Part 1B: Debunking Ancient Alien Astronauts As Seen On The History Channel: Megalithic Sites; The Incas, Baalbek and Pumapunku

Written By Thomas Perez. April 15, 2019 at 1:01AM. Copyright 2019.

Megalithic Sites Continued

1. The Incas (also known as Incans)

The claim: According to ancient alien proponents, various Incan sites like Machu Pichu and their stonemasonry techniques, were done by highly advanced technological tools that were simply not available at that time. it is their belief that either God, of which they doubt, or an alien intelligence of some sort lent the Incas their tools to build their temples and monuments with. Having completed their temples and monuments, they left, and took their tools with them.

“The Inca Empire is known for being the most powerful and richest pre-Columbian empire in the Americas. It’s also famous for its architectural marvels, like Sacsayhuaman and, of course, Machu Picchu.” “The Inca civilization flourished in ancient Peru between c. 1400 and 1533 CE, and their empire eventually extended across western South America from Quito in the north to Santiago in the south, making it the largest empire ever seen in the Americas and the largest in the world at that time.” But their roots go further back than their empire.

The Inca culture is defined by their mythological creation stories. They consider their kind to be the ancestors of the first man and woman. The creator god Viracocha created the Sun, Moon and all ethnic groups. But then all mankind was buried by Viracocha in a sacred place. But later, another god, by the name of Inti decided to bring mankind into actual existance, starting with the Incas first at Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco). Inti was considered the Sun god of the Incas. For it is this reason, they believed themselves to be the chosen few; children of God (god). “In another version of the creation myth, the first Incas came from a sacred cave known as Tampu T’oqoor ‘The House of Windows’, which was located at Pacariqtambo, the ‘Inn of Dawn’, south of Cuzco.”

In Cuzco and it’s surrounding areas the Incas built temples and monuments dedicated to Inti and Mama Kills. Mama Killa in Inca mythology and religion, was the third power and goddess of the Moon. An Icanian trinity, so to speak. All of their temples and monuments were built in honor of these gods They were also built according to Inca astrological and astronomical knowledge. However, knowledge of the Heavens are not based upon alien transmissions. Knowledge of the Earth, Sun, Moon and stars were a given. Moreover, astrology and astronomy were synchronous; they were not completely defined in those days.

Anyone can clearly see why it is obvious that ancient alien proponents would lash onto something like this. But their evidence for doing so, as described above, has no merit in archaeological evidence. “The Incas were masters of this technique, called ashlar, in which blocks of stone are cut to fit together tightly without mortar. The section of the mountain where Machu Picchu was built provided various challenges that the Incas solved with local materials. One issue was the seismic activity due to two fault lines. It made mortar and similar building methods nearly useless. Instead, the Inca mined stones from the quarry at the site.”

Tripcevich, Nicholas; Vaughn, Kevin J. (2012). Mining and quarrying in the Ancient Andes : sociopolitical, economic, and symbolic dimension. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 52.

In addition, “every shaped stone at any Incan site has what archeologists call “pit marks” or “pit scars.” “They occur when stone hammers are used to quarry and shape the stone.” Archaeologists also found huge stone hammers at the quarries. Rough cuts were performed at the quarries and then brought to the site for finer detail (beveled edges) with smaller hammers and tools. The beveled edges were accomplished by using small gauge stone hammers for the outer section.

Jean Pierre Protzen, “Inca Quarrying and Stone Cutting,” The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 44, No. 2 (May, 1985), pp. 161-182

Ancient Aliens would deny this claim citing that stones were melted down at the quarries and then brought to the site and reshaped and molded to specifications. Further citing that such a thing can only accomplished by extraterrestrial intervention. This is far from the truth. There is no evidence, or indication of the melting of stones from point A to point B, and then shaped and molded.The Incas left us a lot of evidence behind in the form of ramps. There are Incan ramps all over the place still in existence today, in the quarries and at the building sites.

Moreover, the Incas had a huge work force. No aliens were involved in melting or transporting stones into their designated sites. The only thing involved in the construction of the Inca temples and monuments was, again, good ole fashioned man power and his simple tools. And because of the pit marks, we know how they were made. Pit marks do not require mysteries, or alien high powered melting tools.

2. Baalbek

“Baalbek is an ancient Phoenician city located in what is now modern day Lebanon, north of Beirut, in the Beqaa Valley.  Inhabited as early as 9000 BCE, Baalbek grew into an important pilgrimage site in the ancient world for the worship of the Phoenician sky-god Baal and his consort Astarte, the Queen of Heaven.”

The city went under many face lifts. It was called, under Alexander the Great, Heliopolis, named after the Greek Sun god Helios. Then under the Roman conquest “it became known with the Greek and Roman sky god under the name “Heliopolitan Zeus” or “Jupiter” The present Temple of Jupiter presumably replaced an earlier one using the same foundation.”

