Part 1 of 2: Flat Earth; 416 Reasons Why I Believe What I Believe

Written By Thomas Perez. April 12, 2019 at 1:16AM. Copyright 2019.

Not too long ago I wrote a study entitled “The Pale Blue Dot?” A series of chapters pertaining to the flat Earth theory. The study was written in 18 chapters so far. Everything; the Earth, the Sun, the Moon, the stars, flight paths, circumnavigation, space, measurements, light and history, etc, is covered in the study. I even provided pictures and physics. I also included, as a separate article, a ‘Bibliography of Works Cited’ – which numbered up to 594 reliable citations thus far.

With this in mind, I thought it necessary to provide a small outline which pretty much breaks down the entire 18 chapter series. However, I believe reading all 18 chapters in its entirety is necessary and will prove to be more beneficial to the studious individual due to its detailing research, questions, observational findings and expose’ of what mainstream calls “empirical evidence” as provided by scientific communities and various space agencies like NASA today, than just this outline. This outline does not even begin to cover everything conducted in the study (Chapters -1-18). However, I did my best to provide the reader with a simple general overlay pertaining to some of its pertinent facts.



1. Mainstream science insists that a spherical Earth was proven – via – Eratosthenes, Columbus 1451-1506, Magellan 1480-1521 and even Dante Alighieri 1265-1321. The Chinese astronomers book called the ‘Huainanzi’ in the 2nd cent BC inverted Eratosthenes’ calculation of the curvature of the Earth to calculate the height of the Sun above the Earth instead, by asserting that the Earth was flat and the Sun was 100,000 miles away. Ming China still upheld the flat circular Earth model. A spherical Earth was challenged and brought into view again in the 17th cent, circa 1600’s.

2. Later, the likes of Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543, Johannes Kepler 1571-1630, Tycho Brahe 1546-1601, Sir Issac Newton 1643-1727, Albert Einstein 1879-1955, and the more recent; the late Stephen Hawking 1942-2018, were born. Their influence within the scientific community would shape the world. However, their influence would not have shaped the world if it was not for the printing press, invented between 1440-1450AD. Printing in Northern China was further advanced by the 11th century, as it was written by the Song Dynasty scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031–1095) that the common artisan Bi Sheng (990-1051) invented ceramic movable type printing.

3. The spherical Earth model was often challenged, one way or another. Guo Shoujing challenged it in the 17th cent. Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1591–1666) was so impressed with the preserved astronomical instruments of Guo that he called him “the Tycho Brahe of China.” However, that challenge has become more of a debate today between globe heliocentric and flat geocentric circular Earthers of today. The Tychonian system of a geocentric Earth came to an end in the 1800’s, via parallax and stellar aberrations. More on this later below.

4. During the days after the enlightenment era, many began to question the shape of the Earth and its position relative to its neighboring celestial bodies, including the Sun and the Moon. This re-emergence began in the 1800’s; and is growing everyday due to inconsistencies in parallax and aberrations – which are both proven to be faulty.

5. The growth of this re-emergence is mostly due in part to observations. Observations that became a reality for many through artic ship voyages across entire oceans. Moreover, many today are able to observe the Earth, celestial bodies and stars for themselves. This time, however, it is not the observational word of a scientist or physicist that one is listening to or looking through. Instead, it is the observances of what they see through their own naked eyes; empowered even more so in this day and age by technology.

6. This is precisely the reason why many are questioning the standard model of the Earth, Sun, Moon, planets (wandering stars) and fixed stars today. Many even question the universe itself. Couple this with those who began to re-examine the standard model of the Earth in the 1800’s, we now have a movement. And since the movement exists, we must now reevaluate these things.

From Chapter 1

7. According to mainstream, the spherical Earth model fits well into the Pythagorean Theorem. This is a faulty assumption, since Pythagoras’ contemporary, Hippasus, proved that mathematics can be altered to suit one’s hypothesis or to further enhance a theorem and equation, or to simply destroy it. Mathematical laws can indeed change. Nothing is absolute, something that French Philosopher, astronomer and mathematician Rene Descartes would discuss in his own treatise ‘La Géométrie’ (1637), a short tract included with the anonymously published ‘Discourse on Method.’

8. It is doubtful whether Pythagoras was really a mathematician as we understand the word. In fact, although genuine mathematical investigations were undertaken by later Pythagoreans, the evidence suggests that Pythagoras was a mystic who believed that numbers underlie everything. He worked out, for instance, that perfect musical intervals could be expressed by simple ratios.

9. However, in order to fix the problem of the Theorem, and realizing that a non-right, or oblique, triangle has no right angles; another field was created called trigonometry.

10. According to spherical Earth adherents, the Earth curves every 8 inches per mile. When we apply the Pythagorean Theorem with a bit of trigonometry to a globe model of the Earth, We will note that objects only appear to dip below the horizon 8in every 1mi. But they can easily be brought back into view with a pair of binoculars or telescope. If an object went under the supposed curvature of the Earth, then one should not be able to bring said object back into view; unless the surface is flat.

11. The equation for this is…

M² x .7993624 = d Or M² x 8 = d

12. In reference to the location of the Earth, we have Claudius Ptolemy; a was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet. Although he was a spherical ball Earth believer, he was, nevertheless, a geocentric adherent – having believed that Earth was at the center of the universe, or its occupied space, and that it was the Sun, Moon, stars and planets that revolved around the Earth. This view held sway for 1200 years, thanks to his treatise called the Almagest. Ptolemy contributed so much to the sciences, that his work is still looked upon in modern day academics.

13. The Almagest documents the ancient Greek mathematician Hipparchus’ work. Hipparchus of Nicaea; c.190-120BC, was a Greek astronomer, geographer and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry, but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes.

14. Ptolemy’s work, in all likelihood, might have been Hipparchus’ mathematical formula for the geocentric system and stellar parallaxes (the measuring of stars by calculating their distances).

15. Hipparchus showed a clear mind and a dislike for unnecessarily complex hypotheses. He rejected not only all astrological teaching but also the heliocentric views of the universe.

