient Jewish Attitudes toward Other Religions. Robert Goldenberg. NYU:1998.
[HI:NLSTJ] Nazirites in Late Second Temple Judaism. Stuart Chepey. Brill:2005.
[HI:Nomad] Nomad: A Year in the Life of a Qashqa’i Tribesman in Iran. Lois Beck. Ucal:1991.
[HI:NSG] News and Society in the Greek Polis, Sian Lewis, UNCPress;1996.
[HI:NTCA2] Francic Bovon: New Testament and Christian Apocrypha, Collected Studies II. Glenn Snyder (ed). MohrSiebeck:2009.
[HI:NTDSS] Noah Traditions in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Conversations and Controversies of Antiquity. Dorothy Peters. SBL:2008.
[HI:NTECLGRC] The New Testament and Early Christian Literature in Greco-Roman Context: Studies in Honor of David E Aune. John Fotopoulos (ed). Brill:2006.
[HI:NTM] New Testament Manuscripts: Their Texts and Their World. Thomas Klaus and Tobia Nicklas (eds). Brill:2006.
[HI:NWF] Not Wholly Free: The Concept of Manumission and the Status of Manumitted Slaves in the Ancient Greek World. R Zelnick-Abramovitz. Brill:2005.
[HI:OAGHL] Oxford Archaeological Guides: The Holy Land. Jerome Murphy-O’Connor. Oxford:1998 (4th ed)
[HI:OAO] Orient and Occident: Essays presented to Cyrus H Gordon on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday. Harry Hoffner Jr (ed). NeukrchenerVerlag:1973.
[HI:OCIW] The Oldest Cuisine in the World: Cooking in Mesopotamia. Jean Bottero, Teresa Fagan (trans). UChicago:2004.
[HI:OEANE] The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Eric M. Meyers (ed). Oxford:1007 (5 vols).
[HI:OECG] Other Early Christian Gospels: A Critical Edition of the Surviving Greek Manuscripts. Andrew Bernhard. TnTClark:2007.
[HI:OGOM] One God or Many? Concepts of Divinity in the Ancient World. Barbara Nevling Porter (ed). Casco Bay Assyriological Institute:2000.
[HI:OHCC] Oxford History of the Christian Church: The Church in Ancient Society from Galilee to Gregory the Great. Henry Chadwick. OUP:2001.
[HI:OLCA] Orality, Literacy, and Colonialism in Antiquity. Jonathan Draper (ed). SBL:2004.
[HI:OMMU] The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. David Ulansey. Oxford:1989.
[HI:ONT] The Old and New Testaments: Their Relationship and the “Intertestamental” Literature, James Charlesworth and Walter Weaver (eds.), Trinity Press;1993.
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[HI:OOHBANE] Out of Order: Homosexuality in the Bible and the Ancient Near East. Donald J. Wood. Baker:1998.
[HI:ORT354] On Roman Time: The Codex-Calendar of 354 and the Rhythms of Urban Life in Late Antiquity. Michelle Renee Salzman. Ucalifornia:1990.
[HI:OSS1] Of Scribes and Sages–Early Jewish Interpretation and Transmission of Scripture (vol 1): Ancient Versions and Traditions. Craig Evans (ed). T&TClark:2004.
[HI:OSS2] Of Scribes and Sages–Early Jewish Interpretation and Transmission of Scripture (vol 2): Later Versions and Traditions. Craig Evans (ed). T&TClark:2004.
[HI:OUT] On Unbelievable Tales: Translation, Introduction, and Commentary. Jacob Stern. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers:1996.
[HI:OWC] Oxen, Women, or Citizens? Slaves in the System of the Mishnah. Paul Flesher. Scholars:1988.
[HI:OWE] Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times. Jerry H Bentley. OxfordUP:1993.
[HI:PAEJ] Portraits of Adam in Early Judaism. John R. Levison. Sheffield:1988.
[HI:PAG] Peoples of an Almighty God: Competing Religions in the Ancient World. Jonathan Goldstein. Anchor/Doubleday:2002.
[HI:PAP] Puns and Pundits: Word Play in the Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near Eastern Literature. Scott Noegel (ed). CDL:2000.
[HI:PAPL] Private and Public Lies: The Discourse of Despotism and Deceit in the Graeco-Roman World. Andrew Turner, James Kim On Chong-Gossard, and Frederik Juliaan Vervaet (eds). Brill:2010.
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[HI:PATLOS] Paul and the Language of Scripture: Citation Technique in the Pauline Epistles and contemporary literature. Christopher D Stanley. CambridgeUP:1992.
[HI:PCAW] Perfumes and Cosmetics in the Ancient World. Michal Dayagi-Mendels. IsraelMuseum:1993.
[HI:PCJJB] Pharaoh’s Counselors: Job, Jethro, and Balaam in Rabbinic and Patristic Tradition. Scholars:1983.
[HI:PDOR] The Patristic Doctrine of Redemption: A Study of the Development of Doctrine During the First Five Centuries. HEW Turner. WipfNStock:1952.
[HI:PE] Passover and Easter: Origin and History to the Modern Times. Paul Bradshaw and Lawrence Hoffman (eds). NotreDame:1999.
[HI:PEAPE] Pseudepigraphy and Ethical Argument in the Pastoral Epistles. Lewis R. Donelson. Mohr:1986.
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[HI:PES1] The Panarion of Epihanius of Salamis: Book I (Sect 1-46). Frank Williams (trans). Brill:1997.
[HI:PFLST] Prophetic Figures in Late Second Temple Jewish Palestine: The Evidence from Josephus, Rebecca Gray, Oxford:1993.
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[HI:PGRW] Paul in the Greco-Roman World—a Handbook. J Paul Sampley (ed). Trinity:2003.
[HI:Phlegon] Phlegon of Tralles’ Book of Marvels. William Hansen. Exeter:1996.
[HI:PIGR] Prayer in Greek Religion. Simon Pulleyn. Oxford:1997.
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[HI:PLALG] Pali Literature and Language. Wilhelm Geiger, Batakrishna Ghosh (trans). MunshiramManoharlal:2004/1943.
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[HI:PMLA] Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity. Polymnia Athanassiadi and Michael Frede (eds.). Oxford:1999.
[HI:PolyPaul] Polycarp and Paul: An Analysis of their Literary and Theological Relationship in Light of Polycarp’s Use of Biblical and Extra-Biblical Literature. Kenneth Berding. Brill:2002.
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[HI:PPHI] Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation. Helen Bond. Cambridge:1998.
[HI:PPP] Power and Politics in Palestine: The Jews and the Governing of their Land 100 BC-70AD. James McLaren. JSOT:1991.
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[HI:PPS] The Past in Prehistoric Societies. Richard Bradley. Routledge:2002.
[HI:PQ] The Paul Quest: The Renewed Search for the Jew of Tarsus, Ben Witherington III, IVP:1998.
[HI:PRACA] Public Records and Archives in Classical Athens. James P. Sickinger. Univ of N.Carolina Press:1999.
[HI:PRE] The Provinces of the Roman Empire, Theodor Mommsen, Barnes & Nobles:1996 (reprint of 1909 ed).
[HI:PSBE] The Principles of Samaritan Bible Exegesis, S. Lowy, Brill:1977.
[HI:PSYCH] Psychanodia I: A Survey of the Evidence Concerning the Ascension of the Soul and its Relevance. Ioan Petru Culianu. Brill:1983.
[HI:PTRE] Paganism in the Roman Empire. Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1981.
[HI:PW] The Power and the Writing: The Early Scribes of Mesopotamia. Giuseppe Visicato. CDL:2000.
[HI:QCM] The Quest for Context & Meaning: Studies in Biblical Intertextuality in Honor of James A. Sanders, Craig Evans and Shemaryahu Talmon (eds), Brill:1997.
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[HI:RACU] Ritual and Cult at Ugarit. Dennis Pardee. SBL:2002.
[HI:RAG] Religions of the Ancient Greeks. Simon Price. Cambridge:1999.
[HI:RAPCW] Rebellions and Peripheries in the Cuneiform World. Seth Richardson (ed). AmericanOrientalSociety:2010.
[HI:RARCHRE] Readers and Reading Culture in the High Roman Empire: A Study of Elite Communities. William A Johnson. OxfordUP:2010.
[HI:RAWIB] Reading and Writing in Babylon. Dominique Charpin and Jane Marie Todd (trans). HarvardUP:2010.
[HI:RBF] Recycling Biblical Figures. Athalya Brenner and Jan Willem van Henten (eds.). Deo (Leiden):1999.
[HI:RC] Reconceptualizing Conversion: Patronage, Loyalty, and Conversion in the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean. Zeba Crook. Walter de Gruyer:2004.
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[HI:REAII] Roman Epic: An Interpretive Introduction. Michael Von Albrecht. Brill:1999.
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[HI:RGCA] Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach. Michael Lipka. Brill:2009.
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[HI:RGWE2] Rome, the Greek World, and the East (Vol 2): Government, Society, and Culture in the Roman Empire. Fergus Millar (Hannah Cotton and Guy Rogers, eds). UNorthCarolina:2004.
[HI:RH] The Roman Historians. Ronald Mellor. Routledge:1999.
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[HI:RIA] The Roman Imperial Army of the First and Second Centuries A.D. Graham Webster, U.Oklahoma: 1979 (3rd ed).
[HI:RIA2] Representations in Archaeology. Jean-Claude Gardin and C.S. Peebles (eds). IndianaUP:1992.
[HI:RIASV] Rape in Antiquity: Sexual Violence in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Deacy, Pierce, and Arafat (eds). Duckworth:2002.
[HI:RIBEC] Rome in the Bible and the Early Church. Peter Oakes (ed). BakerPaternoster:2002.
[HI:RIEL] Resurrection, Immortality, and Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism and Early Christianity (Expanded Edition). George Nickelsburg. Harvard:2006.
[HI:RISM] Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah. Alexander Samely. Oxford:2002.
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[HI:RL] Roman Letters: History from a Personal Point of View, Finley Hooper and matthew Schwarz. WayneState:1991.
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[HI:RLCCA] Roman Literary Culture from Cicero to Apuleius. Elaine Fantham. Johns Hopkins:1996.
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[NDIEC5] New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity (volume 5). G.H.R. Horsley, Ancient History Documentary Centre, Macquarie University:1989.
[NDIEC7] New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity, vol 7., S.R. Llewelyn and R.A. Kearsley, MacquarieU: 1994.
[NDIEC8] New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity (volume 8). S.R. Llewelyn, Ancient History Documentary Centre, Macquarie University:1997.
[NDIEC9] New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity, Volume 9: A Review of the Greek Inscriptions and Papyri. S R Llewelyn (ed). Eerdmans:2002.
[NHAAC] The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology, John North, Norton:1995.
[NHAGR] The Nature of History in Ancient Greece and Rome, Charles W. Fornara, Univ. of Calif Press: 1983.
[NHH] New Horizons in Hermeneutics, Anthony C. Thiselton, Zondervan: 1992.
[NHL] The Nag Hammadi Library, ed. James M. Robinson, HarperCollins: 1988 (3rd ed.)
[NHTB] Nag Hammadi Texts and the Bible: A Synopsis and Index, Craig Evans/ Robert Webb/ Richard Wiebe (eds.), E.J. Brill: 1993
[NIB] New Interpreters Bible (Abindgon, CD version 2002).
[NICNT] : New International Commentary on the New Testament
[NICOT] : New International Commentary on the Old Testament
[NIDNTT] : New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Colin Brown, eds. Zond.
[NIDOTTE] : New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis, William A. VanGemeren (gen.ed.). Zondervan:1997+ (5 vols)
[NIEBF] Nelson’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Bible Facts, eds. Packer, Tenney, White. Thomas Nelson: 1995 (2nd ed)
[NIGTC:1Cor] The New International Greek Testament Commentary: the First Epistle to the Corintians. Anthony C. Thiselton. Eerdmans/Paternoster:2000.
[NS:AAA] Anthropomorhpism, Anecdotes, and Animals. Robert Mitchell, Nicholas Thompson, H Lyn Miles (eds.). SUNY:1997.
[NS:AM] Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature. David Butler. BradfordMIT:2005.
[NS:AR] The Anthropology of Religion—An Introduction. Fiona Bowie. Blackwell:2000.
[NS:AT] Animal Traditions: Behavioural Inheritance in Evolution. Eytan Avital and Eva Jabloka. CambridgeUP:2000.
[NS:AWB] Animals without Backbones. R. Buchsbaum, M. Buchsbaum, J. Pearse, V. Pearse. Uchicago:1987 (3rd ed.)
[NS:BEE] Biased Embryos and Evolution. Wallace Arthur. CambridgeUP:2004.
[NS:BOG] The Bog People: Iron-Age Man Preserved. P.V. Glob. NewYorkReviewBooks:1965.
[NS:BPS] The Biology Problem Solver. M. Fogiel. REA:1998.
[NS:BTEF] Biology through the Eyes of Faith, Richard T. Wright. HarperCollins:1989.
[NS:BX] Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. Bruce Bagemihl. St. Martins:1999.
[NS:CAASO] A Case Against Accident and Self-Organization. Dean L Overman. Rowman and Littlefield:1997.
[NS:CC] Comparative Cognition: Experimental Explorations of Animal Intelligence. E Wasserman and T Zentall (eds). OxfordUP:2006.
[NS:CERCN] Cosmic Evolution: The Rise of Complexity in Nature. Eric Chaisson. Harvard:2001.
[NS:COS] Creation of the Sacred: Tracks of Biology in Early Religions. Walter Burkert. Harvard:1996.
[NS:CREET] The Changing Role of the Embryo in Evolutionary Thought: Roots of Evo-Devo. Ron Amundson. CambridgeUP:2005.
[NS:DAD] Doubts about Darwin: A History of Intelligent Design. Thomas Woodward. Baker:2003.
[NS:DAFSK] Divine Action in the Framework of Scientific Knowledge: From Quantum Theory to Divine Action. Christoph Lameter. ChristianityInThe21stCentury(NewarkCA):2006.
[NS:DBB] Darwin’s Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution. Michael J. Behe. Touchstone:1996. (by a professor of biochem)
[NS:DDT] Deep Down Things: The Breathtaking Beauty of Particle Physics. Bruce Schumm. JohnsHopkins:2004.
[NS:DLO] The Diversity of Living Organisms. R.S.K. Barnes (ed). Cambridge/Blackwells:1998.
[NS:DPE] Development Plasticity and Evolution. Mary Jane West-Eberhard. OxfordUP:2003.
[NS:DSB] Darwin Strikes Back: Defending the Science of Intelligent Design. Thomas Woodward. Baker:2006.
[NS:ECA] Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology (4 vols), David Levinson and Melvin Ember (eds), HenryHolt:1996.
[NS:Ecol] Ecology (3rd Edition). M Begon, JL Harper, CR Townsend. BlackwellScience:1996.
[NS:EI] The Ecology of Insects: Concepts and Application. Martin Speight, Mark Hunter, and Allan Watt. Blackwell:1999.
[NS:EN4D] Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life. Eva Jabloka and Marion Lamb. BradfordMIT:2005.
[NS:EOM] Evolutionary Origins of Morality: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives. Leonard Katz (ed). ImprintAcademic:2000.
[NS:ESC] Evolution of the Social Contract. Brian Skyrms. CambridgeUP:1996.