Cook (1914), p. 550

In short, according to Ancient Aliens, Baalbek was once a landing platform for extraterrestrial spacecraft. Their conclusions are based upon the following…

Underneath the Roman ruins lies a very old platform that was once used to launch spacecraft. The platform sits on 3 gigantic stones. The gigantic 3 megalithic stones (trilithons) incorporated into the foundation are the heaviest; weighing 800 to 1200 tons. The 3 stones are not of Roman construction. They are part of an earlier structure; upon which the Greeks and Romans built upon. It dates back nearly 9,000 years. It is named after the early Canaanite deity Baal. And like that of the pyramids, Easter Island and Inca temple sites, large stones like this were impossible to move, that is unless they had alien astronaut intervention. Moreover, the site is mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh as bring the landing platform for space travelers according to Zacharia Stichin.

Again, none of this is true, except for the age of the city and the fact that it was named after the Canaanite god Baal.

In short, the 3 stones do not form the foundation of Baalbek. ​”The trilithon stones lay end to end or long ways, and are part of the narrow wall on the western end of the complex. They are most certainly not the foundation, nor do they constitute a platform, and it would be very awkward for a spaceship to land on top of them considering the space on top is so narrow.”

It is a retaining wall, and nothing else. “Retaining wall technology really improved with the Greeks because of the importance of the amphitheatre in their culture. Because most amphitheatres were sunken into the ground and surrounded by earth, they needed to construct.” Retaining walls were common just as they are today. Moreover, Baalbek was built up upon a hill. And being upon a hill it required large massive retaining walls due to soil shifting. This shifting is due to soil erosion, which in turn is caused by deforestation. Moreover, soil shifting is just as much a reality in the area today as it was in ancient times.

The site was probably chosen by the Canaanites because it was indeed on a hill, as any good “high place” should be, but also because it was less than half a mile from the perfect stone quarry. But the platform was nothing special. It was common standard, much like other Canaanite sites. And because it was/is on a hill, stone walls had to be built from the quarries itself. It was placed for foundational means, not for alien launching or landing purposes. 

“These walls were built from about 24 monoliths, at their lowest level weighing approximately 330 tons, each. The tallest retaining wall, on the west, has a second course of monoliths containing the famous “three stones.” These famous 3 stones weigh approximately 880 tons each. Other stones lying in the area/quarry weigh between 1,100 to 1,300 tons. This quarry was slightly higher than the temple complex so no lifting was required to move the stones. 880 tons did not require alien movement.

Kalayan, H., ’Notes on the Heritage of Baalbek and the Beqa’a’ in Cultural Resources in Lebanon, Beirut, 1969

Adam, Jean Pierre; Anthony Mathews (1999). Roman Building: Materials and Techniques. Routledge. p. 35.

Click to access Lebanon_Flood%20Risk%20Management%20and%20Soil%20Conservation%20for%20Livelihood%20Recovery.pdf

Jessup (1881), p. 456

Adam (1977), p. 52.

Alouf (1994), p. 139.

Ruprechtsberger (1999), p. 15.

Ruprechtsberger (1999), p. 17.

Hastings (1898), p. 892.

Adam & al. (1999), p. 35

So how did the stones move? Answer: Similar the ways the ancient Egyptian did as covered in Part 1A.

3. Pumapunku

The following assertions are made by the show, ‘Ancient Aliens’ and other adherents to the alien astronaut theory.

According to Ancient Aliens, and so forth:

“Pumapunku is the only site on planet Earth that, in my opinion, was built directly by extraterrestrials.”

“One of the most intriguing thing there is it that the stones that were used there weren’t sandstone, they’re granite and diorite. The only stone that is harder than diorite is diamond, so the only way this could have been achieved is if the tools were tipped with diamonds.”

“Of course [Pumapunku was] made out of stones found on Earth, because you don’t transport granite or diorite from another solar system.”

“One of these platforms is 800 tons.”

“Each of these small drills holes are basically evenly spaced along this routed groove. To me it’s clear that power tools have been used on this unusual block of stone here.” “This surface is as smooth as a table top, like in your kitchen. There’s no wave to it. This was machined.”

“Extraterrestrials arrive; the spaceship stands in orbit. Only a small spaceship can stand, like a space shuttle. So, to protect their instruments they (the aliens) make, overnight, with their technology, what we call a base camp. Of course [this was] made out of stones found on Earth, because you don’t transport granite or diorite from another solar system. Then they disappeared, but the wall of their base camp is still there.”

“One of the amazing things here at Pumapunku is the precision of the blocks. You can see with this block of granite that it’s really been cut at very accurate 90-degree angles.”

“Mainstream archaeologists say that Pumapunku was built by Amara Indians. [However] we would all have to agree that, in order to build something like Pumapunku, you need writing; you need planning, and you also need some sort of idea where which piece goes and how it ultimately all fits together. But there is one thing that mainstream archaeologists agree upon [and that is] that the Amara didn’t have any writing. How is it possible that the Amara built all this without any plans?”