16. Hipparchus’s work is lost. What we know of it is from Ptolemy.

17. Ptolemy’s version stood firm for 1200 years until Copernicus.

18. Copernicus’ Sun centered Solar System worked at least as well as Ptolemy’s spheres in explaining the apparent motion of the planets. Some of Copernicus’s admirers argued that he had not really believed in a Sun-centered universe but had merely proposed it as a convenience for calculating the motions of the planets.

19. However, according to NASA; Copernicus did not have the tools to prove his theories. By the 1600s, astronomers such as Galileo would develop the physics that would prove he was correct. But did it really prove anything?

20. Pointing his telescope toward Jupiter, Galileo-1564-1642, discovered the 4 major moons of Jupiter, and concluded that certain bodies, like Jupiter, had its own orbit around a body, independent of the Earth. If independent, then it is feasible that the Copernican theory is correct; perhaps the Earth itself was an orbiting body, turning around a larger body: the Sun.

21. However, another brilliant astronomer,  mathematician and nobleman, Tycho Brahe-1546-1601, worked to combine what he saw as the geometrical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical benefits of the Ptolemaic system into his own model of the universe, the Tycho System.

22. The Tycho’s system was foreshadowed, in part, by that of Martians Capella (5th cent AD: A prose writer and early developer of the Liberal Arts) who described a system in which Mercury and Venus are placed on epicycles around the Sun, which circles the Earth. Copernicus, who cited Capella’s theory, even mentioned the possibility of an extension in which the other three of the six known planets would also circle the Sun.” “This was foreshadowed by the Irish Carolingian scholar Johannes Scotus Eriugena (9th cent AD: Irish Theologian, neoplatonist philosopher and poet), who went a step further than Capella by suggesting both Mars and Jupiter orbited the Sun as well”

23. Others followed and supported the Tycho system in the 15th century like; Nilakantha Somayaji an Indian astronomer of the Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics who first presented a geo-heliocentric system where all the planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) orbit the Sun, which in turn orbits the Earth.

24. Tycho and Tychonian adherents said that planets moved in epicycles. Copernicus and Copernican followers said the same thing; that they moved around the Sun. The only difference was that Copernicus placed the Earth in these epicycles, with the Sun being stationary. Later, contemporary to Tycho; Johannes Kepler-1571-1630 said that they moved in elliptical orbits – though the idea is one and the same.

25. The “Harmonic Law” was something that they (Pythagoras, Copernicus, Kepler and Newton) all wanted to achieve through divine mathematics. They wanted to synergistically bring math, and the heavenly cosmos (the Earth, Sun, Moon, stars and planets) together as one. In them are the traits of Hermeticism – a philosophical religious belief coupled with what many saw as pseudoscience, as thought and practised by the Pythagorians. Kepler used the observations of Tycho himself to demonstrate that the orbits of the planets are ellipses and not circles, creating the modified Copernican system. However, the Tycho system remained very influential in the late 16th and 17th centuries.

26. Today the Almagest is a peer reviewed academic journal that publishes contributions evaluating scientific developments. Almagest addresses the philosophical assumptions behind scientific ideas and developments and the reciprocal influence between historical context and these phenomena. The journal is abstracted in the Philosophy Research Index – STEP – Science and Technology in the European Periphery

27. Newton was a English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist. Besides his work on universal gravitation (gravity – more on this in Part 2), Newton developed the three laws of motion which form the basic principles of modern physics. His discovery of calculus led the way to more powerful methods of solving mathematical problems. But even in this, the Tycho system was still standing in competition with its Copernican counterpart. The Tycho system proved philosophically more intuitive than the Copernican system, as it reinforced common sense notions of how the Sun and the planets are mobile while the Earth is not. The Tycho system was an acceptable alternative as it explained the observed phases of Venus with a static Earth.

28. However, a Copernican system would suggest the ability to observe stellar parallax which would be observed in the 1800’s. But to the Tychonians, parallaxes are due to heavenly motions fluid in the heavens, which could accommodate intersecting circles. Parallaxes lead to stellar aberration, discovered by James Bradley (1693-1762), which proved, according mainstream scientific data, that the Earth did in fact move around the Sun. This is when Tycho’s system fell out of use. But there are problems with stellar aberrations.

29. However, In the modern era, some of the modern geocentric believers use a modified Tycho system with elliptical orbits, while rejecting the concept of relativity. They also challenge stellar aberration. So before you jump to conclusions pertaining to a heliocentric system, just remember its stronghold is only its ability to observe stellar aberrations. Without it, the system can fall. Moreover, if the system fails in its curvature of its Earth as demonstrated by the simple math above with modern day technologies, then perhaps the Earth is a flat plane disk, with the Sun, Moon, stars and separate planetary (Wandering Stars) orbiting and circling around it.

From Chapter 2

30. Stellar parallaxes and stellar aberrations are two different things.

31. Stellar Parallaxes are apparent displacement, or difference in the apparent position, of an object, caused by actual change (or difference) of position of the point of observation; spec. the angular amount of such displacement or difference of position, being the angle contained between the two straight lines drawn to the object from the two different points of view, and constituting a measure of the distance of the object. They are a star’s apparent elliptical course around its true position as Earth orbits the Sun.

32. Aberration (and its light) causes objects to appear to be displaced towards the direction of motion of the observer compared to when the observer is stationary. The change in angle is typically very small — of the order of v/c where c is the speed of light and v the velocity of the observer. In the case of “stellar” or “annual” aberration, the apparent position of a star to an observer on Earth varies periodically over the course of a year.

33. Parallaxes, in short; is the effect whereby the position or direction of an object appears to differ when viewed from different positions, e.g., through the viewfinder and the lens of a camera” and/or the naked eye. Parallaxes are about an objects position and it’s traveling paths.

34. The etymological word comes from the Latin (to wander away, to go astray).

35. There are 4 types of Aberrations: Annual aberration is due to the orbital revolution of the Earth around the Sun. Planetary aberration is the combination of aberration and light time correction. Diurnal aberration is due to the rotation of the Earth about its own axis. Secular aberration is due to the motion of the Sun and Solar System relative to other stars in our Galaxy.

36. According to mainstream science; aberration is historically significant because of its role in the development of the theories of light, electromagnetism and, ultimately, the theory of special relativity. It was first observed in the late 1600s by astronomers searching for stellar parallax in order to confirm the heliocentric model of the Solar System. However, it was not understood at the time to be a different phenomenon.

37. Their opportunity came in 1727, when James Bradley provided an explanation for stellar parallaxes in terms of the finite speed of light (our “c” for speed of light and our “v”- the velocity of the observer – meaning we too, that is the Earth, is moving also.

38. Bradley’s theory did not hold water with 19th cent theories of light. And because of this, aberration became a major motivation for the following 4; 1. The aether (or as some would spell, or pronounce, it “ether”) drag theories, 2. The Michelson Morley Experiment, 3. The aether theory of electromagnetism and 4. The theory of special relativity.

39. The aether, also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere. The concept of the aether was used in several theories to explain several natural phenomena, such as the traveling of light and gravity.

40. 19th century, physicists postulated that aether permeated all throughout space, providing a medium through which light could travel in a vacuum.

41. Evidence for the presence of such a medium was not found in the Michelson-Morley experiment, and this result has been interpreted as meaning that no such luminiferous aether exists.

42. Michelson-Morley experiment, an attempt to detect the velocity of the Earth with respect to the hypothetical luminiferous aether, a medium in space proposed to carry light waves. First performed in Germany in 1880–81 by the physicist A.A. Michelson, the test was later refined in 1887 by Michelson and Edward W. Morley in the United States.

43. It was reasoned that, if the speed of light were constant with respect to the proposed aether through which the Earth was moving, that motion could be detected by comparing the speed of light in the direction of the Earth’s motion and the speed of light at right angles to the Earth’s motion. No difference was found. This null result seriously discredited the ether theories and ultimately led to the proposal by Albert Einstein in 1905 that the speed of light is a universal constant.

44. ‘The Aether Theory of Electromagnetism’ in physics is a theoretical universal substance believed during the 19th century to act as the medium for transmission of electromagnetic waves (e.g., light and X-rays); similar to sound waves that are transmitted by elastic media, such as air. The aether was assumed to be weightless, transparent, frictionless, undetectable chemically or physically, and literally permeating all matter and space.

45. The Michelson-Morley experiment, which was designed specifically to detect the motion of Earth through the aether showed that there was no such effect. Aether theories were also used to explain gravity beginning in the 17th century, but they did not have the popularity of those explaining the propagation of light.

46. Due to the special theory of relativity by Albert Einstein in 1905 and its acceptance by scientists generally, the aether hypothesis was abandoned as being unnecessary in terms of Einstein’s assumption that the speed of light or any electromagnetic wave, is a Universal constant.

47. Universal constant with reference to the speed of light is only one way of looking at a phenomena.

48. Einstein did not deny the aether. Einstein said; “A more careful reflection teaches us not to deny aether. We may assume the existence of aether, only if we give up ascribing a definite state of motion to it. The aether of general theory of relativity is a medium which is itself devoid of all mechanical and kinematic qualities, but helps to determine mechanical (and electromagnetic) events. I think that the aether of the general theory of relativity is the outcome of the Lorentzian aether through relativation. We may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities: in this sense therefore, there exists an ether. Space without ether is unthinkable: for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standard of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense.”

49. Dr. Adrian Sfarti cites that there are several theories for this unknown force. Sfarti doesn’t deny the theory of special relativity (STR); he simply states that “It is an abstract.” Moreover, Sfarti states; “Interestingly enough, several explanations for the Sagnac experiment exist, based on alternatives to STR, such as the emission theory or a more recent one, called the “undulating” theory but none for the Michelson-Morley experiment. This may be due to the fact that the Michelson-Morley experiment is much more difficult to explain correctly, without twisting the facts. We must stress that the expressions “c+v” and “c-v” do not mean in any way that the speed of light can be subjected to Galilean speed transformations.

50. In other words, the simple math for Observer and point of distance are “the respective angles traveled by the two light fronts.” See physics math in chapter 2

51. More recently the Sagnac effect is being used in industrial applications for its incredible precision in calculating the frequency shift due to Doppler effect: if we consider the physics in chapter 2.

52. This analysis (physics of mathematics) is perfectly valid in both the classical and the relativistic contexts, both for phase and for frequency shift.

53. The physics in chapter 2 applies to the Michelson Morley experiment. As the light front travels away / towards the incoming interferometer, the following equations apply. See chapter 2.

54. Moreover, by admitting the aether, Einstein was in support of Newton’s work “Opticks.” According to Isaac Newton, in his “Opticks” (1704) light is transmitted at a finite speed by the “Luminiferous Aether Wind” which is the common or universal medium of propagation.

55. Considering what the authorities, both past and present, have said concerning stellar aberrations, mathematical formulas, equations, expressions and the aether; let us ask a simple question. What if there was a wind, in a non conventional fashion, in space, or for geocentric flat Earth believers, a wind within the dome/firmament, to support the aether theory as being one and the same?

56. There is something called “solar wind.” Solar winds are streams of particles emitted from stars, including our Sun. Space does not have an atmosphere like the way we think about air on Earth. But could this wind from the multitudes of stars that exist be what Einstein meant when he defended the aether?

57. But according to mainstream science, the aether has been disproven due to the universal constant pertaining to the speed of light.

58. However, Light of different wavelengths, or colours, travels at different speeds when they travel through any medium other than a vacuum.

59. Red light travels faster than blue in glass. The invariance of the speed of light in all uniformly moving reference frames is a POSTULATE of special relativity, it does not derive from special relativity, which only then states how observers will experience/measure space and time given the invariance of the speed of light. Similarly, the speed of light may not be constant, Physicists Say. Einstein’s theory of special relativity sets the speed of light at 186,000 miles per second (300 million meters per second). But some scientists are exploring the possibility that this cosmic speed limit changes.

60. To POSTULATE is to suggest or assume the existence, fact, or truth of (something) as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or belief.

61. Mainstream science claims that you cannot use anything in your mobile phone or other device that determines rotational movement, as the Sagnac effect is not real if you believe in the aether.

62. In the most basic form, a cell phone is essentially a two-way radio, consisting of a radio transmitter and a radio receiver. When you chat with your friend on your cell phone, your phone converts your voice into an electrical signal, which is then transmitted via radio waves to the nearest cell tower.

63. It is revealed that 99% of all of our telecommunication devices are dependent upon signals transmitted through cables under the oceans, and not from various orbiting satellites above the Earth. This is precisely why we lose signals.

64. According to mainstream science, there are 8 reasons why we lose cell phone signals. It is due to obstructions getting in the way; like bad weather, clouds and cosmic activity, etc.

65. Under water cabling systems are mentioned. It is not mentioned because typical ordinary sites would naturally assume that signals are coming from space because that is the consensus of the masses. But they are mistaken. Google “Underwater Cables” and you will find many links telling us exactly how communication is achieved through our cell phones and even the Internet. Not once does the word “satellite” appears.

66. Mainstream claims; If you believe in the Aether (against all evidence), then you would conclude the Earth was stationary, even though the regular stellar aberration observations indicate that it is not stationary.

67. Not true. The idea behind the ring laser gyroscope (RLG) and the more recent fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) actually dates back to 1913, when a French physicist, Georges Sagnac, experimented with rays of light moving in opposite directions around a circular cavity on a turntable. Sagnac showed that when he rotated the turntable, the light traveling with the rotation arrived at a target slightly after the light traveling against the rotation. He believed he had proven the existence of aether in space. Sagnac’s counter-rotating beams of light are analogous to beams in a linear cavity. If the turntable rotates clockwise, the beam traveling clockwise has farther to go to catch its starting point; the path of the counterclockwise beam is shorter.

68. Dr. Donahue’s translation of Keplers deception was published in 1999 by Cambridge University Press. Dr. Donahue cites the Earth as stationary and geocentric, hence disproving Kepler and validating the Sagnac experiment.

From Chapter 3

69. As stated in Number 55 above; what is the dome or firmament?

70. The Hebrew word for firmament comes from the word “Raqiya” – which means “an expanse” “a  visible arch of the sky.” The root word is “Raqa” – “to overlay” “expand. To cover as in a dome.

71. All cultures throughout antiquity, even as recent as the 1800’s, held to a universal concept of an enclosed dome. Which in turn Biblically backs up tbe Genesis account of what is referred to as the firmament.

72. The Sun, Moon and Stars were, or are, in it.

73. Disk shaped planets are possible. The scientific community states that circular disks are formed during a planets initial beginnings, and if all the properties are in place, only then can it become a larger disk with depths that vary in size.

74. When grains are mostly larger than 0.1 micrometres, the rotationally supported disks can become massive enough to be self-gravitating and evolve into rings.

75. According to mainstream, if the Earth was a disk, things will fall off. This is a pretty silly since they are the ones advocating for gravity – which according to them, holds everything in place from flying out into space. If that is the case, a flat disk would even be easier to hold things in place, especially if there was a dome which encircles the Earth and proceeds to its end at the edges of the Earth, via its ice wall – an ice wall that encircles the Earth. Hence we have a North Pole, but not s South Pole. More on this in Part 2 of this outline.

76. There have been a number of Antarctic expeditions throughout history. 16 in Pre 19th cent history, 22 in the 19th cent, 112 in the 20th cent and 45 in the 21st cent – with one by the name of Admiral Byrd conducting four in the 20th century. That’s an incredible 195 expeditions.

77. Flat Earther’s have one thing in common; they all believe that the earth is a flat disk. However, when, or how it was created, remains debatable within their camps. The question of space itself is also denied within their camps. Flat Earther’s have various theories concerning this denial. They claim that the universe is small and that this universe is not what we have been thought to believe. According to flat Earther’s, the discrepancies of stellar parallaxes explain this; as discussed in chapter 3. The universe is encased within the dome. However, this theory does not explain “expansion,” as in the observational evidence that the universe is expanding – that the stars all seem to be flying away from one another by the means of expansion.

78. Harvard University, Popular Mechanics, Earth Science and so forth, along with many physicists today claim that the universe is NOT EXPANDING. It is the Earth instead. Oxford claims the same thing.

From Chapter 4

79. NASA faked the landings to avoid humiliation due to the Russians beating us through Sputnik on Oct 4, 1957, to keep Kennedy’s promise of going to the Moon before the 60’s decade ended, and to ensure that it continued to get funding. NASA raised “about US $30 billion” to go to the Moon, and Kaysing claimed in his book that this could have been used to “pay off” many people. Another reason was due to the Vietnam War. An unpopular war. Moon landings, they say, was a good distraction to many who had lost their faith in our country. It was a boost for morale, so to speak, for American pride.

80. Moreover, there were two notable events that took place: 1969 – Cold War: The Soviet submarine k-19 collides with the American submarine USS Gato in the Barents Sea. 1969 – Vietnam War (1955 – 1975; U.S. involvement in 1965): In Washington, D.C., 250,000-500,000 protesters staged a peaceful demonstration against the war, including a symbolic “March Against Death.”

81. There are 8 inconsistencies or objections. Each inconsistency has its own sub-divisions. Questions and sub-divisions that persist and shout, “forgery” and “fake.” They are as follow…

82. 1. Photography and Film Oddities. 2. Mechanical Issues. 3. Transmissions. 4. Environment. 5. Missing Data. 6. Technology. 7. Deaths of NASA Personnel. 8. Alleged Stanley Kubrick Involvement. The alleged Kubrick involvement is not covered. It is covered in chapter eleven.

83. Mainstream Cites: According to “James Longuski (Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering at Purdue University Purdue), the conspiracy theories are impossible because of their size and complexity. The conspiracy would have to involve more than 400,000 people who worked on the Apollo project for nearly ten years, the 12 men who walked on the Moon, the six others who flew with them as Command Module pilots, and another six astronauts who orbited the Moon. Hundreds of thousands of people – including astronauts, scientists, engineers, technicians, and skilled laborers – would have had to keep the secret. Longuski argues that it would have been much easier to really land on the Moon than to generate such a huge conspiracy to fake the landings.”

84. My Rebuttal: A rebuttal by Sibrel to this claim is that NASA had compartmentalized all of the work on the Apollo program. This would have allowed for only a small number of people to actually know the truth about faking the Moon landings. In other words, only the upper echelons, so to speak, was in on it, while NASA’s average worker was unaware of this. One only needs to watch the movie, Capricorn One’ to understand what Sibrel is/was talking about.

85. For all the details on all the oddities see Chapter 4 and 5 of my study series “The Pale Blue Dot?”

From Chapter 5

86. Oddities 4, 5, 6, and 7 are covered in chapter 5.

From Chapter 6

87. Mainstream science claims that they have all the satellite pictures and video streams one can ever ask for in reference to proof.

88. There are 1071 operational satellites in orbit around the Earth. There are more than 21,000 objects larger than 10 cm orbiting the Earth. Just a small fraction of these are operational satellites. It’s estimated there are a further 500,000 bits and pieces between 1 and 10 cm in size.

89. Satellites appear to hang motionless in the sky. The fact that they remain over the geographic same area means they provide the perfect platform for telecommunications, broadcast or weather observations.

90. The International Space Station (ISS) is another orbiting object as well.

91. There are five main layers to our atmosphere. Working our way up from ground level we have; the Troposphere – 0 – 25 km (0 – 7 miles high), the Stratosphere – 25 – 50 km (7 – 31 miles high), the Mesosphere – 50 – 80 km (31 – 50 miles high), the Thermosphere – 80 – 700 km (50 – 440 miles high), and the Exosphere – 700 – 10,000 km (440 – 6,200 miles high).

92. The ISS orbits (400 kilometers – that is 250mi). On a clear day, the ISS is easily visible to the naked eye from the ground. The ISS is in the thermosphere.

93. Others orbit higher at 20,000 kilometers – 12.427mi. Still yet others orbit even higher than that at 36,000 kilometers – 22.369mi. This height places them beyond the exosphere.

94. The top of the exosphere marks the line between the Earth’s atmosphere and interplanetary space. The exosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth’s atmosphere. But this is untrue, since scientists as of 2020 have now concluded that that the Moon is in our atmosphere. See chapter 18.

95. The thermosphere is the hottest layer in the atmosphere.

96. More than half of the satellites in orbit about the Earth are within the atmosphere. The two regions of the atmosphere in which satellites commonly orbit are the thermosphere and the exosphere.

97. Satellites are allegedly floating around the thermosphere where temperatures are claimed to be upwards of 4,530 degrees Fahrenheit. The metals used in satellites, however, such as aluminum, gold and titanium have melting points of 1,221, 1,948, and 3,034 degrees respectively, all far lower than they could possibly handle.

98. The geostationary communications satellites was first created by Freemason science-fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke and supposedly became science-fact just a decade later. Before this, radio, television, and navigation systems like LORAN and DECCA were already well-established and worked fine using only ground-based technologies. Nowadays huge fibre-optics cables connect the internet across oceans, gigantic cell towers triangulate GPS signals, and ionospheric propagation allows radio waves to be bounced all without the aid of the science-fiction best-seller known as ‘Satellites.’

99. NASA claims there are upwards of 20,000 satellites floating around Earth’s upper-atmosphere sending us radio, television, GPS, and taking pictures of the planet. All these supposed satellite pictures, however, are admittedly composite images, edited in photoshop. They claim to receive ribbons of imagery from satellites which must then be spliced together to create composite images of the Earth, all of which are clearly CGI and not photographs. If Earth were truly a ball with 20,000 satellites orbiting, it would be a simple matter to mount a camera and take some real photographs. The fact that no real satellite photographs of the supposed ball Earth exist in favor of NASA’s ribbons of composite CG imagery, is further proof we are not being told the truth.

100. According to Newsweek, 99% of our transmissions come from under the water (oceans) not from satellites in space.

From Chapter 7

101. I do not deny the existence of orbiting GPS’s, I merely question and deny their applications upon an alleged ball Earth.

102. All GPS systems use trilateration as opposed to triangulation. The difference between the two is that trilateration involves the measuring of distances. Where as triangulation involves the measurement of angles.

103. “As GPS satellites broadcast their location and time, trilateration measure distances to pinpoint their exact position on Earth. While surveyors use triangulation to measure distant points, GPS positioning does not involve any angles whatsoever.” Moreover, “Through the measurement of distances, your precise GPS location can be determined. Yet several factors such as HDOP, PDOP, GDOP and the atmosphere can affect GPS accuracy and error.”

104. “HDOP (geodensy) is an Acronym for horizontal dilution of precision. A measure of the geometric quality of a GPS satellite configuration in the sky. HDOP is a factor in determining the relative accuracy of a horizontal position. The smaller the DOP number, the better the geometry.”

105. “PDOP. Dilution of precision (DOP), or geometric dilution of precision (GDOP), is a term used in satellite navigation and geomatics engineering to specify the additional multiplicative effect of navigation satellite geometry on positional measurement precision.”

106. “Thus, PDOP is Position of DOP and can be thought of as 3D positioning or the mean of DOP, and most often referred to in GPS; HDOP is Horizontal of DOP; VDOP is Vertical of DOP.” (Emphasis T. Perez).

107. “GDOP: One Satellite directly overhead w/an abundance of additional satellites spaced evenly around the sky.”

108. According to gisgeography, “The Global Positioning System uses the World Geodetic System (WGS84) as its reference coordinate system. It comprises of a reference ellipsoid, a standard coordinate system, altitude data and a geoid.”

109. An ellipsoid is “A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution…a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters. …If the ellipse is rotated about its minor axis, the result is an oblate (flattened) spheroid, shaped like a lentil.”

110. “An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scaling, or more generally, of an affine transformation. An ellipsoid is a quadric surface; that is, a surface that may be defined as the zero set of a polynomial of degree two in three variables.”

111. In the case of GPS’s, ellipsoids must be achieved. Ellipsoids are shapes that are transformed into that of a flat or oblate surface area. Note the following citation and illustration.

112. “The main difference between an ellipsoid and ellipse is that the ellipsoid is a closed quadric surface that is a three dimensional analogue of an ellipse and ellipse is a type of curve on a plane.”

113. Directional scaling is “In Euclidean geometry, uniform scaling (or isotropic scaling)…a linear transformation that enlarges (increases) or shrinks (diminishes) objects by a scale factor that is the same in all directions.”

114. The key words here that one should pay close attention to are the words; “transformation,” “directional scaling,” “increases, “diminishes,” “shrinks,” “transformed,” and “deform” or “deforming.” It would seem that anyway you want to slice it, pun intended, the shape of a sphere must be altered in some fashion to the conform to a flat or oblate plane (surface).

115. But exactly what do they mean by “affine transformations?” In short, affine transformations “is a linear mapping method that preserves points, straight lines, and planes. Sets of parallel lines remain parallel after an affine transformation.

116. “The affine transformation technique is typically used to correct for geometric distortions or deformations that occur with non-ideal camera angles. For example, satellite imagery uses affine transformations to correct for wide angle lens distortion, panorama stitching, and image registration. Transforming and fusing the images to a large, flat coordinate system is desirable to eliminate distortion. This enables easier interactions and calculations that don’t require accounting for image distortion.”

117. “A coordinate system is used to define a location on the Earth. It is created in association with a map projection, datumand reference ellipsoid and describes locations in terms of distances or angles from a fixed reference point.” A datum is “a fixed starting point of a scale or operation. An accurate datum is formed by which other machining operations can be carried out.” 

118. “Altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or “up” direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. …Although the term altitude is commonly used to mean the height above sea level of a location, in geography the term elevation is often preferred for this usage.” Starting at a reference datum to a point or object – hence starting above the Karman Line.

119. Is the Earth inertial, or a non-inertial frame of reference? While the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames, in non-inertial frames, they vary from frame to frame depending on the acceleration.” However, inertial forces are used in a fictitious manner.

120. “In classical mechanics, is often possible to explain the motion of bodies in non-inertial reference frames by introducing additional fictitious forces (also called inertial forces, pseudo-forces and d’Alembert forces) to Newton’s second law. Common examples of this include the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force. In general, the expression for any fictitious force can can be derived from the acceleration of the non-inertial frame. As stated by Goodman and Warner, “One might say that F = ma holds in any coordinate system provided the term ‘force’ is redefined to include the so-called ‘reversed effective forces’ ‘inertia forces’.

121. “In the theory of general relativity, the curvature of spacetime causes frames to be locally inertial, but globally non-inertial. Due to the non-Euclidean geometry of curved space-time, there are no global inertial reference frames in general relativity. More specifically, the fictitious force which appears in general relativity is the force of gravity.”

122. That a given frame is non-inertial can be detected by its need for fictitious forces to explain observed motions. For example, the rotation of the Earth can be observed using a Foucault pendulum. The rotation of the Earth seemingly causes the pendulum to change its plane of oscillation because the surroundings of the pendulum move with the Earth. As seen from an Earth-bound (non-inertial) frame of reference, the explanation of this apparent change in orientation requires the introduction of the fictitious Coriolis force.

123. “A simple way of dealing with this problem is, of course, to transform all coordinates to an inertial system. This is, however, sometimes inconvenient. Suppose, for example, we wish to calculate the movement of air masses in the earth’s atmosphere due to pressure gradients. We need the results relative to the rotating frame, the earth, so it is better to stay within this coordinate system if possible. This can be achieved by introducing fictitious (or “non-existent”) forces which enable us to apply Newton’s Laws of Motion in the same way as in an inertial frame.”

124. NASA, for example, has done just that. According to a PDF online document entitled ‘Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for ASTER Level-1 Data Processing (Ver. 3.0),’ the following is cited; “Orbital Reference Frame to Earth Inertial Frame: The line of sight vectors in the Orbital Reference Coordinate Frame can be converted to the expression in the Earth Inertial Coordinate Frame as follows.” “Earth Inertial Frame to Earth Fixed Frame: The line of sight vectors in the Earth Inertial Coordinate Frame can be converted to the expression in the Earth Fixed Coordinate Frame as follows.”

125. NASA uses a theoretical system of coordinations.

126. “Theoretical Basis of Geometric System Correction:
The geometric system correction is divided into several parts as follows:

(1) The pointing correction
(2) The coordinates transformation from Navigation Base Reference of the spacecraft to the
Orbital Reference Frame
(3) The coordinates transformation from the Orbital Reference Coordinate Frame to the Earth
Inertial coordinate Frame
(4) The coordinates transformation from the Earth Inertial Coordinate Frame to the Earth
Greenwich Coordinate Frame
(5) Identification of a cross-point between the earth surface and an extended line of the vector.”

127. In another PDF document found online, we learn that the only system used to designate ones position on Earth is the “Earth centered, Earth fixed coordinates.”

128. “The intersection of a plane and a sphere is a circle (or is reduced to a single point, or is empty). Any ellipsoid is the image of the unit sphere under some affine transformation, and any plane is the image of some other plane under the same transformation. So, because affine transformations map circles to ellipses, the intersection of a plane with an ellipsoid is an ellipse or a single point, or is empty. Obviously, spheroids contain circles. This is also true, but less obvious, for triaxial ellipsoids.” 

129. “There are two generic types of coordinates: Cartesian, and Curvilinear of Angular. Those that provide x-y-z type values in meters, kilometers or other distance units are called Cartesian. Those that provide latitude, longitude, and height are called curvilinear or angular. The Cartesian and angular coordinates are equivalent, but only after supplying some extra information. For the spherical earth model only the earth radius is needed. For the ellipsoidal Earth, two parameters of the ellipsoid are needed. (These can be any of several sets. The most common is the semi-major axis, called “a” and the flattening, called “f”).

130. Mathematical formulas and equations are used interchangeably at will according to the need at hand. Formulas and equations are based upon fictitious forces due to “no global inertial reference frames in general relativity.” Hence transforming all coordinate systems into inertial frames of reference. This juxtaposition of elaborate mathematical expressions is nothing new. We have read an example of this type of “inversion,” if you will, before in chapter one, when the ancient Chinese astronomers book, ‘Huainanzi,’ inverted Eratosthenes’ calculation pertaining to the curvature of the Earth; while another text (Zhoubi SuanJing) revealed a method of determining distances (like the Sun) by measuring noon-time shadows from various latitudes, similar to Eratosthenes.

131. They have to perform transformations. These transformations are done through what they call the “flattening factor.” The need to change from a spherical Earth to an “lentil” (flat) Earth is absolutely necessary when performing Euclidean geometry. “In Euclidean geometry, given a point and a line, there is exactly one line through the point that is in the same plane as the given line and never intersects it.” Upon the concept of Euclidean geometry precision “datums” can be performed – starting above the Karman Line (62 mi high), which is the boarder between Earth’s atmosphere and space.

132. Hence a flat Earth provides a liner transformation that increases or shrinks the size within a scale factor in all directions. This is done through “directional scaling.” Once the geodesy (circles within a flat circle, as shown above) and transformation is worked out mathematically the GPS, or in this case as I prefer to call it: ‘The FPS’ (Flat Positioning System) is achieved flawlessly. Hence all transformations are done systematically through linear, horizontal, up, down, vertical, trilateral directional datums; from point A to B (from satellite to tower), within a scale upon a flat Euclidean non-inertial geometrical Earth plane (surface). When you think of it, the GPS simply does not work on a ball Earth model because signals will always get obstructed due to a receiver, or tower, being on the “other side” of the Earth. However, signal obstructions are simply not the case; given the fact that many people can text and even video chat from Germany, Egypt, Russia and even Asia to folks located in the United States. A feat impossible upon a ball Earth; given the fact that towers are placed upon a surface that is allegedly curving every 8 inches per mile upon a fictitious globe/ball Earth.

From Chapter 8

133. The ISS employs 11 camera’s, 3 multi functional devices with cameras, 1 HD viewing system, 1 standard viewing CCTV and 1 EHDCA. The last three are installed hardware/experiments. A total of 17 altogether. All camera’s aboard the ISS are DSLR’s (Digital Single Lens Reflex). To understand the basics of a camera, I have decided to give a small basic tutorial of how cameras work for those who may be rusty, or for those who may not understand the workings of a camera.

134. If you pick any cloud in the sky and watch it for several minutes, two things will happen: the clouds will move and they will morph gradually changing shape. In official NASA footage of the spinning ball Earth, such as the “Galileo” time-lapse video however, clouds are constantly shown for 24+ hours at a time and not moving or morphing whatsoever! This is completely impossible, further proof that NASA produces fake CGI videos, and further evidence that Earth is not a spinning ball.

135. There are two types of cameras; compact cameras are cameras that are small, you can not change the lens, they are built in, and DSLR’s. DSLR’s are larger cameras. They come with an inexpensive lens called a kit. You can buy different lenses for them separately.

136. So if you have a DSLR, you can actually change lenses to get wide angle, telephoto, macro, and fisheye lens capabilities. These lenses are sometimes called converter lenses.

137. As stated earlier, there are 17 instruments of recordable mechanisms aboard the ISS. They are as follows; the Kodak 760C, the Nikon D1, D2Xs, D200, D3, D3X, D3S, D4, D800E, the iPhone 4, the HTC Nexus One, iPad 2, HDEV – high definition Earth viewing camera, CCTV – a 4:3 standard definition camera, and a EHDCA – a Nikon D4 in special housing with motor controlled zoom from 28-300.

138. Upon researching all of the cameras and video recording devices aboard the ISS, I found them all to be DSLR compatible. Even the Kodak 760C is DSLR compatible.

139. DSLR are fisheye compatible

140. Video feed (embedded below) comes from from four high-definition cameras, supposedly delivered by the SpaceX CRS-3 resupply mission. They are attached to the outside of the International Space Station.

141. The HIgh Definition Earth Viewing experiment (HDEV) consists of four, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) high-definition video cameras that are each

142. According to the citation, each video camera consists of 4 separate COTS technologies. Besides the acronym of the initials COTS, the term is also in reference to the type of lenses used during the live video feed. COTS are security based cameras and recording devices, utilizing the fisheye format.

143. The HDEV visible HD video cameras are a fixed payload camera system that requires no zoom, no pan or tilt mechanisms. The four fixed cameras are positioned to capture imagery of the Earth’s surface and its limb as seen from the ISS (i.e., one camera forward pointed into the station’s velocity vector (the stern), two cameras aft (wake) (toward the stern), and the other one camera pointing nadir). Under the stern?

144. Using a quarter I turned a flat circular quarter into a globe using my Android phone, utilizing the fisheye lens format in the phone. To see the actual pictures and transformation of such see chapter 8.

145. My visual object lesson; the quarter, though flat, but circular, did appear curved – because it is. But only at it’s edges. And as I fisheye(ed) it, it curved from underneath. It’s as if I had a camera at the “nadir” position. In actuality, my Android camera was the stern because it is located in the back of my phone. But we know quarters are not balls (a globe).

From Chapter 9

146. According to mainstream science, rockets curve because “If a rocket just flew straight up, then it would fall right back down to Earth when it ran out of fuel! Rockets have to tilt to the side as they travel into the sky in order to reach orbit, or a circular path of motion around the Earth. This steering technique is known as a gravity turn, which uses Earth’s gravity to help conserve rocket fuel and minimize stress and strain on the spacecraft. This works by rotating the spacecraft until its heavier side is facing down to help curve its flight into orbit.

147. “Airplanes aren’t launched vertically because their goal isn’t really to efficiently escape from the Earth’s gravitational field (or at least from Earth’s atmosphere) but to move at a different location in the horizontal direction, to a different place on the Earth’s surface. An approximately horizontal takeoff (with some tilt, to achieve the height where the atmosphere is less dense and the air resistance is lower) is better for that purpose.”

148. “The reason why rock is launch vertically instead of simply launching sideways is that by starting out going straight up they get past the majority of the atmosphere quickly. So on most launches, the spacecraft gets just high enough to get above what is called Max Q, which is rocket scientist talk for the point of maximum aerodynamic resistance on the rocket.” 

149. However, a plane can travel at altitudes of 35,000 ft. “The highest commercial airliner altitude was 60,000 feet by Concorde. The highest military air-breathing engine airplane was the SR-71 — about 90,000 feet. The highest airliner flying today reaches 45,000 feet. The highest business jet flying today reaches 51,000 feet.”

150.If you fly above an altitude of 100 km (62 miles) above Earth, you are officially considered ‘in space.’ The US Air Force would call you an ‘astronaut’ if you flew above 80 km (almost 50 miles). That is 264,000 feet. ‘World View Experience’ and ‘Zero2infinity’ are working to show you the world in space at 100,000 ft. Neither company can offer a trip to space — in the United States you’re not considered an astronaut until you’ve cleared an altitude of 50 miles (264,000 ft) well above the balloon trip’s ceiling (they are proposing through eventual boost offs – T. Perez) — but they’re betting that near-space can offer a similar experience.

151. The first picture came from a captured Nazi V2 rocket in 1946. “On October 24, 1946, researchers at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, strapped a Devry 35-millimeter movie camera into the nose of a V2 rocket captured from the Nazis and blasted it towards space. The rocket shot straight up, 65 miles into the atmosphere before sputtering to a stop and descending back to Earth.

152. 65 miles is 343,200 ft! That is even higher than our 35,000 and 90,000 ft accomplishments in typical aviation. They say; “You should be able to detect it from an aeroplane at a cruising height of around 10,600 metres (35,000 feet), but you need a fairly wide field of view (ie 60 degrees) and a virtually cloud-free horizon.”

153. Moreover, according to various pilots who have flown over 35,000 ft, they say they see no curvature…

“From a friend who was a military pilot, and from sources such as the many books I have read on the SR-71 and U-2 it can be said that this doesn’t appear until you get up to 55K-60K feet. The highest I have been is 41K on a 777 and I couldn’t see anything but a flat horizon.”

“I am an airline pilot, and the highest I have been is 41000. Can’t say that I have noticed any curvature. Not that I have been specifically looking for it either though. I would also guess that one would have to be at least 20 miles up to notice a curve without any instruments.”

154. There is a paper published by NASA concerning linear aircraft. It is said there that NASA uses the non-rotating flat stationary Earth with reference to their calculations.

155. Many would counter and claim “To linearize a non-linear flight model for the purpose of simplification, you have to assume those criteria otherwise it would no longer be LINEAR. Linear algebra is used make approximations of nonlinear models. If the mass changes the calculations are no longer linear. If the vector of gravity changes via a spherical earth it wouldn’t be LINEAR. A flat plane and constant mass are demands to linearize the math. This paper is articulating the process used to linearize the model for quicker approximations. Those that are using this paper as a justification for a flat earth have no flipping idea what they are reading or understand linear algebra. If flight happened with things of constant mass on a flat plane then the linear model would be the only one that existed. There wouldn’t be papers about the process of linearization.”

156. The objection is correct. BUT the blogger did not account for Linear independence or two vectors having two different dimensions. “If two vectors point in different directions, even if they are not very different in direction, then the two vectors are said to be linearly independent. If vectors point in the same direction, then you can multiply vector by a constant, scalar value and get vector, and vice versa to get from the two. If the two vectors point in different directions, then this is not possible to make one out of the other because multiplying a vector by a scalar will never change the direction of the vector, it will only change the magnitude. This concept generalizes to families of more than two vectors. Three vectors are said to be linearly independent if there is no way to construct one vector by combining scaled versions of the other two. The same definition applies to families of four or more vectors by applying the same rules.”

157. We all know that LSM is supposed to supposedly work with “the theory of general relativitylinearized gravity is the application of perturbation theory to the metric tensor that describes the geometry of spacetime. As a consequence, linearized gravity is an effective method for modeling the effects of gravity when the gravitational field is weak. The usage of linearized gravity is integral to the study of gravitational waves and weak-field gravitational lensing.” Notice where it says the gravitational field is weak. Which means that the paper done in 1988 was conducted at an assumed altitude where the force of gravity is weak.

158. At 65mi high, the V2 rocket entered space and lost its aerodynamics once it reached the gravitational weak point because it did not have the fuel to keep it in orbit above that height. The test was designed mainly to see the Earth, not to orbit it, hence it came down and crashed. The point I am making is that even at the point of the Earth’s weak gravitational field at 65mi above, the Earth appeared flat and endless against the expanse of its own space. This is also apparently true concerning NASA’s linear aircraft paper written in 88.

159. Even the universe, according to NASA is flat. “Recent measurements (c. 2001) by a number of ground-based and balloon-based experiments, including MAT/TOCO, Boomerang, Maxima, and DASI, have shown that the brightestnspots are about 1 degree across. Thus the universe was known to be flat to within about 15% accuracy prior to the WMAP results. WMAP has confirmed this result with very high accuracy and precision. We now know (as of 2013) that the universe is flat with only a 0.4% margin of error. This suggests that the Universe is infinite in extent; however, since the Universe has a finite age, we can only observe a finite volume of the Universe. All we can truly conclude is that the Universe is much larger than the volume we can directly observe.”

The continuation of this outline will break down chapters 10-18 in Part 2 of this brief, but informative outline.

Bibliography and Citations From Original Series