[NS:FC] Fractals and Chaos: Simplified for the Life Sciences. Larry Liebovitch. Oxford:1998.
[NS:FITC] Faces in the Clouds: A New Theory of Religion. Stewart Guthrie. OxfordUP:1993.
[NS:GEMG] Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome. JC Sanford. IvanPress:2005.
[NS:GGG] Genes, Genesis, and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History, Holmes Rolston III, Cambridge:1999.
[NS:GPL] Genes, People, and Languages. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza. North Point Press:2000.
[NS:HEP] Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. David M Buss (ed). JohnWiley:2005.
[NS:HLCS] How the Leopard Changed His Spots: The Evolution of Complexity. Brian Goodwin. Scribner:1994.
[NS:Hole] The Hole in the Universe: How Scientists Peered over the Edge of Emptiness and Found Everything. K.C. Cole. Harcourt:2001.
[NS:IBWI] In the Beginning was Information. Werner Gitt. Christliche Literatur-Verbreitung e.V.:1997. (information science approach to the origin of life)
[NS:ICA] Introducing Cultural Anthropology: A Christian Perspective. Brian M Howell and Jenell Williams Paris. BakerAcademic:2011.
[NS:IGWT] In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion. Scott Atran. OxfordUP:2002.
[NS:IMM] In the Minds of Men: Darwin and the New World Order. Ian T. Taylor. TFE Publishing: 1991, Toronto (3rd ed.)
[NS:IOE] Icons of Evolution: Science or Myth? Jonathan Wells. Regnery:2000.
[NS:IRH] Induced Responses to Herbivory. Richard Karban and Ian T. Baldwin. UChicagoPress:1997.
[NS:LAD] Life After Death: The Evidence. Dinesh D’Souza. RegneryPub:2009.
[NS:LOG] The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief. Francis Collins. FreePress:2006.
[NS:LS] Life’s Solution–Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe. Simon Conway Morris. Cambridge:2003.
[NS:MAG] Minds and Gods: The Cognitive Foundations of Religion. Todd Tremlin. OxfordUP:2006.
[NS:MITECS] The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. Robert Wilson and Frank Keil (eds). MIT:1999.
[NS:MOR] Modes of Religiosity: A Cognitive Theory of Religious Transmission. Harvey Whitehouse:Altamira:2004.
[NS:NBC] Not by Chance!–Shattering the Modern Theory of Evolution. Lee Spetner. Judaica Press:1997. (by a biophysicist…E. Simon (prof. of biology at Purdue: “certainly the most rational attack on evolution that I have ever read”)…information vs. randomness approach)
[NS:NBGA] Not By Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution. Peter Richardson and Robert Byrd. UChicago:2004.
[NS:ND] Nature’s Destiny: How the Laws of Biology reveal Purpose in the Universe. Michael J. Denton. Free Press:1998. (MD, PhD, research fellow in human molecular genetics)
[NS:OOF] Origination of Organismal Form: Beyond the Gene in Developmental and Evolutionary Biology. Gerd Muller and Stuart Newman (eds). BradfordMIT:2003.
[NS:PHE] Principles of Human Evolution–A Core Textbook. Roger Lewin. Blackwell Science:1998 (rev.ed.).
[NS:PM] The Prehistory of the Mind: The Cognitive Origins of Art and Science. Steven Mithen. Thames and Hudson:1009.
[NS:QE] Quantum Evolution: The New Science of Life, Johnjoe McFadden, Norton:2000.
[NS:R2R] The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe. Roger Penrose. Knopf:2004.
[NS:RAL] The Raptor and the Lamb—Predators and Prey in the Living World. Christopher McGowan. HenryHolt:1997.
[NS:REEORT] Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought. Pascal Boyer. Basic Books:2001.
[NS:RELS] Robustness and Evolvability in Living Systems. Andreas Wagner. PrincetonUP:2005.
[NS:RHLP] The Red Hourglass: Lives of the Predators. Gordon Grice. Dell:1998.
[NS:SAT] Starlight and Time: Solving the Puzzle of Distant Starligth in a Young Universe. D. Russell Humphreys. Master Books:1994.
[NS:SD] Science Declares Our Universe is Intelligently Designed. Robert Herrman. XulonPress:2002.
[NS:SEDU] Science and Evidence for Design in the Universe. Behe, Dembski, and Meyer. Ignatius:2000.
[NS:SI] Signs of Intelligence: Understanding Intelligent Design. William Dembski and James Kushiner (eds). Baker/Brazos:2001.
[NS:SLCPB] Signs of Life: How Complexity Pervades Biology. Ricard Sole and Brian Goodwin. BasicBooks:2000.
[NS:SOB] Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Biology (2nd ed). George Fried and George Hademenos. Schaum’s:1999.
[NS:TBH] The Book of Nothing–Vacuums, Voids, and the Lastest Ideas about the Origins of the Universe. John D. Barrow. Pantheon:2000.
[NS:TBM] The Debated Mind: Evolutionary Psychology versus Ethnography. Harvey Whitehouse (ed). Berg:2001.
[NS:TBW] The Blind Watchmaker. Richard Dawkins. Norton:1996.
[NS:TC] The Carnivores. R.F.Ewer. Cornell:1973.
[NS:TCA] The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. Bekoff, Allen, and Burghardt (eds). MIT:2002.
[NS:TEFC] The Triumph of Evolution and the Failure of Creationism. Niles Eldredge. Freeman:2000.
[NS:TGB] The Great Beyond: Higher Dimensions, Parallel Universes, and the Extraordinary Search for a Theory of Everything. Paul Halpern. Wiley:2004.
[NS:THW] Thought in a Hostile World: The Evolution of Human Cognition. Kim Sterelny. Blackwell:2003.
[NS:THX] The Triple Helix: Gene, Organism, and Environment. Richard Lewontin. Harvard:2000.
[NS:TME] The Meaning of Evolution: The Morphological Construction and Ideological Reconstruction of Darwin’s Theory. Robert J. Richards. UChicago:1992.
[NS:TMM] The Meme Machine. Susan Blackmore. Oxford:1999. (forward and recc. by R. Dawkins…has a chapter on religion as memplex)
[NS:TSG] The Selfish Gene. Richard Dawkins. Oxford:1989.
[NS:TWA] Thinking with Animals: New Perspectives on Anthropomorphism. Lorraine Daston and Gregg Mitman (eds). ColumbiaUP:2005.
[NS:VD] Vital Dust: Life as a Cosmic Imperative, Christian de Duve. BasicBooks:1995.
[NS:WCD] When Cells Die: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Apoptosis and Programmed Cell Death. Lockshin, Zakeri, and Tilly (eds.). Wiley-Liss:1998
[NS:WP] Warped Passages: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Universe’s Hidden Dimensions. Lisa Randall. HarperCollins:2005.
[NS:WWABG] Why Would Anyone Believe in God? Justin Barrett. Altamira:2004.
[NT:1GF2] One Gospel from Two: Mark’s Use of Matthew and Luke. Peabody/Cope/McNicol (eds). Trinity:2002.
[NT:4G1G] The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ: An Investigation of the Collection and Origin of the Canonical Gospels. Martin Hengel. Trinity:2000.
[NT:7CAGAC] The Seven Cities of the Apocalypse & Greco-Asian Culture. Roland H. Worth, Jr. Paulist:1999.
[NT:7CARC] The Seven Cities of the Apocalypse & Roman Culture. Roland H. Worth, Jr. Paulist:1999.
[NT:AAJ] Authenticating the Activities of Jesus. Bruce Chilton and Craig A. Evans (eds). Brill:1999.
[NT:ACL] Apostle of the Crucified Lord: A Theological Introduction to Paul and His Letters. Michael Gorman. Eerdmans:2004.
[NT:ACM] Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power, Marvin Meyer and Richard Smith (eds.), 1994.
[NT:AGAC] The Aramaic Gospels and Acts Companion: A Text Transliteration. Joseph Pashka. Xulon:2003.
[NT:AGATT] The Aramaic Gospels and Acts: Text and Translation. Joseph Pashka (trans). Xulon:2003.
[NT:AGJ] Archaeology and the Galilean Jesus: A Re-examination of the Evidence. Johnathan Reed. Trinity:2000.
[NT:AHOC] A Hymn of Christ: Philippians 2:5-11 in Recent Interpretation & in the Setting of Early Christian Worship, Ralph Martin, IVP:1997(3rd ed).
[NT:AIALC] Acts in Its Ancient Literary Context: A Classicist Looks at the Acts of the Apostles. Loveday C A Alexander. TTClark:2005.
[NT:AITSV] And I Turned to See the Voice: The Rhetoric of Vision in the New Testament. Edith Humphrey. Baker:2007.
[NT:AJIG] Anti-Judaism in Galatians? Exegetical Studies on a Polemical Letter and on Paul’s Theology. Michael Bachmann, Robert Brawley (trans).Eerdmans:2008.
[NT:AOSSC] Arguments from Order in Synoptic Source Criticism: A History and Critique, David Neville, Mercer:1994.
[NT:APM] A Preface to Mark: Notes of the Gospel in its Literary and Cultural Settings, Christopher Bryan, Oxford:1993.
[NT:ASMG] Aramaic Sources of Mark’s Gospel. Maurice Casey. Cambridge:1998.
[NT:ATNTS] Ancient Texts for New Testament Studies–A Guide to the Background Literature. Craig Evans. Hendrickson:2005.
[NT:BAC] Buddha and Christ: Nativity Stories and Indian Traditions. Zacharias Thundy. Brill:1993.
[NT:BAD] Baptism on Account of the Dead (1 Cor 15:29)–An Act of Faith in the Resurrection. Michael Hull. SBL:2005.
[NT:BASHH] The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic History, Colin Helmer, Eisenbrauns:1989.
[NT:BCPCAM] The Background and Content of Paul’s Cultic Atonement Metaphors. Stephen Finlan. SBL:2004.
[NT:BEAP2] Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period (2nd Ed). Richard N. Longenecker. Eerdmans/Regent:1999.
[NT:CALC] Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ, Harold Hoehner, Zondervan:1977
[NT:CAP] The Cross and the Prodigal: Luke 15 Through the Eyes of Middle Eastern Peasants. Kenneth Bailey (revd). IVP:2005.
[NT:CAQ] The Case Against Q: Studies in Markan Priority and the Synoptic Problem. Mark Goodacre. Trinity:2002.
[NT:CBDSS] Christian Beginnings and the Dead Sea Scrolls. John J Collins and Craig Evans (eds). BakerAcademic:2006.
[NT:CFRJJ] Caiaphas–Friend of Rome and Judge of Jesus? Helen Bond. WJK:2004.
[NT:CHGM] A Comparative Handbook to the Gospel of Mark: Comparisons with Pseudepigrapha, the Qumran Scrolls, and Rabbinic Literature. Brill:2010.
[NT:CHIC] The Colossian Hymn in Context. Matthew Gordley. MohrSiebeck:2007.
[NT:CITM1] Christianity in the Making, Volume 1: Jesus Remembered. James Dunn. Eerdmans:2003.
[NT:CJ] Constructing Jesus: Memory, Imagination, and History. Dale Allison Jr. Baker:2010.
[NT:CNC] A Challenge to the New Perspective: Revisiting Paul’s Doctrine of Justification. Peter Stuhlmacher. IVP:2001.
[NT:CNTUOT] Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament. GK Beale and DA Carson (eds). Baker:2007.
[NT:COJ] The Christology of Jesus, Ben Witherington III, Fortress:1990.
[NT:CRP] The City in Roman Palestine, Daniel Sperber, Oxford:1998.
[NT:CTENTM] The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts. Philip W. Comfort and David P. Barrett (eds.). Baker:1999.
[NT:CTT] The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance, Bruce M. Metzger, Oxford:1987.
[NT:DD] Dialogue and Drama: Elements of Greek Tragedy in the Fourth Gospel. Jo-Ann A Brant. Hendrickson:2004.
[NT:DictJG] Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Joel Green, Scot McKnight, I Howard Marshall (eds.), IVP:1992.
[NT:DictLNT] Dictionary of the Later New Testament and its Development. Ralph Martin and Peter Davids (eds.), IVP:1997.
[NT:DictPL] Dictionary of Paul and his Letters. Gerald Hawthorne, Ralph Martin, Daniel G. Reid (eds.), IVP:1993.
[NT:DLPTC] Daily Life in Palestine at the Time of Christ. Henri Daniel-Rops. Phoenix:1961/62.
[NT:DMG] The Date of Mark’s Gospel: Insight from the Law in Earliest Christianity. James Crossley. TTClark:2004.
[NT:DNTE] Dictionary of New Testament Exegesis
[NT:DTWW] Doing Things with Words in the First Christian Century. F Gerald Downing. Sheffield:2000.
[NT:DYNR] Do You Not Remember? Scripture, Story and Exegesis in the Rewritten Bible of Pseudo-Philo. Bruce Norman Fisk. Sheffield:2001.
[NT:ECHJ] Early Christianity and Hellenistic Judaism, T&T Clark:1996.
[NT:EE1C] The Educated Elite in 1 Corinthians–Education and Community Conflict in Graeco-Roman Context. Robert S Dutch. TTClark:2005.
[NT:EG] The Earliest Gospels: The Origins and Transmission of the Earliest Christian Gospels–The Contribution of the Chester Beatty Gospel Codex P45. Charles Horton (ed). TTClark:2004.
[NT:EITS] Elect in the Son: A Study of the Doctrine of Election, Robert Shank, Bethany:1970/1989.
[NT:ENC] Early Narrative Christology: The Lord in the Gospel of Luke. C Kavin Rowe. WalterDeGruyter:2006.
[NT:FJ] Fabricating Jesus: How Modern Scholars Distort the Gospels. Craig Evans. IVP:2006.
[NT:FSS] Father, Son and Spirit: The Trinity and John’s Gospel. A Kostenberger and SR Swain. IVP:2008.
[NT:FVW] From a Virgin Womb: The Apocalypse of Adam and the Virgin Birth. Andrew Welburn. Brill:2008.
[NT:GAC] The Gospels for All Christians: Rethinking the Gospel Audiences, Richard Bauckham (ed), Eerdmans:1998.
[NT:GAJC] The Gospel according the John, by D.A. Carson, Eerdmans:1991.
[NT:GECNT] The Greek-English Concordance to the New Testament (NIV). Kohlenberger III, Goodrick and Swanson, Zondervan:1997.
[NT:GH] The Gospel Hoax: Morton Smith’s Invention of Secret Mark. Stephen C Carlson. BaylorUP:2005.
[NT:GMPIT] The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, including the Demotic Spells, Hans Deiter Betz (ed.), UChicago:1992 (vol 1, 2nd ed).
[NT:GMSRC] The Gospel of Mark: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary. Ben Witherington III. Eerdmans:2001.
[NT:GRCGJ] Greco-Roman Culture and the Galilee of Jesus. Mark Chancey. CambridgeUP:2005.
[NT:HCJF] The Historical Christ and the Jesus of Faith: The Incarnational Narrative as History, C. Stephen Evans, Oxford:1996.
[NT:HEGM] The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark. Dennis R. MacDonald. Yale:2000.
[NT:HFENT] Hymn Fragments Embedded in the New Testament: Hellenistic Jewish and Greco-Roman Parallels. Lawrence DiPaolo Jr. EdwinMellen:2008.
[NT:HJFCC] The Hellenization of Judea in the First Century After Christ, Martin Hengel, SCM/Trinity:1989.
[NT:HPKP] Honor, Patronage, Kinship & Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture. David A. deSilva. IVP:2000.
[NT:HRI] Hellenistic Religions–An Introduction. Luther H. Martin. Oxford:1987.
[NT:HROJG] The Historical Reliability of John’s Gospel–Issues and Commentary. Craig L. Blomberg. IVP:2001.
[NT:HWSPP] Hearing the Story: the Politics of Plot in Mark’s Gospel, Richard Horsley, WJK:2001.
[NT:IDWAG] In Dialog with Another Gospel? The Influence of the Fourth Gospel on the Passion Narrative of the Gospel of Luke. Mark Matson. SBL:2001.
[NT:INTMTT] An Introduction to The New Testament Manuscripts and Their Texts. DC Parker. CambridgeUP:2008.
[NT:IP] Index Patristicus, Goodspeed, Hendrickson:1993.
[NT:ITSP] Is There a Synoptic Problem? Rethinking the Literary Dependence of the First Three Gospels, Eta Linnemann, Baker:1992.
[NT:JAGI] Jesus and the God of Israel: God Crucified and Other Studies on the New Testament’s Christology of Divine Identity. Richard Bauckham. Eerdmans:2008.
[NT:JAHD] Jesus and His Death: Historiography, the Historical Jesus, and Atonement Theory. Scot McKnight. BaylorUP:2005.
[NT:JBJ] James, Brother of Jesus. Pierre-Antoine Bernheim. SCM:1996/7.
[NT:JCJM] The Jewish Context of Jesus’ Miracles. Eric Eve. 2002.
[NT:JEW] Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony. Richard Bauckham. Eerdmans:2006.
[NT:JFHD] Jesus and the Fundamentalism of His Day. William Loader. Eerdmans:2001.
[NT:JGIS] Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey, Craig L. Blomberg, Broadman & Holman:1997.
[NT:JH01] Judaism and Hellenistic: Studies in their Encounter in Palestine during the Early Hellenistic Period, Martin Hengel, Fortress:1974 (Note: there is a later edition of this in the 90’s that is out of print.)
[NT:JHC] Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies, Craig Evans, Brill:1995. (Excellent book. Situates Jesus squarely in His Jewish (as opposed to Cynic) setting. $163, but a killer. Covers all the messianic passages from Qumran.)
[NT:JIM] Jesus in Memory: Traditions in Oral and Scribal Perspectives. Werner Kelber, Samuel Byrskog (eds). BaylorUP:2009.
[NT:JISSG] Jesus and the Impurity of Spirits in the Synoptic Gospels. Clinton Wahlen. MohrSiebeck:2004.
[NT:JJCO] James the Just and Christian Origins. Bruce Chilton and Craig A. Evans (eds.). Brill:1999.
[NT:JLH] Jesus and the Logic of History, Paul Barnett, Eerdmans: 1997.
[NT:JLW1] Jesus’ Last Week: Jerusalem Studies in the Synoptic Gospels – Volume One. Steven Notley, Marc Turnage, and Brian Becker (eds). Brill:2006.
[NT:JMD] Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora, T&T Clark:1996.
[NT:JMOJPG] The Jesus Mysteries: Was the “Original Jesus” a Pagan God? Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy. Harmony:1999.
[NT:JMW] Jesus the Miracle Worker: A Historical and Theological Study, Graham H. Twelftree, IVP:1999.
[NT:JRFF] Jesus’ Resurrection: Fact or Figment: A Debate between William Lane Craig and Gerd Ludemann. Paul Copan and Ronald K. Tacelli (eds). IVP:2000.
[NT:JRS] Jesus Reads Scripture—The Function of Jesus’ Use of Scripture in the Synoptic Gospels. Emerson Powery. Brill:2003.
[NT:JSPP] Jesus the Seer–The Progress of Prophecy. Ben Witherington III. Hendrikson:1999.
[NT:JTFD] Jesus, The Final Days: What Really Happened. Craig Evans and NT Wright (Troy Miller, ed). WJK:2009.
[NT:JTHPUP] Jesus the Healer: Paradigm or Unique Phenomenon, Keith Warrington, Paternoster:2000.
[NT:JTJLT] The Jewish Targums and John’s Logos Theology. John Ronning. Hendrickson:2010.
[NT:JTMEE] Jesus Through Middle Eastern Eyes: Cultural Studies in the Gospels. Kenneth Bailey. IVP:2008.
[NT:JTT] Jesus the Temple. Nicholas Perrin. BakerSPCK:2010.
[NT:L7C] The Letters to the Seven Churches, Updated Edition, W. M. Ramsey (edited by Mark W. Wilson), Hendrickson:1994.
[NT:LFD] Life in the Face of Death: The Resurrection Message of the New Testament, Richard Longnecker (ed.), Eerdmans:1998.
[NT:LGQ] The Lost Gospel Q, Borg (consulting ed.), Ulysses Press: 1996.
[NT:LOOH] The Laying On of Hands in the New Testament: Its Significance, Techniques, and Effects. John Fleter Tipei. UniversityPressOfAmerica:2009.
[NT:LTG] The Living Text of the Gospels, D.C. Parker, CambridgeUPress:1997.
[NT:LTJN] Living in the Time of Jesus of Nazareth. Peter Connolly. Steimatzky:1983.
[NT:LW] Living Words: The Words of Christ in Aramaic-English Interlinear Edition. Joseph Elias (ed). Elias/uPublish:2002.
[NT:MEC] Modelling Early Christianity: Social-Scientific studies of the New Testament in its Context. Philip Esler (ed). Routledge:1995.
[NT:MJPP] The Missions of James, Peter, and Paul: Tensions in Early Christianity. Bruce Chilton and Craig Evans (eds). Brill:2005.
[NT:MMMNTT] Medicine, Miracle, and Magic in New Testament Times. Howard Clark Kee. Cambridge:1986.
[NT:MNTD] The Making of the New Testament Documents. E.E. Ellis. Brill:1999. (major reappraisal of gospel formation theories–looks good so far)
[NT:MOG] Mark’s Other Gospel: Rethinking Morton Smith’s Controversial Discovery. Scott G Brown. CanadianCorporationforStudies in Religion: 2005.
[NT:MOJ] Memories of Jesus: A Critical Appraisal of James D G Dunn’s Jesus Remembered. Robert Stewart and Gary Habermas (eds). BHAcademic:2010.
[NT:MT] Misquoting Truth: A Guide to the Fallacies of Bart Ehrman;s Misquoting Jesus. Timothy Paul Jones. IVP:2007.
[NT:MTAT] Memory, Tradition, and Text: Uses of the Past in Early Christianity. Alan Kirk and Tom Thatcher (eds). SBL:2005.
[NT:NDIEC6] New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity, Vol 6., Llewelyn and Kearsley, Ancient History Documentary Research Centre/Macquarie Univ: 1992.
[NT:NDIP] Narrative Dynamics in Paul: A Critical Assessment. Bruce Longenecker (ed). WJK:2002.
[NT:NJC] Nazarene Jewish Christianity–from the End of the New Testament Period until its Disappearance in the Fourth Century, Ray Pritz, Magnes Press:1988.
[NT:NLEK] The New Linguistic and Exegetical Key to the Greek New Testament. Cleon Rogers JR and Cleon Rogers III. Zondervan:1998.
[NT:NPJ] A New Perspective on Jesus: What the Quest for the Historical Jesus Missed. James DG Dunn. Baker:2005.
[NT:NTDOTT] New Testament Development of Old Testament Themes, by F.F. Bruce, Eerdmans:1968.
[NT:NTTIHM] New Testament Theology: Many Witnesses, One Gospel. I. Howard Marshall. IVP:2004.
[NT:NTWICA] The New Testament World: Insights from Cultural Anthropology. Bruce J. Malina. WJK:1993 (rev.ed).
[NT:OMMCCD] The Origins of Mark: The Markan Community in Current Debate. Dwight Peterson. Brill:2000.
[NT:OTRELA] On the Road Encounters in Luke-Acts: Hellenistic Mimesis and Luke’s Theology of the Way. Octavian D. Baban. Paternoster:2006.
[NT:P] Paul, by E.P. Sanders, Oxford:1991.
[NT:PACL] Paul: A Critical Life, by Jerome Murphy-O’Connor OP, Oxford:1996.
[NT:PAH] Paul and Hellenism, by Hyam Maccoby, SCM/Trinity:1991.
[NT:PAL] Paul and the Law: A Contextual Approach, by Frank Thielman, IVP:1994.
[NT:PAP] Power and Prejudice: The Reception of the Gospel of Mark. Brenda Deen Schildgen. WayneState:1999.
[NT:PAPP] Paul and the Popular Philosophers. Abraham Malherbe. Fortress:1989.
[NT:PATJ] Paul and the Jews. Andrew Das. Hendrickson:2003.
[NT:PATS] Paul and the Stoics. Troels Engberg-Pedersen. WJK:2000.
[NT:PBDA] Paul between Damascus and Antioch, Martin Hengel and Anna Maria Schwemer, WJK:1997
[NT:PBJHD] Paul Beyond the Judaism/Hellenism Divide. Troels Engberg-Pedersen (ed). WJK:2001.
[NT:PC] Pauline Christology: An Exegetical-Theological Study. Gordon Fee. Hendrickson:2007.
[NT:PCP] The Pre-Christian Paul, Martin Hengel, SCM/Trinity:1991.
[NT:PEC] Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, David E. Aune, Eerdmans:1983.
[NT:PEP] Paul’s Early Period: Chronology, Mission Strategy, Theology. Rainer Riesner. Eerdmans:1998.
[NT:PES] The Pre-existent Son: Recovering the Christologies of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Simon Gathercole. Eerdmans:2006.
[NT:PIC] Paul’s Idea of Community—The Early House Churches in their Cultural Setting. Robert Banks. Hendrickson:1994 (rev.ed)
[NT:PITJ] Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts. KC Hanson and Douglas Oakman. Fortress:1998.
[NT:PJGR] Paul: Jew, Greek, and Roman. Stanley Porter (ed). Brill:2008.
[NT:PJJAD] Paul, Judaism, and Judgment According to Deeds. Kent Yinger. Cambridge:1999.
[NT:PJT] Paul the Jewish Theologian: A Pharisee among Christians, Jews, and Gentiles, Brad H. Young, Hendrickson:1997.
[NT:PLW] Paul the Letter Writer. M Luther Stirewalt, Jr. Eerdmans:2003.
[NT:PM2W] Paul: A Man of Two Worlds. CJ den Heyer. Trinity:1998.
[NT:PMG] The Problem of Markan Genre: The Gospel of Mark and the Jewish Novel. Michael E Vines. SBL:2002.
[NT:PML] Paul and the Mosaic Law. James G. Dunn (ed). Eerdmans:1994.
[NT:PNP] Paul and the New Perspective: Second Thoughts on the Origin of Paul’s Gospel. Seyoon Kim. Eerdmans:2002.
[NT:PONP] Perspectives Old and New on Paul: The Lutheran Paul and his Critics. Shephen Westerholm. Eerdmans:2004.
[NT:PP] Pauline Parallels, Fred Francis and J. Paul Sampley, Fortress:1984 (2nd ed).
[NT:PPCG] Pauline Parallels: A Comprehensive Guide. Walter Wilson. WJK:2009.
[NT:PTC] Paul’s True Rhetoric: Ambiguity, Cunning, and Deception in Greece and Rome. Mark Given. Trinity:2001.
[NT:PW] Paul’s World. Stanley Porter (ed). Brill:2008.
[NT:QQ] Questioning Q: A Multidimensional Challenge. Mark Goodacre and Nicholas Perrin (eds). IVP:2004.
[NT:RCJ] The Ruling Class of Judea: The Origins of the Jewish Revolt against Rome A.D. 66-70, Martin Goodman, CambridgeUpress:1987.
[NT:RG] The Rhetoric of the Gospel: Theological Artistry in the Gospels and Acts. Clifton Black. Chalice:2001.
[NT:RJIB] Rabbi Jesus–An Intimate Biography. Bruce Chilton. Image/DoubleDay:2000.
[NT:RNTTC] Rethinking New Testament Textual Criticism. David Alan Black (ed). Baker:202.
[NT:RPMC] Religious Propaganda & Missionary Competition in the New Testament World, Lukas Bormann, Kelly Del Tredici, & and Angela Standhartinger (eds), Brill:1994. (Well over half of it is in German.)
[NT:RSOG] The Resurrection of the Son of God. NT Wright. Fortress:2003.
[NT:RSP] Rethinking the Synoptic Problem. David Alan Black and David R Beck (eds). Baker:2001.
[NT:SEC] Studies in Early Christology. Martin Hengel, T&T Clark: 1995.
[NT:SGOM] Studies in the Gospel of Mark. Martin Hengel. WipfNStock:1985.
[NT:SHEGNTP] Scribal Habits in Early Greek New Testament Papyri. James Royse. Brill:2008.
[NT:SHHS] Story as History, History as Story: The Gospel Tradition in the Context of Ancient Oral History. Samuel Byrskog. Brill:2002
[NT:SITI] Sharing in the Inheritance: Identity and the Moral Life in Colossians. Allan Bevere. SBL:2003.
[NT:SLJAP] Servant Leadership: Jesus and Paul. Chalice:2005.
[NT:SSCGJ] Social-Science Commentary on the Gospel of John. Bruce Malina and Richard Rohrbaugh. Fortress:1998.
[NT:SSCSG] Social-Science Commentary on the Synoptic Gospels. Bruce Malina and Richard Rohrbaugh. Fortress:1992.
[NT:SSEF] Subversive Symmetry: Exploring the Fantastic in Mark 6.45-56. George W Young. Brill:1999.
[NT:SSSK] Saint Saul: A Skeleton Key to the Historical Jesus. Donald Harman Akenson. Oxford:2000.
[NT:TAODNT] The Atonement: The Origins of the Doctrine in the New Testament. Martin Hengel. WipfNStock:1980.
[NT:TCC] The Colossian Controversy: Wisdom in Dispute at Colossae. Richard DeMaris. SBL:1994.
[NT:TCIJ] This Christ is Jesus: Metamorphosis, Possession, and Johannine Christology. Pamela Kinlaw. Brill/SBL:2005.
[NT:TCS] The Colossian Syncretism: The Interface between Christianity and Folk Belief at Colossae. Clinton Arnold. Baker:1996.
[NT:TG2N] The Gospel to the Nations: Perspectives on Paul’s Mission. Peter Bolt and Mark Thompson (eds). IVP/Apollos:2000.
[NT:TITE] The Intertextuality of the Epistles: Explorations of Theory and Practice. Thomas Brodie, Dennis MacDonald, and Stanley Porter (eds). SheffieldPhoenix:2006.
[NT:TJL] The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition. Paul Rhodes Eddy and Gregory A Boyd. Baker:2007.
[NT:TMP] The Midrashic Process, Irving Jacobs, Cambridge:1995.
[NT:TPG] Tannaitic Parallels to the Gospels. Morton Smith. SBL:1951.
[NT:TSH] The Two-Source Hypothesis: A Critical Appraisal. Arthur Bellinzoni, Jr (ed.). Mercer UP:1985. (Out of print, but one of the most thorough and balanced discussion I had seen on this.)
[NT:TSOG] The Son of God: The Origin of Christology and the History of Jewish-Hellenistic Religion. Martin Hengel. WipfNStock:1976.
[NT:TSOQ] The Shape of Q: Signal Essays on the Sayings Gospel, John Kloppenborg (ed.), Fortress: 1994.
[NT:WAM4TH] Women and Men in the Fourth Gospel: A Genuine Discipleship of Equals. Margaret Beirne. T&TClark:2003.
[NT:WDJD] What Did Jesus Do? Gospel Profiles of Jesus’ Personal Conduct. F Scott Spencer. TrinityPress:2003.
[NT:WIB] Where is Boasting? Early Jewish Soteriology and Paul’s Response in Romans 1-5. Simon J. Gathercole. Eerdmans:2002.
[NT:WOTW] Walking on the Water: Reading Mt 14:22-33 in the Light of its Wirkungsgeschichte. Rachel Nicholls. Brill:2008.
[NT:WSPRS] What Saint Paul Really Said–Was Paul of Tarsus the Real Founder of Christianity?, by N.T. Wright, Eerdmans:1997.
[NT:Z] The Zealots, Martin Hengel (trans. David Smith), T&T Clark:1989.
[NTA] New Testament Apocrypha, Wilhelm Schneemelcher (ed) and R. McL. Wilson (trans.), Westminster/John Knox:1991 (2 vols)
[NTB] The New Testament Background, C.K.Barrett (ed), Harper Collins: 1987.
[NTCI] New Testament Criticism and Interpretation, eds. D.A. Black and D.S. Dockery. Zondv: 1991, 600+pp.
[NTD] The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable?, F. F. Bruce, Eerdmans: 1943.
[NTF] New Testament Foundations: A Guide for Christian Students–Vol.1: The Four Gospels, Ralph P. Martin, Eerdmans: 1975.
[NTLE] The New Testament in Its Literary Environment. Aune, David E., Westminster, 1987.
[NTPG] The New Testament and the People of God, N. T. Wright, Fortress: 1992.
[NTSE] The New Testament in its Social Environment, Stambaugh and Balch, Westminster: 1986.
[NTTJ] New Testament Theology: The Theology of the Gospel of John, by D. Moody Smith, Cambridge: 1995.
[NWNTI] Noncanonical Writings and New Testament Interpretation, Craig Evans, Hendrickson: 1992.
[OB] The Origin of the Bible, P.W. Comfort (ed.), Tyndale: 1992.
[OCS] The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, B.D. Ehrman, Oxford: 1993.
[OT:2NDIS] The Second Isaiah–Introduction, Translation and Commentary to Chapters XL-LV. Christopher R North. WipfNStock:1964.
[OT:2STDS] Double Standards in Isaiah: Re-evaluating Prophetic Ethics and Divine Justice. Andrew Davies. Brill:2000.
[OT:9C] The Nine Commandments: Uncovering the Hidden Pattern of Crime and Punishment in the Hebrew Bible. David Noel Freedman. Doubleday:2000.
[OT:AAI] The Archeology of Ancient Israel, Amnon ben-Tor (ed.), Yale:1992.
[OT:ABC] Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles. A. K. Grayson. Eisenbrauns:1975/2000.
[OT:ACUP] Archaeology of the City: Urban Planning in Ancient Israel and its Social Implications. Ze’ev Herzog. TelAviv:1997.
[OT:AEBA] The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. Erik Hornung. Cornell:1999.
[OT:AEOT] Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament, John D. Currid, Baker:1997.
[OT:AHBSF] Atra-Hasis: The Babylonian Story of the Flood. W.G. Lambert and A.R. Millard. Eisenbrauns:1999 reprint of 1969 OUP.
[OT:AHT] The History of Tyre (Revised Edition). H.J. Katzenstein, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press/Beer Sheeva:1997. (Only covers up to 539 BCE)
[OT:AIIN] Ancient Israel and Its Neighbors: Interaction and Counteraction. Nadav Na’aman. Eisenbrauns:2005.
[OT:AIIS] Ancient Israel in Sinai: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Wilderness Tradition. James K Hoffmeier. OUP:2005.
[OT:ALANE] Archives and Libraries in the Ancient Near East, 1500-300 BC, Olof Pedersen, CDL Press: 1998.
[OT:ALB2] Archaeology of the Land of the Bible Volume II: The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Periods (732-332 BCE), Ephraim Stern, AnchorBible/Doubleday:2001.
[OT:ALTB] Archaeology and the Land of the Bible, Amihai Mazar, Doubleday:1992 (Anchor Bible series)
[OT:ANCANE] Aspects of Nonverbal Communication in the Ancient Near East. Biblical Institute Press:1980.
[OT:ANE3K] The Ancient Near East c. 3000-330bc, Amelie Kuhrt , Routledge:1995 (2 vols.)
[OT:ANSCIG] Abraham in the Negev: A Source-Critical Investigation of Genesis 20:1-22:19. T. Desmond Alexander. Paternoster:1997. (Decides that existing Source-Critical /JEDP theories are contra-indicated by the data…)
[OT:AOT] Archaeology and the Old Testament, Alfred J. Hoerth, Baker:1998.
[OT:AP] State Archives of Assyria, volume IX: Assyrian Prophecies. Simo Parpola. Helsinki UP:1997.
[OT:AS] The Age of Solomon: Scholarship at the Turn of the Millennium. Lowell Handy (ed). Brill:1997.
[OT:ASM] Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. Hermann Hunger and David Pingree. Brill:1999.
[OT:AST] The Amarna Scholarly Tablets. Shlomo Isre’el. Styx:1997.
[OT:ATSHB] Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible: A Guide to the Background Literature. Kenton Sparks. Hendrickson:2005.
[OT:BAIW] The Bible as It Was, James L. Kugel, Harvard:1997.
[OT:BANE] The Bible and the Ancient Near East, Cyrus Gordon and Gary Rendsburg, Norton:1997 (4th ed).
[OT:BANER] The Bible and the Ancient Near East—Collected Essays. J J M Roberts (ed). Eisenbrauns:2002.
[OT:BBC1] The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Genesis-Deuteronomy, John H. Walton & Victor Matthews, IVP:1997.
[OT:BBCALL] The IVP Bible Background Commentary–Old Testament. Walton, Matthews, & Chalvalas. IVP:2000. [Outstanding.]
[OT:BDCR1] The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception (Vol One). John J. Collins and Peter W. Flint (eds.). Brill:2001.
[OT:BDCR2] The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception (Vol 2). John Collins and Peter Flint (eds). Brill:2002.
[OT:BGE] The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition, and Cuneiform Texts (2 vols). A. R. George. Oxford:2003.
[OT:BHI] A Biblical History of Israel. Provan, Long, Longman III. WJK:2003.
[OT:BOT] Bringing out the Treasure: Inner Biblical Allusion in Zechariah 9-14. Mark Boda and Michael Floyd (eds). JSOT:2003.
[OT:BPE] Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, and Early Israel. Ann Killebrew. Brill/SBL:2005.
[OT:BT] The Balaam Traditions: Their Character and Development. SBL:1990.
[OT:BWL] Babylonian Wisdom Literature. WG Lambert. Eisenbrauns:1996 (1960).
[OT:CAANEB] Creation Accounts in the Ancient New East and in the Bible. Richard J. Clifford. Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series:1994.
[OT:CAD] Creation and Destruction: A Reappraisal of the Chaoskampf Theory in the Old Testament. David Tsumura. Eisenbrauns:2005.
[OT:CANE] Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Jack M. Sasson (ed.). Hendrickson:1995 (4vols)
[OT:CANELC] A Comparison of Ancient Near Eastern Law Collections Prior to the First Millennium BC. Samual Jackson. Gorgias:2008.
[OT:CCAE] Canaan and Canaanite in Ancient Egypt. Alessandra Nibbi. (Self):1989.
[OT:CEANE] The Care of the Elderly in the Ancient New East. Marten Stol and Sven P. Vleeming (eds.). Brill:1998.
[OT:CIANE] Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Near East. Guy Bunnens (ed). Peeters Press, Louvain: 1996.
[OT:CIC] Cuneiform in Canaan: Cuneiform Sources from the Land of Israel in Ancient Times. Wayne Horowitz and Takayoshi Oshima, with Seth Sanders. Israel Exploration Society:2006.
[OT:CityAM] The Ancient Mesopotamian City, Marc Van De Mieroop, Oxford-Clarendon: 1997.
[OT:CKIJ] TheChronology of the Kings of Israel & Judah, Gerson Galil, Brill:1996.
[OT:CMHE] Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic. Frank Moore Cross. Harvard:1973.
[OT:CML] Canaanite Myths and Legends (2nd ed). JCL Gibson. T&TClark:1976.
[OT:COHC] Chieftains of the Highland Clans: A History of Israel in the 12th and 11th Centuries BC. Robert Miller II. Eerdmans:2005.
[OT:COTK] Chronicle of the Old Testament Kings. John Rogerson. Thames and Hudson:1999.
[OT:COU] The City of Ugarit at Tell Ras Shamra. Marguerite Yon. Eisenbrauns:2006.
[OT:CRLTU] Canaanite Religion according to the Liturgical Texts of Ugarit. G. del Olmo Lete (trans. Wilfred G.E. Watson). CDL Press:1999.
[OT:CSME] Creation Stories of the Middle East. Ewa Wasilewska. Jessica Kingsley:2000.
[OT:CSP] Chronicles and its Synoptic Parallels in Samuel, Kings, and Related Biblical Texts. Eds: John Endres, William Millar, John B. Burns. Glazier/Liturgical: 1998.
[OT:CTWH] Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History. Marc van de Mieroop. Routledge:1999.
[OT:CU] Chaos Uncreated: A Reassessment of the Theme of Chaos in the Hebrew Bible. Rebecca S Watson. WalterDeGruyter:2005.
[OT:DAAE] Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt, John H. Taylor, UChicago:2001.
[OT:DAR] Domination and Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant, 1300-1185 BC. Michael G Hasel. Brill:1998.
[OT:DESB] Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. R Campbell Thompson. Kessinger: 1903 (reprnt)
[OT:DGHW] Did God Have a Wife? Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel. William G Dever. Eerdmans:2005.
[OT:DictOT5] Dictionary of the Old Testament Pentateuch, T. Desmond Alexander and David W. Baker (eds). IVP:2003.
[OT:DLAM] Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Karen Rhea Nemet-Nejat. Greenwood Press:1998.
[OT:DOTE] Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis, Willem A. VanGeren (gen. Ed.), Zond:1997 (5 vols).
[OT:DSPS] The Dead Sea Psalms Scrolls and the Book of Psalms. Peter Flint. Brill:1997.
[OT:EANEL] Early Ancient Near Eastern Law: A History of Its Beginnings–The Early Dynastic and Sargonic Periods (rev.ed). Claus Wilke. Eisenbrauns:2007.
[OT:EEE] Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence, E.S. Frerichs and L.H. Lesko (eds), Eisenbrauns:1997.
[OT:EEERP] Egyptianization and Elite Emulation in Ramesside Palestine–Governance and Accommodation on the Imperial Periphery. Carolyn Higginbotham. Brill:2000.
[OT:EFTP] Echoes from the Past: Hebrew and Cognate Inscriptions from the Biblical Period. Selected and Annotated by Shmuel Ahituv. Carta:2008.
[OT:EIAI] Education in Ancient Israel: Across the Deadening Silence, James L. Crenshaw, Doubleday: 1998.
[OT:EML] Early Mesopotamian Law. Russ VerSteeg. Carolina Academic:2000.
[OT:ESK] Epics of Sumerian Kings: The Matter of Aratta. Herman Vanstiphout. SBL:2003.
[OT:ETHB] The Earliest Text of the Hebrew Bible: The Relationship between the Masoretic Text and the Hebrew Base of the Septuagint Reconsidered. Adrian Schenker (ed). SBL:2003.
[OT:EWTDMI] The Encounter with the Divine in Mesopotamia and Israel. HWF Saggs. UlondonAthlonePress:1978.
[OT:EXR] Exodus Retold: Ancient Exegesis of the Departure from Egypt in Wis 15-21 and 19:1-9. Peter Enns. SBL:1997.
[OT:FAA] Fictional Akkadian Autobiography: A Generic and Comparative Study. Tremper Longman III. Eisenbrauns:1991.
[OT:FAI] Families in Ancient Israel, L.G. Perdue, Blenkinsopp, John J. Collins, Carol Meyers, WJK:1997.
[OT:FBA] The Future of Biblical Archaeology: Reassessing Methodologies and Assumptions. Hoffmeier and Millard (eds). Eerdmans:2004.
[OT:FBM] The Five Books of Moses, Everett Fox (trans), Schocken: 1995.
[OT:FBTJ] From Balaam to Jonah: Anti-Prophetic Satire in the Hebrew Bible. David Marcus. SBL:1995.
[OT:FETS] From Ebla to Stellenbosch: Syro-Palestinian Religions and the Hebrew Bible. Izak Cornelius and Louis Jonker (eds). Harrassowitz-Verlag:2008.
[OT:FHiero] Fascinating Hieroglythics: Discovering, Decoding, and Understanding the Ancient Art, Christian Jaq, Sterling:1996.
[OT:FRIB] Family Religion in Babylonia, Syria, and Israel. Karel van der Toorn. Brill:1996.
[OT:FRJ] The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem–Judah under Babylonian Rule. Oded Lipschits. Eisenbrauns:2005.
[OT:FSN] The Final Sack of Nineveh. John Malcolm Russell. Yale:1998.
[OT:GA] Gilgamesh and Akka. Dina Katz. Styz:1993.
[OT:GBH] A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Paul Jouon and T Muraoka. EditricePontificioIstitutoBiblico(Roma):2006.
[OT:GCDSS] Graphic Concordance to the Dead Sea Scrolls, James H Charlesworth, WJK:1991.
[OT:GEN1] The Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins Debate. John Walton. IVP:2009.
[OT:GGIG] Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel. Othmar Keel and Christoph Uehlinger. Fortress:1998.
[OT:GOE] The Gods of Egypt. Claude Traunecker. Cornell:2001.
[OT:HAE] A History of Ancient Egypt. Nicolas Grimal. Barnes&Noble/Blackwell:1994.
[OT:HAILXX] Hebrew/Aramaic Index to the Septuagint, Keyed to the Hatch-Redpath Concordance. Takamitsu Muraoka, Baker:1998.
[OT:HBW] Homicide in the Biblical World. Pamela Barmash. Cambridge:2005.
[OT:HHWAI] History and Historical Writing in Ancient Israel: Studies in Biblical Historiography. Tomoo Ishida. Brill:1999.
[OT:HIBAJW] A History of Israel from the Bronze Age through the Jewish Wars. Walter C. Kaiser Jr., Broadman and Holman: 1998.
[OT:HLAE] Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt, Rosalie David, FactsonFile:1998.
[OT:HLBT] Hebrew Law in Biblical Times, Ze’ev Falk, Eisenbrauns:2001(2nd ed).
[OT:HLTTG] Hammurabi’s Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary. M. E. J. Richardson. SheffieldAcademic:2000.
[OT:HP] Hittite Prayers. Itamar Singer. SBL:2002.
[OT:HPI] A History of Prophecy in Israel, Joseph Blenkinsopp, WJK:1996 (revised and enlarged edition).
[OT:HVS] Hebrew Verse Structure. M. O’Connor, Eisenbrauns:1980/97. [the standard work]
[OT:HWBP] Handbook on the Wisdom Books and Psalms. Daniel J Estes. BakerAcademic:2005.
[OT:I] The Israelites, B.S.J. Isserlin, Thames and Hudson:1998.
[OT:IA] Introduction to the Apocrypha: Message, Context, and Significance. David deSilva. Baker:2002.
[OT:IAKOLI] Israel-Ancient Kingdom or Late Invention? Daniel L Block (ed). BnHacademic:2008.
[OT:IBHS] An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Bruce Waltke and M. O’Connor, Eisenbrauns:1990.
[OT:IBPNSI] Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200-539 BCE. Lawrence Mykytiuk. SBL:2004.
[OT:ICWS] The Invention of Cuneiform: Writing in Sumer. Jean-Jaques Glassner. JohnsHopkins:2000/2003 (trans)
[OT:IGAMM] Is God a Moral Monster–Making Sense of the Old Testament God. Paul Copan. Baker:2011.
[OT:IIE] Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition, James K. Hoffmeier, Oxford: 1997.
[OT:ILAN] Implied Law in the Abraham Narrative. James Bruckner. Sheffield/JSOT:2001
[OT:ILANE] Intellectual Life of the Ancient Near East. Jiri Prosecky (ed.). Oriental Institute (Prague):1998.
[OT:INW] The Image of the Netherworld in the Sumerian Sources. Dina Katz. CDL:2003.
[OT:IOT2] An Introduction to the Old Testement, Revised Edition. Tremper Longman III and Raymond B Dillard. Zondervan:2006.
[OT:IPIWR] Interested Parties: The Ideology of Writers and Readers of the Hebrew Bible. David J.A. Clines. JSOT/Sheffield:1995.
[OT:IRI] The Implied Reader in Isaiah 6-12. Archibald van Wieringen. Brill:1998.
[OT:ISH] Insearch of History: Historiography in the Ancient World and the Origins of Biblical History, John Van Seters, Eisenbrauns: 1997.
[OT:ISL] Introduction to the Semitic Langauges: Text Specimens and Grammatical Sketches, Gotthelf Bergstrasser (trans. and notes. By Peter T. Daniels), Eisenbrauns:1983 (original text in 1928)
[OT:ISOE] In the Shelter of Elyon: Essays on Ancient Palestinian Life and Literature. Barrick and Spencer (eds). JSOT:1984.
[OT:ISPEI] In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel. John Day (ed). TTClark:2004.
[OT:ITB] In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew Language. Joel Hoffman. NYU:2004.
[OT:ITUVD] Influences and Traditions Underlying the Vision of Daniel 7:2-14–the Research History from the End of the 19th Century to the Present, Jurg Eggler, UFribourg:2000.
[OT:IVI] Intertextuality in Ugarit and Israel. Johannes de Moor (ed). Brill:1998.
[OT:JIBA] Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period. Andrew Vaughn and Ann Killebrew (eds). SBL:2003.
[OT:JRSP] Joshua Retold: Synoptic Perspectives. A. Graeme Auld. T&T Clark:1998.
[OT:JUS] Joel’s Use of Scripture and the Scripture’s Use of Joel: Appropriation and Resignification in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity. John Strazicich. Brill:2007.
[OT:KH] The Kingdom of the Hittites. Trevor Bryce. Clarndon/Oxford:1998.
[OT:KP] Kingdom of Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel. Eugene Merrill. Baker:1987/96.
[OT:LABS] State Archives of Assyria, Vol X: Letters from Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars. Simo Parpola. Helsinki UP:1993.
[OT:LAE] Letters from Ancient Egypt, Edward Wente, ScholarsPress:1990.
[OT:LAL] Leviticus as Literature. Mary Douglas. Oxford:1999.
[OT:LC10] Literate Culture and Tenth-Century Canaan: The Tel Zayit Abecedary in Context. Ron Tappy and P Kyle McCarter Jr (eds). Eisenbrauns:2008.
[OT:LEM] Letters from Early Mesopotamia, Piotr Michalowski, ScholarsPress:1993.
[OT:LFHK] Letters from the Hittite Kingdom. Harry Hoffner Jr. SBL:2009.
[OT:LIANE] Life in the Ancient Near East, 3100-332 BCE, Daniel C. Snell, Yale:1997.
[OT:LLIB] Law, Legend, and Incest in the Bible—Leviticus 18-20. Calum Carmichel. Cornell:1997.
[OT:LPKEA] Letters from Priests to the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal. Steven Cole and Peter Machinist (eds). HelsinkiUP:1998.
[OT:LSOT] The Literary Structure of the Old Testament: A Commentary on Genesis-Malachi. David Dorsey. Baker:1999.
[OT:LXXI] LXX-Isaiah as Translation and Interpretation: The Strategies of the Translator of the Septuagint of Isaiah. Ronald Troxel. Brill:2008.
[OT:MAB] Mesopotamia and the Bible: Comparative Explorations. Mark Chavalas and K. Lawson Younger. Baker:2002.
[OT:MALXX] Messianism and the Septuagint–Collected Essays by J Lust. K Hauspie (ed). LeuvenUP:2004.
[OT:Mari] Mari and the Bible. Abraham Malamat. Brill:1998.
[OT:MASW] The Messenger in the Ancient Semitic World. Samuel A. Meier. Harvard/Scholars Press:1988.
[OT:MC] Mesopotamian Chronicles. Jean-Jacques Glassner. SBL:2004.
[OT:MCR] The Myth of Cosmic Rebellion: A Study of its Reflexes in Ugaritic and Biblical Literature. Hugh Rowland Page Jr. Brill:1996.
[OT:MIC] Mesopotamia—The Invention of the City. Gwendolyn Leick. Penguin:2001.
[OT:MM] Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Stephanie Dalley. Oxford:1989.
[OT:MPHB1] Major Poems of the Hebrew Bible at the Interface of Hermeneutics and Structural Analysis (vol 1). J. P. Fokkelman. Van Gorcum:1998.
[OT:MPP] Military Practice and Polemic: Israel’s Laws of Warfare in Near Eastern Perspective. Michael G Hasel. AndrewsUP:2005.
[OT:NAZE] Noah’s Ark and the Ziusudra Epic. Robert Best. Enlil Press:1999.
[OT:NSBG] New Studies in Bereshit Genesis. Nehama Leibowitz & Aryeh Newman (trans). Haomanim Press/Eliner Library (Israel): n.d.
[OT:ORNEI] The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age. Walter Burkert. Harvard:1992.
[OT:OROT] On the Reliability of the Old Testament. K A Kitchen. Eerdmans:2003.
[OT:OTDATRR] The Old Testament Documents: Are They Reliable and Relevant?, Walter C. Kaiser, Jr. IVP:2001.
[OT:OTOT] The Old Testament of the Old Testament: Patriarchal Narratives and Mosaic Yahwism, R.W.L. Moberly, Fortress:1992.
[OT:OTPFOC] Old Testament Prophecy: From Oracles to Canon, by Ronald E. Clements, WJK:1996.
[OT:OWWW] Oral World and Written Word, Susan Niditch, WJK:1996.
[OT:PAB] Persia and the Bible, Edwin Yamauchi, Baker:1990/1996.
[OT:PAI] Priesthood in Ancient Israel. William Millar. Chalice:2001.
[OT:PIT] The Philistines in Transition: A History from ca 1000-730 bce. Carl Ehrlich. Brill:1996.
[OT:POU] A Primer on Ugaritic: Language, Culture, and Literature. William Schniedewind and Joel Hunt. CambridgeUP:2007.
[OT:PPANE] Prophets and Prophecy in the Ancient Near East. Martti Nissinen. SBL:2003.
[OT:PPC] Peoples of the Past–Canaanites. Jonathan N. Tubb. Univ. of Oklahoma Press:1998.
[OT:ProvSIBI] Proverbs 1-9: A Study in Inner-Biblical Interpretation. Scott Harris. SBL:1995.
[OT:PRSA] A Prophet Reads Scripture: Allusion in Isaiah 40-66. Benjamin D. Sommer. Standford:1998.
[OT:PSIB] Political Satire in the Bible, Ze’ev Weisman, SBL:1998.
[OT:PTLTR] Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, K. A. Kitchen, Aris and Philips: 1982.
[OT:PW] The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies, and Trade, Maria Eugenia Aubet (trans. Mary Turton), CambridgeUpress:1993.
[OT:PWVDM] Pharaoh’s Workers: The Villagers of Deir El Medina, Lenard Lesko (ed), Cornell:1994.
[OT:RAI] The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches. Ziony Zevit. Continuum/Zevit:2001.
[OT:RAIHC] The Reshaping of Ancient Israelite History in Chronicles. Isaac Kalimi. Eisenbrauns:2005.
[OT:RBE] A Reassessment of Biblical Elohim. Joel S Burnett. SBL:2001.
[OT:RDAIJ] Religious Diversity in Ancient Israel and Judah. Francesca Stavrakopoulou and John Barton (eds). TTClark:2010.
[OT:RFT] Remember the Former Things: The Recollection of Previous Texts in Second Isaiah. SBL:1997.
[OT:RIAM] Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia, Jean Bottero, Uchicago:2001.
[OT:RSOT] Reading Scripture in the Old Testament. G. J. Venema. Brill:2004.
[OT:RST] Rewriting the Sacred Text: What the Old Greek Texts Tell Us about the Literary Growth of the Bible. Kristin De Troyer. SBL:2003.
[OT:RTL] Reading the Lines: A Fresh Look at the Hebrew Bible. Pamela Tamarkin Reis. Hendrickson:2002.
[OT:SAAS7] State Archives of Assyria Studies Volume VII: References to Prophecy in Neo-Assyrian Sources, Martti Nissinen, Helsinki:1998.
[OT:SAAS9] State Archives of Assyria Studies Volume IX: Assyrian Prophecies, Simo Parpola, Helsinki:1997.
[OT:SAR] Septuagint and Reception. Johann Cook (ed). Brill:2009.
[OT:SAS] The Scribes and Scholars of the City of Emar in the Late Bronze Age. Yoram Cohen. Eisenbrauns:2009.
[OT:SATROTE] Story as Torah: Reading the Old Testament Ethically, Gordon J. Wenham, TTClark:2000.
[OT:SATS] Sumer and the Sumerians. Harriet Crawford. Cambridge:1991.
[OT:SBEG] State Archives of Assyria Cuneiform Texts, volume I: The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. Simo Parpola. Helsinki UP:1997. (Cuneiform only-NO translation!)
[OT:SBL] Studies in Biblical Law: From the Hebrew Bible to the Dead Sea Scrolls. Gershon Brin (Jonathan Chipman, trans). Sheffield:1994.
[OT:SCMHB] Scribal Culture and the Making of the Hebrew Bible. Karel van der Toorn. HarvardUP:2007.
[OT:SEML] Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature. Gwendolyn Leick. Routledge:1994.
[OT:SHB] Spelling in the Hebrew Bible, Francis Andersen and A. Dean Forbes, Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute: 1986.
[OT:SOG] The Suffering of God: An Old Testament Perspective. Terence E Fretheim. Fortress:1984.
[OT:SPN] Studies in the Personal Names of Genesis 1-11. Richard Hess. Eisenbrauns:2009.
[OT:SQVP] The Search for Quotation: Verbal Parallels in the Prophets. Richard L. Schultz. JSOTS:1999.
[OT:SSMJ] Scribes and Schools in Monarchic Judah: A Socio-Archeological Approach, David Jamieson-Drake, Almond Press:1991.
[OT:SWAI] Social World of Ancient Israel 1250-587 BCE. Victor Matthews and Don Benjamin. Hendrickson:1993.
[OT:SWHP] Social World of the Hebrew Prophets. Victor Matthews. Hendrickson:2001.
[OT:TACHB] Texts and Canon of the Hebrew Bible: Collected Studies. Shemaryahu Talmon. Eisenbrauns:2010.
[OT:TAE] Temples of Ancient Egypt, Byron E. Shafer (ed.), Cornell:1997
[OT:TCG] The Chronicler’s Genealogies: Towards an Understanding of 1 Chronicles 1-9. James Sparks. SBL:2008.
[OT:TCHB] Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, Emanuel Tov, Fortress:1992.
[OT:TCHB2] Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (2nd rev. ed). Emanuel Tov. Fortress:2001.
[OT:TCHW] Torah and the Chronicler’s History Work. Judson Shaver. SBL:1989.
[OT:TE] The Egyptians, Sergio Donadoni (ed), Uchicago:1997.
[OT:THTO] The Harps That Once…Sumerian Poetry in Translation. Thorkild Jacobsen. Yale:1987.
[OT:TIPE] The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, K.A. Kitchen, Aris&Philips: 1986, London.
[OT:TLOAS] The Literature of Ancient Sumer. Jeremy Black, Graham Cunningham, Eleanor Robson and Gabor Zolyomi (trans/intro). OUP:2004.
[OT:TPI] The Prophecy of Isaiah, J. Alec. Motyer, IVP:1993.
[OT:TROI] The Religion of Israel: From Its Beginnings to the Babylonian Exile. Yehezkel Kaufman and Moshe Greenberg (trans). Schocken:1960.
[OT:TT] A Test of Time, David Rohl, Arrow/Random:1995.
[OT:UEGT] Under Every Green Tree: Popular Religion in Sixth-Century Judah. Susan Ackerman. Eisenbrauns:2001.
[OT:VG] The Vengeance of God, H.G.L. Peels, Brill:1995.
[OT:WALWAI] Writing and Literacy in the World of Ancient Israel: Epigraphic Evidence from the Iron Age. Christopher A Rollston. SBL:2010.
[OT:WBCMPS] War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage. Lawrence H. Keeley. Oxford:1996.
[OT:WDBWK] What did the Biblical Writers Know & When did they Know it?, William G. Dever, Eerdmans:2001.
[OT:WHAE] Wit and Humor in Ancient Egypt. Patrick Houlihan. Rubicon:2001.
[OT:WIAG] What is a God?–Anthropomorphic and Non-Anthropomorphic Aspects of Deity in Ancient Mesopotamia. Barbara Nevling Porter (ed). CascoBay:2009.
[OT:WIAI] Worship in Ancient Israel–An Essential Guide. Walter Brueggemann. Abingdon:2005.
[OT:WLMI] Wisdom Literature in Mesopotamia and Israel. Richard Clifford (ed). SBL:2007.
[OT:WOG] The Writing of Gods: The Evolution of Divine Classifiers in the Old Kingdom. Racheli Shalomi-Hen. HarrassowitzVerlag:2006.
[OT:WOT] A Whirlpool of Torment: Israelite Traditions of God as an Oppressive Presence. James Crenshaw. SBL:2008.
[OT:WSIANEP] Writings and Speech in Israelite and Ancient Near Eastern Prophecy, Ehud Ben Zvi and Michael Floyd (eds), SBL:2000.
[OTEC] The Old Testament in Early Christianity: Canon and Interpretation in the Light of Modern Research, E. Earle Ellis, Baker: 1991.
[OTP] The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (2 vols), Charlesworth (ed), Doubleday: 1983.
[OTPs] Old Testament Parallels, Matthews and Benjamin, Paulist: 1991, 276.
[OWC] Old World Civilizations–the Rise of Cities and States, Goran Burenhult, gen. ed. Harper/American Museum of Natural History: 1994.
[PAC] Pagans and Christians, Robin Lane Fox, HarperCollins: 1986.
[PAK] Pharoahs and Kings, David Rohl, Crown: 1995.
[PANE1] The Ancient Near East, Vol I: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures, Pritchard, Princeton: 1958..
[PANE2] The Ancient Near East, Vol II: A New Anthology of Texts and Pictures, Pritchard, Princeton: 1975.
[Pauly] Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopedia of the Ancient World. Cancik/Scheider (ed. Germam) and Christine Salazar/David Orton (ed. English). Brill:2002 and on-going.
[PC] Paul the Convert, Alan F. Segal, Yale: 1990.
[PCE] The Pentateuch in Its Cultural Environment. Livingston, Herbert G., Baker, 1974.
[PCE2] The Pentateuch in Its Cultural Environment (2nd Ed). Livingston, Herbert G., Baker, 1987.
[PCSue] Suetonius: The Twelve Caesars, Penguin Classics.
[PCTAIR] Tacitus: The Annals of Imperial Rome, Penguin Classics.
[PCTTH} Tacitus: The Histories, Penguin Classics.
[PE] Prophets and Emperors: Human and Divine Authority from Augustus to Theodosius, David Potter, Harvard: 1994.
[PFJFC] Paul–Follower of Jesus or Founder of Christianity?, David Wenham, Eerdmans: 1995.
[PH:APJ] Atheism: A Philosophical Justification. Michael Martin. Temple:1990.
[PH:ASO] A Social Ontology. David Weissman. Yale:2000.
[PH:ATMS] Animals and Their Moral Standing, Stephen R.L. Clark, Routledge:1997.
[PH:Audi2] Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge, Routledge:1998.
[PH:AVN] Alienation and Value-Neutrality. AJ Loughlin. Ashgate(UK):1998.
[PH:BE] Bayesian Epistemology. Luc Bovens and Shephan Hartmann. OxfordUP:2003.
[PH:BTS] Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. Daniel Dennett. Viking:2006.
[PH:CDE] Contemporary Debates in Epistemology. Matthias Steup and Ernest Sosa (eds). Blackwell:2005.
[PH:CEPR] A Concise Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Religion. Anthony Thiselton. BakerAcademic:2002.
[PH:CGBT] Can God be Trusted? Faith and the Challenge of Evil. John G. Stackhouse, Jr.Oxford:1998.
[PH:CGBT2] Can God be Trusted? Faith and the Challenge of Evil (2nd Ed). John Stackhouse. IVP:2009.
[PH:CPRE] Contemporary Perspectives on Religious Epistemology. Douglas Geivett and Brendan Sweetman (eds). Oxford:1992.
[PH:CWT1] Christianity and Western Thought: Volume 1, From the Ancient World to the Age of Enlightenment. Colin Brown. IVP:1990.
[PH:CWT2] Christianity and Western Thought—A History of Philosophers, Ideas & Movements (vol2), Faith and Reason in the 19th Century. Steve Wilkens and Alan Padgett. IVP:2000.
[PH:DDW] Divine Discourse: Philosophical Reflection on the Claim that God Speaks, Nicholas Wolterstorff, Cambridge:1995.
[PH:DH] Divine Hiddenness–New Essays. Daniel Howard-Snyder and Paul K. Moser (eds). Cambridge:2002.
[PH:DMT] Divine Motivation Theory. Linda Zagzebski. Cambridge:2004.
[PH:DNNHE] Dark Nature: A Natural History of Evil. Lyall Watson. Harper:1995.
[PH:DOMT] Dimensions of Moral Theory: An Introduction to Metaethics and Moral Psychology. Jonathan Jacobs. Blackwell:2002.
[PH:EAE] The Evidential Argument from Evil. Daniel Howard-Snyder. IndianaUP:1996.
[PH:EBIV] Epistemology: Becoming Intellectually Virtuous, W. Jay Wood, IVP:1998. (In the Contours of Christian Philosophy series)
[PH:EG] Eternal God: A Study of God without Time. Paul Heim. Oxford:1988.(Defends the logical coherence of a God “outside of” time.)
[PH:EIHVC] Evil: Inside Human Violence and Cruelty. Roy F Baumeister. Freeman:1997/99.
[PH:EIMT] Evil in Modern Thought: An Alternative History of Philosophy. Susan Neiman. Princeton:2004.
[PH:EOFRTB] Experience of God and the Rationality of Theistic Belief. Jerome Gellman. Cornell:1997.
[PH:EOT] The Epistemology of Testimony. Jennifer Lackey and Ernest Soa (eds). OxfordUP:2006.
[PH:EPHJ] Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment. Michal Bishop and JD Trout. OxfordUP:2005.
[PH:FAR] Faith and Rationality: Reason and Belief in God, Alvin Plantinga and Nicholas Wolterstorff (eds), NotreDame:1983.
[PH:FP2O] From Philo to Origen: Middle Platonism in Transition. Robert Berchman. SBL:1984.
[PH:FWPS] Free Will–A Philosophical Study. Laura Waddell Ekstrom. Westview/Perseus:2000.
[PH:GAE] God and Evil: An Introduction to the Issues. Michael L. Peterson. Westview:1998. (An excellent technical book on the POE in its various forms.)
[PH:GN] Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals, Frans De Waal, Harvard:1996. (Fascinating–field documentation of social cooperation in higher primates.)
[PH:GPT] Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon. FE Peters. NYUpress:1967.
[PH:GPV] The Greek Philosophical Vocabulary. JO Urmson. Duckworth:1990.
[PH:GTE] God the Evidence: The Reconciliation of Faith and Reason in a Postsecular World. Patrick Glynn. Forum/Prima:1997/99.
[PH:HEGG] Horrendous Evils and the Goodness of God. Marilyn McCord Adams. Cornell:1999.
[PH:HPSMF] How Postmodernism Serves My Faith: Questioning Truth in Language, Philosophy and Art. Crystal Downing. IVP:2006.
[PH:IDNT] In Defense of Natural Theology: A Post-Humean Assessment. James Sennett and Douglas Groothuis (eds). IVP:2005.
[PH:IEE] Issues in Evolutionary Ethics, Paul Thompson (ed.), SUNY:1995.
[PH:JRAW] Justice: Rights and Wrongs. Nicholas Wolterstorff. PrincetonUP:2008.
[PH:LWFW] Living Without Free Will. Derk Pereboom. Cambridge:2001.
[PH:MH] Metaphysical Horror. Leszek Kolakowski. UChicago:1988.
[PH:ML] Modal Logic. Patrick Blackburn, Maarten de Rijke, and Yde Venema. CambridgeUP:2001.
[PH:NewEncyPH] Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2nd Ed, 10vols). Donald Borchert (ed). Macmillian:2006.
[PH:NIML] A New Introduction to Modal Logic. GE Hughes and MJ Cresswell. Routledge:1996.
[PH:NLHU] The Nature and Limits of Human Understanding. Anthony Sanford (ed). T&TClark:2003.
[PH:ONN] Objectivity is Not Neutrality: Explanatory Schemes in History. Thomas Haskell. JohnsHopkins:1998.
[PH:OV] The Origins of Virtue: Human Instincts and the Evolution of Cooperation, Matt Ridley, Viking:1996.
[PH:PANTW] Philodemus and the New Testament World. John Fitzgerald, Dirk Obbink, and Glenn Holland (eds). Brill:2004.
[PH:PLIP] Putting Logic in its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief. David Christensen. OxfordUP:2004.
[PH:POER] The Problem of Evil (Oxford Readings in Philosophy). Marilyn McCord Adams and Robert Merrihew Adams (eds.). Oxford:1990.
[PH:POP] The Problem of Pain. C.S. Lewis. Simon/Schuster:1962
[PH:PTCD] Philosophical Theology and Christian Doctrine. Brian Hebblewaite. Blackwell:2005.
[PH:PTE] Probability and Theistic Explanation. Robert Prevost. Oxford:1990.
[PH:PVI] Political Visions and Illusions: A Survey and Christian Critique of Contemporary Ideologies. David T. Koyzis. IVP:2003.
[PH:RAA] Responsibility and Atonement. Richard Swinburne. OxfordUP:1989.
[PH:RE] Rethinking Evil: Contemporary Perspectives. Maria Pia Lara (ed). UCal:2001.
[PH:RHW] Reason for the Hope Within. Michael Murray (ed.). Eerdmans:1999. (Absolutely the best book I have read on philosophical apologetics ever! EVERY Christian college student should read this book carefully.)
[PH:RMPG] Why Believe? Reason and Mystery as Pointers to God. C. Stephen Evans. Eerdmans/IVP:1996.
[PH:ROC] The Revenge of Conscience: Politics and the Fall of Man. J. Budziszewski. Spence:1999.
[PH:SOG] The Science of God. Alister McGrath. Eerdmans:2004.
[PH:TCPPP] Truth or Consequences: The Promise and Perils of Postmoderism, Millard J. Erickson, IVP:2001.
[PH:TDD] The Dawkins Delusion: Atheist Fundamentalism and the Denial of the Divine. Alister and Joanna Collicutt McGrath. IVP:2007.
[PH:TEE] The Temptations of Evolutionary Ethics, Paul Lawrence Farber, UCpress:1994. (Excellent survey of the history of evolutionary ethics.)
[PH:TEG] The Elusive God: Reorienting Religious Epistemology. Paul K Moser. CambridgeUP:2008.
[PH:THP1] The Hellenistic Philosophers, Volume 1: Translations of the Principal Sources, with Philosophical Commentary. AA Long and DN Sedley. CambridgeUP:1987.
[PH:THP2] The Hellenistic Philosophers, Volume 2: Greek and Latin Texts with Notes and Bibliography. AA Long and DN Sedley. CambridgeUP:1987.
[PH:TLT] The Liar’s Tale: A History of Falsehood. Jeremy Campbell. Norton:2001.
[PH:TMP] The Middle Platonists: 80 BC to AD 220. John Dillon. Duckword:1996(RevEd).
[PH:TOA] The Twilight of Atheism: The Rise and Fall of Disbelief in the Modern World. Alister McGrath. Doubleday-Galilee:2004/2006.
[PH:VE] Virute Ethics: A Critical Reader, Daniel Statman (ed.), EdinburghUpress:1997.
[PH:WAFF] Walking Away from Faith: Unraveling the Mystery of Belief and Unbelief. Ruth A. Tucker. IVP:2002.
[PH:WDWD] What Do W Deserve? A Reader on Justice and Desert. Louis Pojman and Owen McLeod (eds). OxfordUP:1999.
[PH:WOTH] Written on the Heart–The Case for Natural Law. J. Budziszewski. IVP:1997.
[PJC] On Pagans, Jews, and Christians, Arnaldo Momigliano, Wesleyan Univ. Press: 1987.
[PLG] The Preface to Luke’s Gospel–Literary convention and social context in Luke 1.1-4 and Acts 1.1, Loveday Alexander, Cambridge: 1993.
[PLW] Paul the Letter-Writer, Jerome Murphy-O’Connor, The Liturgical Press: 1995.
[PM] Parallel Myths, J.F. Bieflein, Ballantine: 1994.
[PM:PMF] Philosophical Myths of the Fall. Stephen Mulhall. PrincetonUP:2005.
[PMT] Postmodern Times: A Christian Guide to Contemporary Culture, Gene Edward Veith, jr., Crossway: 1994.
[POTT] Peoples of Old Testament Times D. J. Wiseman, ed. Oxford: 1973.
[POTW] Peoples of the Old Testament World; Hoerth, Mattingly, Yamauchi (eds.), Baker: 1994.
[PPDS] Priest, Prophets, Diviners, Sages, by Lester Grabbe, Trinity Press: 1995.
[PREC] Pagan Rome and the Early Christians, Stephen Benko, Indiana University Press: 1984.
[PRRE] Polybius: The Rise of the Roman Empire, Penguin Classics: 1979.
[PS:AHU] At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity, Stuart Kauffman, Oxford: 1995.
[PS:BAB] Boundaries and Barriers: On the Limits to Scientific Knowledge. JL Casti and Anders Karlqvist (eds). PerseusBooks:1996.
[PS:CAMW] Coming of Age in the Milky Way. Ferris, Timothy, Anchor, 1988.
[PS:DAC] A Different Approach to Cosmology: From a Static Universe through the Big Bang towards Reality. Fred Hoyle, Geoffrey Burbidge, and Jayant V. Narlikar. Cambridge:2000.
[PS:ES] The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the Scientific Age, John Horgan, Addison-Wesley: 1996.
[PS:IB] The Infamous Boundary: Seven Decades of Controversy in Quantum Physics, David Wick, Birkhauser: 1995.
[PS:ID] Intelligent Design, William A. Dembski, IVP:1999.
[PS:IQM] The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics by Roland Omnes. Princeton: 1994, 550pp.
[PS:IRPL] Inventing Reality: Physics as Language by Bruce Gregory, Wiley Science: 1990 (229pp).
[PS:MD] Maxwell’s Demon: Why Warmth Disperses and Time Passes, Hans Christian von Baeyer, Random:1998.
[PS:MT] The Mathematical Tourist (updated), Ivars Peterson, WH Freeman:1998.
[PS:NLU] The Non-Local Universe: The New Physics and Matters of the Mind. Robert Nadeau and Menas Kafatos. Oxford:1999.
[PS:PB] Paradigms and Barriers: How Habits of Mind Govern Scientific Beliefs. Howard Margolis. UChicago:1993.
[PS:SKSR] Schroedinger’s Kittens and the Search for Reality, John Gibbon, Little/Brown: 1995.
[PS:TES] The Edges of Science. Morris, Richard, Simon-Schuster, 1990.
[PS:TIC] Thinking in Complexity, K. Mainzer, Springer-Verlag: 1994.
[PS:TMM] The Matter Myth, Paul Davies and John Gribbin, Touchstone:1992.
[PsC] Pseudonymity and Canon, David G. Meade, Mohr (Siebeck): 1986 (Tubingen)
[PTS] The Place is Too Small for Us: The Israelite Prophets in Recent Scholarship, Robert P. Gordon (ed.), Eisenbrauns: 1995.
[PUT] Philosophy for Understanding Theology, Diogenes Allen, John Knox:1985.
[Q:Haleem] The Qur’an: A New Translation by MAS Abdel Haleem. Oxford:2004.
[RAMBAN] Ramban/Nachmanides’ Commentary on the Torah. Rabbi Chavel (trans). Shilo:1976 (5 vols).
[RC] Rhetorcial Criticism, Phyllis Trible, Fortress: 1994.
[REF:BB] Beyond Babel: A Handbook for Biblical Hebrew and Related Languages. John Kaltner and Steven L McKenzie (eds). SBL:2002.
[REF:DSSC1] The Dead Sea Scrolls Concordance, Volume One, Non-Biblical Texts from Qumran (Parts 1 and 2). Martin Abegg et. al. Brill:2003.
[REF:EBP] Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy: The Complete Guide to Scriptural Predictions and their Fulfillment, J. Barton Payne, Baker:1973.
[RF] Reasonable Faith, William Lane Craig, Crossway Books:1994.
[RFC] Reasonable Faith, Winfried Corduan, Broadman&Holman:1993.
[RG] The Redaction of Genesis, Gary A. Rendsburg, Eisenbraus:1986.
[RI] Risen Indeed–Making Sense of the Resurrection, Stephen T. Davis, Eerdmans: 1993.
[RJJ] The Religion of Jesus the Jew, Geza Vermes, Fortress: 1993.
[RKH] Introduction to the Old Testament. Harrison, R.K. , Eerdmans Publishing, 1969.
[RLRS] Roman Law and Roman Society in the New Testament, A.N. Sherwin-White, Oxford: 1963, reprinted Baker: 1992.
[RMML] Redating Matthew, Mark, and Luke by John Wenham, IVP: 1992.
[RNC] The Rise of Normative Christianity, Arland J. Hultgren, Fortress: 1994.
[RNE] The Roman Near East: 31BC – AD337, Fergus Millar, Harvard: 1993.
[ROC] The Rise of Christianity: A Sociologist Reconsiders History, Rodney Stark, Princeton: 1996.
[RPWAH] Reading Papyri, Writing Ancient History, Roger S. Bagnall, Routledge: 1995.
[RRB] Reason and Religious Belief by Peterson, Hasker, Reichenback, and Basinger, Oxford: 1991.
[RRE] The Religions of the Roman Empire, John Ferguson, Cornell:1970.
[RS] Related Strangers: Jews and Christians 70-170 C.E., Stephen G. Wilson, Fortress: 1995.
[RTG] ReThinking Genesis, Duane Garrett, Baker: 1991.
[RW] The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community, William McNeill, Univ. of Chicago:1991.
[SAI] The Sage in Israel and the Ancient Near East, John Gammie and Leo Perdue (eds.), Eisenbrauns: 1990.
[SC] The Supremacy of Christ, Ajith Fernando, Crossway: 1995.
[SC2] Scripture in Context II: More essays on the Comparative Method, Willaim Hallo, James Moyer and Leo Perdue (eds.), Eisenbrauns:1983.
[SCAP] The Synagoges and Churches of Ancient Palestine, Leslie Hoppe, The Liturgical Press: 1994.
[Schaff] History of the Christian Church, Philip Schaff, AP&A, 3 vols.
[SDFML] Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology, and Legend , Maria Leach (ed.), HarperRow: 1972.
[SHJ] Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research, Bruce Chilton and Craig Evans, eds. Brill: 1994.
[SOC:CPSE] Coercive Power in Social Exchange, Linda D. Molm, Cambridge:1997
[Soden] The Ancient Orient by Wolfram von Soden (translated by Schley), Eerd: 1994.
[SPI] The Synoptic Problem–An Introduction, Robert Stein, Baker: 1987.
[SPP] Sage, Priest, Prophet: Religious and Intellectual Leadership in Ancient Israel, Joseph Blenkinsopp, WJKP:1995.
[SS] The Scepter and the Star–The Messiahs of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Ancient Literature, John J. Collins, Doubleday: 1995.
[ST:CI] Characters of the Inquisition. William Thomas Walsh. Tan:1940.
[ST:CIEJS] Coversos, Inquisition, and the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. Norman Roth. UWisconsin:2002.
[ST:FI] Flesh Inferno: Atrocities of Torquemada and the Spanish Inquisition. Simon Whitechapel. Creation:2003.
[ST:I] Inquisition. Edward Peters. UCal:1988.
[ST:MS] The Marranos of Spain. B. Netanyahu. Cornell:1999 (3rd Ed).
[ST:OIFCS] The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain. B. Netanyahu. NewYorkReview:2001 (2nd Ed).
[ST:SIHR] The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. Henry Kamen. Yale:1997.
[ST:TDRRS] Tasting the Dish: Rabbinic Rhetorics of Sexuality. Michael Satlow. Scholars:1995.
[ST:TSI] The Spanish Inquisition. Cecil Roth. Norton:1964.
[ST:WII] Women in the Inquisition: Spain and the New World. Mary Giles (ed). JohnsHopkins:1999.
[STB] Sacrifice in the Bible, Roger Beckwith and Martin J. Selman, eds. Baker/Paternoster: 1995.
[STOT] The School Tradition of the Old Testament, E.W. Heaton, Oxford: 1994.
[Sumer] The Sumerians, C. Leonard Wooley, Norton:1965.
[SWWRT] The Sages: The World and Wisdom of the Rabbis of the Talmud., Ephraim E. Urbach. Harvard: 1975, trns. 1987.
[TAM] The Ancient Mysteries: A Sourcebook, Marvin Meyer (ed.), HarperCollins:1987.
[TANT] The Apocryphal New Testament: A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation based on M.R. James, J. K. Elliott’s, (Oxford: 1993)
[TAPA] Through the Ages in Palestinian Archeology, Walter E. Rast, Trinity Press: 1992.
[TAW] Smithsonian Timelines of the Ancient World, Chris Scarre, Dorling Kindersley: 1993.
[TC] Textual Criticism–Recovering the Text of the Hebrew Bible, McCarter (Jr), Fortress: 1986. pp.94.
[TCQ] Three Crucial Questions about Jesus, Murray J. Harris, Baker: 1994.
[TCS1] The Context of Scripture: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World, William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger, eds., Brill: 1997.
[TCS2] The Context of Scripture, vol 2: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World. Hallo and Younger (eds.). Brill:2000.
[TCS3] The Context of Scripture, vol 3: Archival Documents from the Biblical World. Hallo and Younger (eds.). Brill:2002.
[TDNT] Theological Dict. of the NT (Kittel)
[TDNTlittle] Theological Dict. Of the NT, Abridged (the “little Kittel”)
[TDOT] Theological Dict. of the OT
[TEAA] To Everyone and Answer: A Case for the Christian Worldview. Beckwith, William Lane Craig, Moreland (eds). IVP:2004.
[TEOM] To Each its Own Meaning: An Introduction to Biblical Criticisms and Their Application, Steven L. McKenzie and Stephen R. Haynes (eds.), WJKP: 1993.
[TFH] The First Historians: The Hebrew Bible and History, Baruch Halpern, Penn State: 1988.
[TGNTC] The Grace New Testament Commentary (2vols). Robert Wilkin (ed). GraceEvangSoc:2010.
[TH:3VEOE] Three Views on Eastern Orthodoxy and Evangelicalism. James Stamoolis (gen. ed.). Zondervan:2004.
[TH:ALPD] Angels of Light, Powers of Darkness. Stephen Noll. IVP:1998.
[TH:ATMAR] Arminian Theology: Myths and Realities. Roger E Olson. IVPacademic:2006.
[TH:BHP] The Bible and Homosexual Practice: Texts and Hermeneutics. Robert Gagnon. Abingdon:2001.
[TH:BMR] Black Man’s Regligion: Can Christianity be Afrocentric? Glenn Usry and Craig S. Keener, IVP:1996]
[TH:BW] Being White: Finding our Place in a MultiEthnic World. Paula Harris and Doug Sharp. IVP:2004.
[TH:CAJG] Christ and the Judgement of God: The Limits of Divine Retribution in New Testament Thought. Stephen Travis. HendricksonPaternoster:2008.
[TH:CSTH] Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. John Boswell. Uchicago:1980.
[TH:D] Deliverance: Psychic Disturbances and Occult Involvement (Second Edition). Michael Perry (ed). SPCK:1996..
[TH:DARNB] Divorce and Remarriage in the Bible: The Social and Literary Context. David Instone-Brewer. Eerdmans:2002.
[TH:DARNC] Divorce and Remarriage in the Church: Biblical Solutions for Pastoral Realities. David Instone-Brewer. IVP:2003.
[TH:DBF] Defending Black Faith: Answers to Tough Questions about African-American Christianity. IVP:1997.
[TH:DDECT] A Different Death: Euthanasia & the Christian Tradition. Edward J. Larson & Darrel W. Amundsen. IVP:1998.
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[TH:DW] Diverse Worship: African-American, Caribbean & Hispanic Perspectives. Pedrite U. Mayard-Reid. IVP:2000.
[TH:EAE] Exclusion and Embrace: A Theological Exploration of Identity, Otherness, and Reconciliation. Abingdon:1996.
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[TH:EC] The Elders of the City: A Study of the Elders-Laws in Deuteronomy. Timothy Willis. SBL:2001.
[TH:EIE] The Erosion of Inerrancy in Evangelicalism: Responding to New Challenges to Biblical Authority. GK Beale. Crossway:2008.
[TH:EJG] Evil and the Justice of God. NT Wright. IVP:2006.
[TH:EP] Election and Predestination: Keys to a Clearer Understanding. Samuel Fisk. Wipf and Stock:1997.
[TH:FASE] The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Neil M Gorsuch. PrincetonUP:2006.
[TH:FGT] Free Grace Soteriology. David R Anderson. Xulon:2010.
[TH:FO] The Faith of the Outsider–Exclusion and Inclusion in the Biblical Story. Frank Anthony Spina. Eerdmans:2005.
[TH:FOC] Free of Charge; Giving and Forgiving in a Culture Stripped of Grace. Miroslav Volf. Zondervan:2005.
[TH:FTC2] The Fire that Consumes: The Biblical Case for Conditional Immortality (rev.ed). Edward William Fudge. Paternoster:1994.
[TH:GAT4V] God and Time–Four Views. Gregory Ganssle (ed). IVP:2001.
[TH:GFFW] Grace, Faith, Free Will: Contrasting Views of Salvation–Calvinism and Arminianism. Robert Picirilli. RandallHouse:2002.
[TH:GTP] God the Peacemaker: How Atonement Brings Shalom. Graham Cole. IVP:2009.
[TH:HAS] Holiness and Sexuality–Homosexuality in a biblical context. David Peterson (ed). Paternoster:2004.
[TH:HB2V] Homosexuality and the Bible–Two Views. Dan Via and Robert Gagnon. Fortress:2003.
[TH:Heaven] Heaven–the Logic of Eternal Joy. Jerry Walls. Oxford:2002.
[TH:HFG] The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. Gerald Schroeder. FreePress:2001.
[TH:HHLHQ] Hell: A Hard Look at a Hard Question. David Powys. Paternoster:1997.
[TH:HITC] Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate. Jeffrey Siker (ed). WJK:1994.
[TH:HLD] Hell: The Logic of Damnation. Jerry L. Walls. UofNotreDame:1992.
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[TH:HVS] A High View of Scripture? The Authority of the Bible and the Formation of the New Testament Canon. Craig D Allert. Baker:2007.
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[TH:IBIGI] Is Believing in God Irrational? Amy Orr-Ewing. IVP:2008.
[TH:IMBDSS] Israel’s Messiah in the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Richard Hess and M Daniel Carroll R (eds). Baker:2003.
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[TH:IMPCHS] In My Place Condemned He Stood: Celebrating the Glory of the Atonement. JI Packer and Mark Dever. Crossway:2007.
[TH:IRBE] The Idea of Retribution in the Book of Ezekiel. Ka Leung Wong. Brill:2001.
[TH:ITBI] Is the Bible Intolerant? Amy Orr-Ewing. IVP:2005.
[TH:ITMITT] Is There a Meaning in This Text? The Bible, The Reader, and the Moralityof Literary Knowledge. Kevin Vanhoozer. Zondervan:1998.
[TH:IWG] It was Good: Making Art to the Glory of God (rev/expanded). Ned Bustard (ed). SquareHaloBooks:2006.
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[TH:KHSOT] Knowing the Holy Spirit Through the Old Testament. Christopher JH Wright. IVPacademic:2006.
[TH:LFCE] Light from the Christian East; An Introduction to the Orthodox Tradition. James R Payton. IVP:2007.
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[TH:NCP] The New Chosen People: A Corporate View of Election. William W. Klein. Academie/Zondervan:1990.
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[TH:OSC] The Other Side of Calvinism (revised). Laurence M Vance. VancePubs:1999.
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[TH:PFOT] Pierced For Our Transgressions: Rediscovering the Glory of Penal Substitution. Steve Jeffery, Michael Ovey and Andrew Sach. Crossway:2007.
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[TH:RH] Razing Hell: Rethinking Everything You’ve Been Taught about God’s Wrath and Judgment. Sharon Baker. WJKP:2010.
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[TH:SAUBOC] Sex and Uncertainty in the Body of Christ: Intersex Conditions and Christian Theology. Susannah Cornwall. Equinox:2010.
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[TH:SSTHR] Self and Self-Transformation in the History of Religions. David Shulman and Guy Stroumsa (eds). Oxford:2002.
[TH:SWH] Slaves, Women, and Homosexuals: Exploring the Hermeneutics of Cultural Analysis. William Webb. IVP:2001.
[TH:TBT] The Boswell Thesis: Essays on Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality. Mathew Kuefler (ed). Uchicago:2006.
[TH:TCFA] The Case for Angels. Peter Williams. Paternoster:2002.
[TH:TCS] The Clarity of Scripture. James Callahan. IVP:2001.
[TH:TGE] The Great Exchange: My Sin for His Righteousness. Jerry Bridges and Bob Bevington. Crossway:2007.
[TH:TGWR] The God Who Risks: A Theology of Providence, John Sanders, IVP:1998. (outstanding explication, and partial defense of the “openness of God” movement)
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[TH:TKTP] To Kill and Take Possession: Law, Morality, and Society in Biblical Stories. Daniel Friedman. Eerdmans:2002.
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[TH:TSS] The Suffering Servant: Isaiah 53 in Jewish and Christian Sources. Bernd Janowski and Peter Stuhlmacher (eds). Eerdmans:2004.
[TH:TSST] Trinitarian Soundings in Systematic Theology. Paul Louis Metzger (ed). TTClark:2005.
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[TH:TWB] Theodicy in the World of the Bible. Antti Laato and Johannes de Moor (eds). Brill:2003.
[TH:TWF] The Way Forward? Christian Voices on Homosexuality and the Church. Timothy Bradshaw (ed). Eerdmans:2003 (2nd ed).
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[TJL] The Jesus Legend, G.A. Wells, Open Court: 1996.
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[TK] Two Kingdoms: The Church and Culture through the Ages, Clouse, Pierard, and Yamauchi, Moody:1993.
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[TOB] The Other Bible, Willis Barnstone (ed.), Harper-Collins: 1984.
[TOH] The Timetables of History (3rd ed), Berhard Grun, Touchstone/Simon-Schuster: 1991.
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[UDWJ] Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus, Bivin and Blizzard, Destiny Image: 1994 (2nd ed).
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[WAG] What are the Gospels: A comparison with Graeco-Roman Biography, Richard A. Burridge, Cambridge: 1992.
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[WBC] Word Biblical Commentary (multivols)
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[WR:AJOJ3] Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus: Messianic Prophecy Objections. Michael L Brown. Baker:2003.
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[WR:EncycHin] The Hindus–Encyclopedia of Hinduism (5vols). Subodh Kapoor (ed). Cosmo:2000.
[WR:EncycRPWLA] Encyclopedia of Religious and Philosophical Writings in Late Antiquity: Pagan, Judaic, Christian. Jacob Neusner and Alan Avery-Peck (chief eds). Brill:2007.
[WR:EOB] The Eye of the Beholder: The Life of Muhammad as viewed by the early Muslims–a Textual Analysis. Uri Rubin. Darwin/Princeton:1995.
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[WR:FIC] Faiths in Conflict? Christian Integrity in a Multicultural World. Vinoth Ramachandra. IVP:1999.
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[WR:THOI] The Hidden Origins of Islam: New Research into Its Early History. Karl-Heinz Ohlig and Gerd-R Puin (eds). Prometheus:2010.
[WR:THS] A Textbook of Hadith Studies: Authenticity, Compilation, Classification, and Criticism of Hadith. Mohammad Hashim Kamali. IslamicFoundation:2005.
[WR:TIJ] The Islamic Jesus: Portrait of Jesus in Islamic Literature and Tradition. Daniel Deleanu (ed) and J Robson/D Delanu (trans from Arabic and Latin). WritersClubPress:2002.
[WR:TM] The Monotheists:Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition (two vols). F. E. Peters. Princeton:2003.
[WR:TNSP] The Theology of Nahmanides Systematically Presented. David Novak. Scholars:1992.
[WR:TOI] The Traditions of Islam. Alfred Guillaume. AyerCoPublishers:1987 (reprint of 1966 copy of 1924 OUP work).
[WR:TOM] Theories of Mythology. Eric Csapo. Blackwell:2005.
[WR:TOTP] Tales of the Prophets—Qisas al-anbiya. Muhammad ibn Abd Allah al-Kisai and Wheeler M Thackston Jr (trans). GreatBooksOfTheIslamicWorld:1997.
[WR:TQK] The Quran, Muhammed Zafrulla Khan (trans.), Olive Branch Press:1997.
[WR:TQS] The Quran, M.H.Shakir (trans.), Tahrike Tarsile Quran, Inc:1993 (8th ed).
[WR:TR] The Torah Revealed: Talmudic Masters Unveil the Secrets of the Bible. Avraham Yaakov Finkel. Jossey-Bass (Wiley):2004.
[WR:TSOB] The Spread of Buddhism. Ann Heirman and Stephan Peter Bumbacher (eds). Brill:2007.
[WR:TSTM] The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Wilferd Madelung. CambridgeUP:1997.
[WR:UCI] The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Muhammad Qasim Zaman. Princeton:2002.
[WR:UFI] The Unseen Face of Islam–Sharing the gospel with ordinary Muslims at street level. Bill Musk. MonarchBooks:2003 (rev.ed)
[WR:UHWPM] Untold: A History of the Wives of Prophet Muhammed. Tamam Kahn. MonkfishBookPub:2010.
[WR:UI] Unveiling Islam. Ergun Mehmet Caner and Emir Fethi Caner. Kregel:2002.
[WR:URWH] Universal Religions in World History: The Spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam to 1500. Donald Johnson and Jean Elliott Johnson. McGrawHill:2007.
[WR:UTQTAS] Understanding the Quran: Themes and Style. Muhammed Adbel Haleem. IBTaurus:1999.
[WR:VI] The Vision of Islam. Sachiko Murata and William Chittick. ParagonHouse:1994.
[WR:VLRLNE] The Variety of Local Religious Life in the Near East in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods. Ted Kaizer (ed). Brill:2008.
[WR:VRQ] Variant Readings of the Quran: A Critical Study of their Historical and Linguistic Origins. Ahmad Ali al Imam. International Institute of Islamic Thought:1998.
[WR:WATNH] What About Those Who have Never Heard? Three Views on the Destiny of the Unevangelized. John Sanders (ed). IVP:1995.
[WR:WBR] What’s Bothering Rashi? A Guide to In-Depth Analysis of his Torah Commentary. Avigdor Bonchek. Feldheim:1997-2002 (5vols).
[WR:WCBS] Who can be Saved? Reassessing Salvation in Christ and World Religions. Terrance Tiessen. IVP:2004.
[WR:WII] Women in Islam: An Anthology from the Quran and Hadiths. Nicholas Awde (trans/ed.). HippocreneBooks:2005.
[WR:WIQTAI] Women in the Quran, Traditions, and Interpretation. Barbara Freyer Stowasser. OxfordUP:1994.
[WR:WKRS] What the Koran Really Says. Ibn Warraq (ed/trans). Prometheus:2002.
[WR:WPOI] Waging Peace on Islam. Christine A Malloughi. IVP:2000.
[WR:WS] World Scriptures: An Introduction to Comparative Religions. Kenneth Kramer. Paulist:1986.
[WR:WTB] The World of Tibetian Buddhism, The Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso), Wisdom Pubs: 1995.
[WR:WTBT] What the Buddha Taught, Walpola Rahula, Grove:1974 (2nd ed.)
[WR:WTSEFS] When They Severed Earth from Sky: How the Human Mind Shapes Myth. Elizabeth Barber and Paul Barber. Princeton:2004.
[WR:WWNCM] Who’s Who in Non-Classical Mythology, Egerton Sykes with new material by Alan Kendall, Oxford: 1952, 1993.
[WR:XTP] Exegesis in the Targum of the Psalms: The Old, the New, and the Rewritten. Timothy Edwards. Gorgias:2007.
[WR:YIA] Yahweh in Africa: Essays on Africa and the Old Testament. Knut Holter. PeterLang:2000.
[WR:ZIH] Zoroaster in History, Gherardo Gnoli, Bibliotheca Persica:2000.
[WS:AHTO] A History of their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present (vol 1), Bonnie Anderson and Judith Zinssser, Harper&Row:1988.
[WS:AHW] A History of Women: From Ancient Goddesses to Christian Saints. Pauline Schmitt Pantel (ed). Belknap/Harvard:1992.
[WS:AST] An Anthology of Sacred Texts by and about Women, Serinity Young (ed.), Crossroad: 1995.
[WS:ATW] Apology to Women: Christian Images of the Female Sex, Ann Brown,IVP: 1991.
[WS:AWA] Are We Amused? Humour about Women in the Biblical Worlds. Athalya Brenner (ed). T&TClark/JSOT:2003.
[WS:AWB] All the Women of the Biblee, Edith Deen, HarperCollins:1955.
[WS:DBE] Discovering Biblical Equality: Complementarity without Hierarchy. Ronald Pierce and Rebecca Groothius (gen eds). IVP:2004.
[WS:DCTMH] Does Christianity Teach Male Headship—The Equal-Regard Marriage and its Critics. David Blankenhorn, Don Browning, and Mary Stewart Van Leewen (eds). Eerdmans:2004.
[WS:DWCH] A Dictionary of Women in Church History, Mary L. Hammack, 1984.
[WS:EWEC] Essays on Women in Earliest Christianity, volume 1, Carroll Osburn (eds), College Press: 1993.
[WS:FAB] Feminism and the Bible, Mardi Keyes, IVP: 1995.
[WS:GNG] Gender & Grace, Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen, IVP: 1990.
[WS:GW] Gospel Women: Studies in the Named Women in the Gospels. Richard Bauckham. Eerdmans:2002.
[WS:GWCGR] Girls and Women in Classical Greek Religion. Matthew Dillon. Routledge:2002.
[WS:HICMM] How I Changed My Mind about Women in Leadership: Compelling Stories from Prominent Evangelicals. Alan F Johnson (ed). Zondervan:2010.
[WS:ISNW] I Suffer Not a Woman: Rethinking I Timothy 2.11-15 in Light of Ancient Evidence, Richard and Catherine Clark Kroeger, Baker: 1992.
[WS:IWBC] The IVP Women’s Bible Commentary. C.C. Kroeger and Mary J. Evans. IVP:2002.
[WS:Junia] Junia: The First Woman Apostle. Eldon Jay Epp. Fortress:2005.
[WS:JWGRP] Jewish Women in Greco-Roman Palestine, Tal Ilan, Hendrickson:1995.
[WS:LBW] Love Between Women: Early Christian Responses to Female Homoeroticism. Bernadette J Brooten. UChicago:1996.
[WS:MWC] Men and Women in the Church. Sarah Sumner. IVP:2003.
[WS:OWEC] Ordained Women in the Early Church: A Documentary History. Kevin Madigan and Carolyn Osiek (eds, trans). JohnsHopkinsUP:2005.
[WS:PPW] Praying with Passionate Women: Mystics, Martyrs, and Mentors, Bridget Mary Meehan, Crossroad: 1995.
[WS:SGANE] Sex and Gender in the Ancient Near East (2 vols). Simo Parpola and RM Whiting (eds). Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project:2002.
[WS:TCP] The Creation of Patriarchy, Gerda Lerner, Oxford:1986.
[WS:TSOS] Their Stories, Our Stories–Women of the Bible, Rose Sallberg Kam, Continuum: 1995.
[WS:UWAT] Uppity Women of Ancient Times, Vicki Leon, Conari Press (Berkeley): 1995.
[WS:WAB] Women, Authority, and the Bible, Alvera Mickelson (ed.), IVP: 1986.
[WS:WAP] Women in Ancient Persia (559-331 BC) , Maria Brosius, Clarendon-Oxford:1996.
[WS:WB] The Woman’s Bible, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Northeastern Univ. Press:1895.
[WS:WBC] The Womens Bible Commentary, Carol A. Newsom and Sharon Ringe (eds.), WJK:1992.
[WS:WCP] Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society (Vol 1: ANE). Elisabeth Meier Tetlow. Continuum:2004.
[WS:WCSEC] Women, Class, and Society in Early Christianity: Models from Luke-Acts. James Malcolm Arlandson. Hendrickson:1997.
[WS:WIB] Woman in the Bible by Mary J. Evans, IVP:1983.
[WS:WIC] Women in the Church: A Biblical Theology of Women in Ministry, Stanley Grenz and Denise Kjesbo, IVP:1995.
[WS:WIDD] Women in the Damascus Document. Cecilia Wassen. SBL:2005.
[WS:WIM] Women in Ministry–Four Views, Bonnidell and Robert Clouse (eds.), IVP:1989.
[WS:WIP] Women in Prehistory, Margaret Ehrenberg, Univ. of Oklahoma:1989.
[WS:WIWEC] Women in the World of the Earliest Christians: Illuminating Ancient Ways of Life. Lynn Cohick. Baker:2009.
[WS:WLAS] Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue. Bernadette Brooten. Scholars:1982.
[WS:WLGR] Women’s Life in Greece and Rome: A sourcebook in translation, Mary Lefkowitz and Maureen Fant(eds.), John Hopkins: 1992 (2nd ed).
[WS:WLT] “Women Like This”–New Perspectives on Jewish Women in the Graeco-Roman World, Amy-Jill Levine (ed.), Scholars Press: 1991.
[WS:WRGRW] Women’s Religions in the Greco-Roman World: A Sourcebook. Ross Shepard Kraemer. Oxford:2004.
[WS:WUI] Women in Ugarit and Israel: Their Social and Religious Position in the Context of the Ancient Near East. Hennie Marsman. Brill:2003.
[WS:WWR] Women in World Religions, Arvind Sharma (ed.), SUNY:1987.
[WS:WWT] Women and Womanhood in the Talmud. Shulamit Valler, Betty Sigler Rozen (trans). BrownJudaicStudies:1999.
[WS:WWWP] When Women were Priests by Karen Jo Torijesen, HarperCollins: 1995.
[WTOT] The Text of the Old Testament, Ernst Wurthwein, Eerdmans: 1994 (2nd ed).
[WWJ] Who was Jesus?, N.T. Wright, Eerdmans:1992.
[WWRJ] The Wisdom and Wit of Rabbi Jesus, William Phipps, Westminster/John Knox: 1993.
[X:BATB] The Bible and the Buddhists. JDM Derrett. CasaEditriceSardini:2000 [Interlibrary loan]
[X:JATCH] Jesus and the Constraints of History: Bampton Lectures 1980, A. E. Harvey, Duckworth:1982
[X:NS:HADPE] How about Demons?:Possession and exorcism in the modern world. Felicitas Goodman. IndianaUpress:1988.
[X:TH:BDUFE] But Deliver us From Evil: An introduction to the demonic dimension in pastoral care. John Richards. London, Dartman, Longman and Todd:1974.
[X:TH:CTETN] Christ Triumphant: Exorcism then and now. Graham Twelftree. Hodder and Stoughton:1985.
[X:TH:DPDOI] Deliverance: Psychic Disturbances and Occult Involvement. Michael Perry (ed). SPCK:1987.
[X:TH:DPMHAT] Demonic Possession: a medical, historical, anthropological, and theological symposium. John Warwick Montgomery (ed). Bethany:1976.
[X02:JCDMSG] Jesus Christ–Divine Man or Son of God?James R. Brady. University Press of America:1992.
[X02:JSOTGP6] Gospel Perspectives: The Miracles of Jesus, Vol 6. David Wenham and Craig Blomberg (eds.). JSOTpress:1986.
[X02:TAMMT] Theios Aner and the Markan Miracle Traditions: A Critique of the Theios Aner Concept as an Interpretive Background of the Miracle Traditions Used by Mark. Barry Blackburn. Tubingen: Mohr, 1991. (revision of Ph.D thesis of 1986 for Univ. of Aberdeen]
[X03:ERCL] Early Rabbinic Civil Law and the Social History of Roman Galilee: A Study of Mishnah Tractate Baba’ Mesi’a. Hayim Lapin. ScholarsPress:1995.
[X03:IPM] The Iron Pillar Mishnah: Redaction. Form, and Intent. Dov Zlotnick. KTAV:1988.
[X03:JLFJM] Jewish Law from Jesus to the Mishnah. E.P. Sanders. SCM/Trinity:1990.
[X03:JLFJM2] Jewish Law from Jesus to the Mishnah: A Systematic Reply to Professor E.P. Sanders. Jacob Neusner. ScholarsPress:1993.
[X03:NTMSRHS New Testament Miracle Stories in the Religious-Historical Setting: A Religionsgeschichliche Comparison from a Structural Perspective, Wehner Kahl, Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994.
[X04:MECW] Miracle in the early Christian World: A study in sociohistorical method. Howard Clark Kee. Yale:1983.
[X04:PCCM] Pagan-Christian conflict over miracle in the second century. Harold Remus. Patristic:1983.
[XBI:1MACC] First Maccabees (intro). John Bartlett. Sheffield:1998.
[XBI:2ESDRAS] 2 Esdras (intro). Bruce Longenecker. Sheffield:1995.
[XBI:4MACC] Fourth Maccabees (intro). David de Silva. Sheffield:1998.
[XBI:AdamEve] The Life of Adam and Eve, and Related Literature (intro). Marinus de Jonge and Johannes Tromp. Sheffield:1997.
[XBI:AscIsa] The Ascension of Isaiah (intro). Jonathan Knight. Sheffield:1995.
[XBI:JosAsen] Joseph and Aseneth (intro). Edith Humphrey. Sheffield:2000.
[XBI:Jubilees] The Book of Jubilees (intro). James VanderKam. Sheffield:2001.
[XBI:Sirach] Sirach (intro). Richard Coggins. Sheffield:1998.
[XBI:Test12] Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Study Guide). Robert Kugler. Sheffield:2001.
[XBI:TobJud] Tobit and Judith (intro). Benedikt Otzen. Sheffield:2002.
[XBI:WisSol] Wisdom of Solomon (Study Guide). Lester Grabbe. TTClark:1997.
[XL] Extinct Languages. J. Friedrich, Dorset, 1957.
[ZIBBC] Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (4 vols). Clinton Arnold (ed). Zondervan:2002.
[ZIBBCOT] Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary: Old Testament. John Walton (ed). Zondervan:2009.
[ZPEB] Zondervan Pictorial Ency. of the Bible 1986.