“How these massive blocks of granite were moved from their quarries and brought here to Pumapunku would have required some kind of super technology. Levitation; anti-gravity, huge lifting vehicles…something that ancient aliens would have had.”

The Reality of Pumapunku

Pumapunku is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Tiwanaku Site near Tiwanaku, in western Bolivia. It is believed to date to AD/CE 536 and later. the Pumapunku complex as well as its surrounding temples, the Akapana pyramid, Kalasasaya, Putin and Kerikala functioned as spiritual and ritual centers for the Tiwanaku. the Tiwanaku actively incorporated human sacrifice into their culture. The remains of dismembered bodies have been found throughout the area. Ceramic artifacts depict imagery of warriors, masked with puma skulls, decapitating their enemies and holding trophy skulls, and adorned with belts of human heads with their tongues torn out. It is believed that, because of certain markings on stones found at Puma Punku, the Gate of the Sun was originally part of Puma Punku.

Morell, Virginia (2002). Empires Across the Andes National Geographic. Vol. 201, Iss. 6: 106.

Young-Sanchez, Margaret (2004). . Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inca. Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum.

Based upon the specific gravity of the red sandstone from which it was carved, this stone slab has been estimated to weigh 131 tonnes (144 short tons).

The other stonework and facing of the Pumapunku consists of a mixture of andesite and red sandstone. Pumapunku’s core consists of clay, while the fill underlying selected parts of its edge consists of river sand and cobbles instead of clay. Excavations have documented “three major building epochs, in addition to small repairs and remodeling.”

Since the radiocarbon date came from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill underlying the andesite and sandstone stonework, the stonework must have been constructed sometime after AD 536–600. The excavation trenches of Vranich show that the clay, sand, and gravel fill of the Pumapunku complex lie directly on the sterile middle Pleistocene sediments. These excavation trenches also demonstrated the lack of any pre-Andean Middle Horizon cultural deposits within the area of the Tiwanaku Site adjacent to the Pumapunku complex.

The precision with which these angles have been used to create flush joints is indicative of a highly sophisticated knowledge of stone-cutting and a thorough understanding of descriptive geometry.

One common engineering technique involves cutting the top of the lower stone at a certain angle, and placing another stone on top of it which was cut at the same angle.

Birx, H. James (2006). Encyclopedia of Anthropology. Thousand Oaks, CA:: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Isbell William H. (2004), “Palaces and Politics in the Andean Middle Horizon”, in Evans, Susan Toby; Pillsbury, Joanne, Palaces of the Ancient New World, Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. Research Library and Collection, pp. 191–246, retrieved 2010-04-26.

Vranich A., 1999, Interpreting the Meaning of Ritual Spaces: The Temple Complex of Pumapunku, Tiwanaku, Bolivia. Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Pennsylvania.

Vranich, A., 2006, “The Construction and Reconstruction of Ritual Space at Tiwanaku, Bolivia: A.D. 500-1000,” Journal of Field Archaeology 31(2): 121–136.

Ponce Sanginés, C. and G. M. Terrazas, 1970, Acerca De La Procedencia Del Material Lítico De Los Monumentos De Tiwanaku. Publication no. 21. Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia.

Protzen, J.-P., and S.E.. Nair, 2000, “On Reconstructing Tiwanaku Architecture:” The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 358-371.

Archaeologists argue that the transport of these stones was accomplished by the large labor force of ancient Tiwanaku. Several theories have been proposed as to how this labor force transported the stones, although these theories remain speculative. Two of the more common proposals involve the use of llama skin ropes and the use of ramps and inclined planes. Moreover, the stones weigh in at 130 tons, not 800.

Protzen, Jean-Pierre; Stella Nair, 1997, Who Taught the Inca Stonemasons Their Skills? A Comparison of Tiahuanaco and Inca Cut-Stone Masonry: The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. Vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 146-167.

Ponce Sanginés, C. and G. M. Terrazas, 1970, Acerca De La Procedencia Del Material Lítico De Los Monumentos De Tiwanaku. Publication no. 21. Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia.

The Tiwanaku civilization and the use of these temples appears to some to have peaked from AD 700 to 1000, by which point the temples and surrounding area may have been home to some 400,000 people. An extensive infrastructure had been developed, including a complex irrigation system that extended more than 30 square miles to support cultivation of potatoes, quinoa, corn and other various crops. At its peak the Tiwanaku culture dominated the entire Lake Titicaca basin as well as portions of Bolivia and Chile. Puma Punku is thought to have been abandoned before it was finished.

Kolata, A.L. (1993) The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization. Wiley-Blackwell, New York, New York. 256 pp.

Janusek, J.W. (2008). Ancient Tiwanaku, Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom. 362 pp.

Young-Sánchez, Margaret (2004).Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inca. Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum.