Part 2 of 2: Flat Earth; 416 Reasons Why I Believe What I Believe

Written By Thomas Perez. May 22, 2019 at 1:36AM. Copyright 2019.

Repeating what I said in Part 1; “I believe reading all 18 chapters thus far written in its entirety is necessary and will prove to be more beneficial to the studious individual due to its detailing research, questions, observational findings and expose’ of what mainstream calls “empirical evidence” as provided by scientific communities and various space agencies like NASA today, than just this outline. This outline does not even begin to cover everything conducted in the study (Chapters 1-18). However, I did my best to provide the reader with a simple general overlay pertaining to some of its pertinent facts.”

Continuing from Part 1, we had left off at number 159. We now continue, starting with number 160.

From Chapter 10 

160. Mainstream’s stance is based upon Newton’s gravitational acceleration law of gravitation, which is g = 9.806 m/sand hence applying that law unto a flat Earth hypothesis that has no center of gravity, but is the same magnitude everywhere, is preposterous.

161. Mainstream states that “9.8 m/s^2 is the acceleration of an object due to gravity at sea level on earth. You get this value from the Law of Universal Gravitation.

162. However, this acceleration is based upon an assumption; an assumption based upon a theoretical constant. Further confirmation of this is cited in, “Since g is calculated using only constants, g is a constant. where Re is radius of the earth. As earth is not a perfect sphere, value of gravity g is not a constant at all the locations on the surface of the earth. … Therefore, for practical purposes we take acceleration due to gravity as a constant.

163. Most people believe gravity is the same everywhere on Earth, but this is not the case.  Since mainstream science maintains that the Earth is not perfectly spherical or uniformly dense, gravity is weaker and varies at different locations, especially at the equator due to centrifugal forces produced by Earth’s alleged rotation. “This quantity is sometimes referred to informally as little g (in contrast, the gravitational constant G is referred to as big G). The precise strength of Earth’s gravity varies depending on location. The nominal “average” value at Earth’s surface, known as standard gravity is, by definition, 9.80665 m/s2.”

164. Many would be quick to cite, “No matter the density (of Earth) it will have infinite mass. Therefore it will have infinite gravity, which is absolutely impossible.” This line of reasoning is a misunderstanding of a non-Euclidean approach to a flat Earth in reference to gravity.

165. Gauss’s law shows that an infinite plane would have a finite gravitational pull.

166. We can apply Gauss’s law in a gravitational field – as in Bouguer gravity (gravity anomalies). These anomalies are referred to as Bouguer(s) gravity, named after Pierre Bouguer; mathematician, physicist and astronomer (1698 – 1758).

167. From this all others follow suite: Coulomb ForceCoulomb PotentialElectric Field, Heaviside-Lorentz SystemInverse Square Law.

168. This is called the Gaussian Pillbox. “The Gaussian pillbox is the surface with an infinite charge of uniform charge density used to determine the electric field.” Similarly, “This surface is most often used to determine the electric field due to an infinite sheet of charge with uniform charge density, or a slab of charge with some finite thickness. The pillbox has a cylindrical shape, and can be thought of as consisting of three components: the disk at one end of the cylinder with area πR², the disk at the other end with equal area, and the side of the cylinder. The sum of the electric flux through each component of the surface is proportional to the enclosed charge of the pillbox, as dictated by Gauss’s Law. Because the field close to the sheet can be approximated as constant, the pillbox is oriented in a way so that the field lines penetrate the disks at the ends of the field at a perpendicular angle and the side of the cylinder are parallel to the field lines.”

169. The shorten version of this non-Euclidean approach was conducted by Eric Weinstein’s World of Physics with reference to infinite parallel planes, infinite plane, and sphere electric field.

170. Mainstream would counter by citing that Gauss’s law cannot be used on non-Gaussian surfaces (like those seen on the right side in the picture below), such as a disk surface, a square surface, or a hemispheric surface; they would have boundaries as the following picture illustrates (red being its boundaries on the right). They do not fully enclose a 3D volume. Moreover, infinite planes requires infinite energy, which is said not to exist.

171. However, infinite planes can approximate Gaussian surfaces as demonstrated in the Weinstein approach. That being the case, would not an infinite plane require infinite energy? The answer to that question is “yes.” It is said that energy goes on forever (infinite), but the total energy it imparts is finite. However, a constantly expanding and accelerating universe, or plane for that matter, always requires infinite energy.

172. “Now if you were to ask somebody how much gravitational pull an infinite amount of mass would exert, the common sense answer would be “infinite!” However, upon inspection we can see that certain configurations of mass would actually yield finite gravitational pulls.

173. The comparisons between the two; mainstream and flat Earthers are the same, except for their conclusions in reference to the thickness of a flat plane/Earth. Both using different gravitational pull speeds. Mainstream chose UA as a constant, utilizing a sphere in the long run. Flat Earthers, on the other hand, utilized Bouguer(s) gravity, non UA, Gauss’s law, infinite planes and spherical electric fields which in turn provided no contradiction to the given physics at hand.

From Chapter 11

174. NASA is using what is called green screen effects, blue screen effects and CGI imaging to make credible the claim of landing men on the Moon in the late 1960’s, early 70’s and sending astronauts into space today to board the ISS (the ‘International Space Station’). However, many today claim that “this can not be true; things like blue and green screen effects, along with Photoshop, did not exist during the 1960’s and 70’s.” But, this is far from the truth. They did exist.

175. In reference to Photoshop, the technology was created in 1987 and released to the public in 1990. But there were early forms of it before 1987, a picture in picture, so to speak – it was called “superimposition” – created in 1891. That is 168 years before the Apollo missions.

176. Optical illusions found its way into the green screen technique. Originally called ‘Chroma Key Composites’ or ‘Chroma Keying; green screening was an established visual effect first rendered in 1898 by George Albert Smith. In 1903, green screen was utilized by Edwin S. Porter’s; ‘The Great Train Robbery.’ The technique was used again with patented traveling mattes created by Frank Williams. This was used in many films such as ‘The Invisible Man’ and ‘Alice Comedies;’ a Walt Disney film using cartoon characters and backgrounds with live actors.

177. The blue screen method was developed in the 1930s at RKO Radio Pictures. At RKO, Linwood Dunn used an early version of the travelling matte to create “wipes” – where there were transitions like a windshield wiper in films. In 1950, Warner Brothers employee and ex-Kodak researcher Arthur Widmer began working on an ultraviolet travelling matte process. He also began developing blue screen techniques.

178. Blue screen advances are made by Ultimatte Corporation.

179. Blue and green screen compositing technology at Ultimatte Corporation are further advanced in 1949.

180. Ultimatte Corporation is an all new Ultimatte 12 is more than the world’s best keyer, it’s an advanced real time compositing processor designed for the next generation of broadcast graphics. Ultimatte 12 features entirely new algorithms and color science that deliver true photorealistic composites. You get incredible edge handling, greater color separation, amazing color fidelity and better spill suppression than ever before, even in dark shadow areas or through transparent objects such as windows! The high performance 12G-SDI design gives you the power to work in Ultra HD and HD with sub pixel processing for amazing image quality. Imagine presenting the weather, sports, news and entertainment in a cinematic quality environment, all composited in real time.

181. In March 2009 Rybczyński set up the Center for Audiovisual Technologies in Poland. The center, which officially opened in January 2013.

182. NASA started sending live real time video streams from the ISS (International Space Station) on March 14, 2014 after ‘The Center for Audiovisual Technologies’ opened in 2013 and CORE (Central Operation of Resources for Educators) closed on June 30, 2013, which incidentally worked with one of NASA’s many branches: STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math). Naturally, STEM students and employees for NASA alike are receiving state of the art technology from ‘The Center for Audiovisual Technologies.’

183. According to NASA Educator Resource Center Network and CORE. CORE directly supports (supported CORE until it’s closure in 2013 – T. Perez) the NASA Education Strategic Coordination Framework, specifically NASA Education.” They were to “Attract and retain students in STEM disciplines through a progression of educational opportunities for students, teachers, and faculty.”

184. “CORE is operated through a cooperative agreement with Lorain County Joint Vocational School, serves as the worldwide distribution center for NASA-produced multimedia educational materials. CORE also supports the state-based NASA ERCN’s with materials and training to assist the Educator Resource Center staff in better serving educators within their region.” Moreover, CORE supports specific goals, one of their goals are to; “Reproduce and distribute NASA’s aerospace audiovisual and multimedia educational materials.”

185. NASA, The Center for Audiovisual Technologies and CORE all have one thing in common: STEM.

186. NASA actually admits to using green screen effects.

187. NASA admits to using STEM careers at one time in conjunction with CORE productions as mentioned.

188. However, NASA today operates independently with reference to its distribution of video productions, apparent real time video streaming and articles. Hence its STEM innovations and careers of today.

189. What you see are enhanced CGI (Computer Generated imagery) effects from modern day technologies as mentioned in chapter 8 and 11 of our series. For I.e., some films make heavy use of chroma key to add backgrounds that are constructed entirely using CGI. “Keying” is an important component to visual effects. Put the wrong screen behind an actor or object, for I.e., a spaceship; then parts of the actors clothing or ship model vanishes into thin air. You will be able to see right through certain parts of the actors body or spaceship; as if they were invisible.

190. There are many NASA video fails because of this, and this is due to the fact that they must use “real time” video broadcasts to convince the masses.

191. I posted 6 NASA video fails in chapter 11. In Addition to that, I have decided to also post 3 educational videos; two on green/blue screen effects and the other on matte techniques. And 1 informative video on T.V. signal technologies as it was capable of doing back in the 1960’s. See chapter 11 of my ‘The Pale Blue Dot study series.

192. Matting and wipes can clearly be seen in official “real time” NASA live streams.

193. On another note; the movie ‘Capricorn One’ (1976) is brilliant at the telling of this.

194. Location is key – again, read chapter 11 of my original series.

195. Video Codec is key – again, read chapter 8 of my original series.

196. Circles (or illuminated circled lights) are used for tracking purposes. The gridded version provides an even greater tracking image for CGI composites – down to the smallest CGI detail when actors or astronauts are overlayed in the scene.

197. NASA is nominated for a category called; ‘A Night in the Woods’ – the runner-up was ‘Mission ISS’ By ‘Magnopus.’ The awards that NASA did win is called; ‘On Sight JPL W/ Microsoft’ and ‘ProtoSpace.’

198. “Magnopus is a Visual Development and Experience company founded by Academy Award winners to tell stories without borders.”

199. NASA has admitted to having never left Earth’s lower orbit to begin with due to the Van Allen Radiation Belt (or as some Flat Earthers would call it, the Firmament – Dome).

200. There were many authorities who denied the Apollo landings. There are now videos pertaining to this. There is also a “Mockcumentary” called; ‘The Dark Side of the Moon’ directed by William Karel.

201. “In December 2015, a video surfaced which allegedly shows Kubrick being interviewed shortly before his 1999 death; the video purportedly shows the director confessing to T. Patrick Murray that the Apollo Moon landings had been faked. Research quickly found, however, that the video was a hoax.”

202. The hoaxer did not delete the obvious expose in his video. If I was perpetrating a hoax, I would want to permanently remove and delete all evidences of an expose. Perhaps it was a PSYOP?

203. The purpose of United States psychological operations is to induce or reinforce behavior favorable to U.S. objectives.

204. There are three main types: strategic, operational and tactical. Strategic PSYOP include informational activities conducted by the U.S. government agencies outside of the military arena, though many utilize Department of Defense (DOD) assets. Operational PSYOP are conducted across the range of military operations, including during peacetime, in a defined operational area to promote the effectiveness of the joint force commander’s (JFC) campaigns and strategies. Tactical PSYOP are conducted in the area assigned to a tactical commander across the range of military operations to support the tactical mission against opposing forces.

205. If the Moon landings, or the ISS for that matter, were and are part of a PSYOP, then it falls under the “Strategic” exercise as performed by agencies outside of the military; in this case NASA. Although, like mentioned above, it may also utilize the DOD.

From Chapter 12

206. The concept of perception concerning visual space exists.

207. An illusion is a distortion of the senses, which can reveal how the human brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation. Though illusions distort our perception of reality, they are generally shared by most people.

208. The philosophy of perception is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data, in particular how they relate to beliefs about, or knowledge of, the world. (Or Earth – world – as seen from space).

209. Visual space is the perceptual space housing the visual world being experienced by an aware observer; it is the subjective counterpart of the space of physical objects before an observer’s eyes.

210. External and Sensory Perception falls under “Visual Space.”

211. Stellar aberrations and parallaxes within their relationships regarding distant measurements fail.

212. Ernst Mach cited Spaces are threefold manifolds, but they are neither constituted everywhere and in all directions alike, nor infinite in extent, nor unbounded. In other words, what Mach is saying is that 2 and 3 dimensional Euclidean space is not infinite or unbounded. And as such the former (2 dimensional space) is not everywhere – but such spaces are all alike. They are not infinite, but yet they remain unbounded.

213. Like I discussed in chapter 3.

214. The expanding universe just may simply be the expanding firmament and Earth along with it – stellar parallaxes (the flying away of objects in relation to parallax measurements) explain this, again; as discussed in chapters 2 and 3.

215. Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826–1866) was the first to recognize geometry on the surface of a sphere. Spherical geometry, is a type of non-Euclidean geometry. This is the reason we name the spherical model for elliptic geometry after him, the Riemann Sphere.

216. Euclidean geometry differs greatly from that of Hyperbolic geometry.

217. Rudolf Luneberg writes a paper that visual space was hyperbolic with constant curvature, meaning that elements can be moved throughout the space without changing shape.One of Luneburg’s major arguments is that, in accord with a common observation, the transformation involving hyperbolic space renders infinity into a dome (the sky).

218. Luneberg indicated that space itself is transformed into an infinite dome – the sky (with layers, as discussed in chapter 6 with reference to the different layers of atmospheric expansions – hence expanding infinitely.

219. Hyperbolic space became a reality when the first published works expounding the existence of hyperbolic and other non-Euclidean geometries were confirmed by Russian mathematician, Nikolay Ivanovich Lobachevsky, who wrote on the subject in 1829, and, independently, the Hungarian mathematicians Farkas and János Bolyai, father and son, in 1831.

220. In hyperbolic geometry, there are two kinds of parallel lines. If two lines do not intersect within a model of hyperbolic geometry but they do intersect on its boundary, then the lines are called asymptotically parallel or hyper-parallel.

221. Luneberg’s discussions and corroborating experiments on the whole did not favor his conclusions.

222. Luneberg’s non-favorable conclusions are based upon one concept; the concept of Realism.

223. Realism is questioned into doubt. This reasoning of thought is called; the Argument From Illusion.

224. In the philosophy of perception was a popular view held in the early 20th century by philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, C.D. Broad, H.H. Price, A.J. Ayer, and G.E. Moore.

225.  A.J. Ayer demonstrates a weakness in realism. A wonderful example of this is Ayer’s stick demonstration in in water; a second component. Hence the stick bends under water. See Part 8 for the stick demonstration.

226. Austin, J. L. criticized the argument.

227. Ayer’s and Austin’s claims are both valid.

228. Austin’s claims are lacking.

229. Austin, his logic concerning appearances are dependent upon experience (what we know). An experience of knowing things from first hand experience because we are, or were, there to experience it first.

230. Austin’s argument is based upon established experience. I would of ventured to ask him; was he there when, what he refers to as a “second component” came into existence.

231. Does water bend? Or is it straight? Is the stick bending or is it straight?

232. Water changes its shape.

233. Fish see the stick as a bending reality.

234. From our view point, the Earth seems to bend (curve). Is this due to a spherical (ball) shape, or a circular flat disk; as discussed and demonstrated in my earlier articles? Hence hyperbolic 2 dimensional space.

235. They say the Earth curves. Is it a continuous curve, like Ernst Mach suggested? Would that prove a spherical (ball) Earth? No, it would not. And why, you may ask? Because continuous curves, like Mach claimed, have no end, especially if the ball and/or firmament is expanding like I discussed in chapter 3.

236. Another reason it wouldn’t prove a spherical (ball) Earth is because water alters the shape of sticks and land masses. If NASA is not putting “the hoax” on us, and things are as they seem to be regardless of any fisheye lens, then what we may be seeing is the bending of the firmament above – as it expands – on top and at the bottom (“the waters beneath”). This will account for the bending of the “stick” (land masses). Let us remember, land masses are noting but bodily formations of the Earth sticking up out from under the FIRST component; water. And as such, land masses, though flat, alters its shape in relation to the bending of the waters surrounding it, giving it a curved illusion.

237. Waters came first. Sticks came second.

238. According to modern science; The water we swim in and drink here on Earth is even older than the Sun.

239. And the Earth was without form (non-existent), and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters” Genesis 1:2.

240. The Sun, Moon and stars are therefore questionable with reference to stellar aberration, parallax and what we see; whether real or illusion of perception.

From Chapter 13

241. Science use what is called the AU – Astronomical Unit.

242. Using the AU, science says the Sun is 93 million mi’ away.

243. According to science, the AU is not used for any other purpose but to measure objects between the Earth and the Sun.

244. Six pubic domains from the governments of the U.S. and the former Soviet Union in the 1950″s reveal experiments and physics math that can only be utilized on a flat Earth and a close local Sun. The documents are released publicly in 2005.

245. Science says, the temperature at the surface of the Sun is about 10,000 Fahrenheit (5,600 Celsius). The temperature rises from the surface of the Sun inward towards the very hot center of the Sun where it reaches about 27,000,000 Fahrenheit (15,000,000 Celsius). It is therefore absurd to even think of a local Sun when its diameter is 865,374 miles; accompanied with its enormous heat at 10,000-27,000 Fahrenheit.

246. But what if we were to shrink the Sun and claim it to be only a light source with limited heat as it shines, bringing daylight perpendicular to the region’s where it rises, at a relatively close range of about 2,700-3,000 miles away?

247. Most flat Earthers claim the Sun to be about 2,700-3,000 miles – which is 14,256,000 – 15,840,000 in feet. They, along with some physicists, claim the Sun is traveling around the Earth and not the other way around.

248. According to science and NASA, Earth is rotating at 1000 mph (1,036 – 1,037mph, according to NASA), with our Moon at 2,288 mph; and not the Sun.

249. A nautical mile is based on the circumference of the earth, and is equal to one minute of latitude. It is slightly more than a statute (land measured) mile (1 nautical mile = 1.1508 statute miles). Nautical miles are used for charting and navigating.

250. The distance between degrees of longitude is about 60 nautical miles at the equator. It is less further north or south as the longitude lines converge towards the poles. Degrees of latitude are always 60 nautical miles apart.

251. A circle is 360 degrees from start to finish, and a line drawn in the middle causes the half on the right and the half on left to become 180 degrees respectively. Now picture the Sun circling clockwise as it rises and sets with 12hrs intervals (12×2 = a 24hr period), that would make our 360 degree circle exactly 180 degrees (half a circle), based our Sun rising in the East and setting in the West @ the equinox. And knowing that 60 nautical miles (NM) = 1 degree – for I.e., 1 degree longitude = 60 NM, 2 degrees = 120 NM, and so forth. And also knowing that 1 NM = 1.150.78 English miles, the mathematics for a traveling rotating Sun on a flat Earth is now possible as follows.

252. 60NM = 1 Degree

253. 180 degrees × 60NM = 10,800NM – that is from the moment the Sun rose and to the moment it set, it traveled 10,800NM, and it took 12hrs to do it.

254. 10,800NM × 1.15078 = 12,428.424ml

255. 12,428.424ml / 12hr = 1,035.702mph (1,036 rounded off). When we add its full encirclement 1036×2 it comes out to 2,702 – about the same as it’s distance as we will find out below.

256. The Sun, on the model of a flat Earth, is the object that is traveling at the speed of 1,036 and not the Earth. It is the same number; 1,036 – coincidence?

257. There are several theories about the relative size and distance of the Sun and Moon all with their points of evidence and points of contention. One can easily use sextants and plane trigonometry to calculate the distance of the Sun and Moon. When this method is used, the finding result is that the Sun and Moon are both only about 32 miles in diameter and less than a few thousand miles from Earth (2,700-3,000).

258. Sextants for astronomical observations are devices depicting a sixth of a circle, used primarily for measuring the positions of stars,

259. Sextants are replaced over time by transit telescopes and astrometry techniques. Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.

260. Information obtained by astrometric measurements provide information on the kinematics of celestial objects. Kinematics is the study of motion only – from point A to B, and so forth.

261. Some would conclude that sextants only work but for so much. It fails to accurately measure long distant celestial bodies; like stars and so forth. This thinking is a faulty. As we have learned in chapter 2, stellar parallaxes (when used with reference to celestial objects) which gave birth to stellar aberrations (the so-called final nail in the coffin for geocentrism) are not compatible with the theories of light.

262. Many cite that of the commercial and corporate airliners and jets; they fly well above 2,700-3,000 miles in altitude. Not so, they are confusing miles with feet. Remember, our 2,700 miles 14,256,000 in feet. While our 3,000 miles = 15,840,000 in feet.

263. Large passenger planes can’t fly much higher than about 12 kilometers (7.5 miles, which 39,600 ft). The air is too thin above that altitude to hold the plane up.

264. The highest certified altitude of an airliner was Concorde’s 60,000 feet. Today some of the corporate jets can fly at 51,000 feet. Q: What is the highest cruising altitude allowed? A: Most airliners are limited to 45,000 feet or less.

265. The Moon is about 2,700-3,000 miles away, and not roughly about 238,000 mi’ away. It’s speed can be calculated as the Sun was. In reference to its size, you will recall that mainstream science claims that it’s radius is 1,079, it’s diameter 2,159.2 and it has an equatorial circumstance of 6,783.5 miles. This too (as in their proportional measurements) can also be measured by using the same techniques as we did in reference to the Sun.

266. According science, the Moon orbits the Earth once every 27.322 days. It also takes approximately 27 days for the Moon to rotate once on its axis. As a result, the Moon does not seem to be spinning but appears to observers from Earth to be keeping almost perfectly still. Scientists call this synchronous rotation.

267. Synchronous rotation is used to explain why the Moon appears upside in the Southern Hemisphere and right side up in Northern Hemisphere; or visa-visa according to your location, hence proving a spherical ball Earth.

268. However, the way we see the Moon is due to perspective; where we are on the Earth. For instance, put a sticker of the number 9 on your ceiling; from one perspective it will show you that it is still the number 9. But if you were to walk to the opposite side of the room the number 9 will flip over to reveal a 6 – hence the term: “Upside down Moon” in the Southern Hemisphere. Or right side up; depending on positional perspective. If you were to walk in the middle (the equator) of the number, you will see it not as a number at all. You will be simply seeing it from a third perspective.

269. The Moon may be turning like a wheel. Not rotating, but turning like a wheel. This, along with invisible heavenly bodies, will also account for its various phases. Moreover, this turning can easily work on both models; a ball, transparent or disk shaped Moon. This turning, for instance, starts as we see it rising in the North and then flips as it rises in the South and re-flips back when entering the North again; and so on. And that the reason for our not seeing the back of the Moon on a flat Earth is that it may be blocked out by other celestial objects.

270. Moon phases are due to other heavenly bodies in the heavens; it is not restricted to the Earth. On many occasions we see a rounded, conclave and even a flat half Moon shadow.

271. Many ancients of the past and professors of modern-day academia will also insist that not only does the Earth not cast a shadow upon the Moon, but that the phenomena is due to other heavenly bodies coming in between the Moon and the Earth which may be invisible

272. Many authorities; past and present are in consensus with the concept of heavenly invisible bodies casting shadows and eclipses.

273. Invisible structures lurk in the Milky Way. Essentially, the structures appear to be large clumps of some sort of material, possibly clouds of cool gas, in the existing thin gas that lies between stars. And they appear to be in odd shapes.

274. The only explanation for this is that the Moon is either transparent or semi-transparent; and eclipses (full and partial) are due to unseen invisible objects coming across it, as we have learned above. This will also confirm its phases. The stars are either relatively close to it, even coming across it; in front of its face, as they orbit the firmament and behind it – as in the Moon’s transparency.

275. Moreover, in order to see a full Moon with 100% totality you would need to be looking at the Moon’s daylight side face-on. But according to the geometry of the globe Earth we would never see the daylight side face-on, otherwise the Earth would get in the way of the sunlight. There should always be a portion of the Moon that is unlit. 100% totality should be impossible, no matter how much mental gymnastics are done with the scale. If we are not looking at the daylight side face on, complete totality is impossible.

276. Knowing this, it therefore most likely that the term, “Dark Side of the Moon,” is either fictitious or an error based upon the globe Earth theory. However, on a possible transparent, or Semi-transparent Moon, the unseen dark side does not exist. But some would argue that the images taken from the ‘Deep Space Climate Observatory’ (DSCO) satellite confirms not only a globular Earth, but also the Moon’s dark side (the other side we do not see).

277. The observatory orbits the Earth at about 1.6 millon kilometers (1 million miles). It contains a 4 megapixel CCD camera and telescope. The camera is called the EPIC (Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera). The EPIC has an aperture diameter of 30.5 cm (12 in), a focal ratio of 9.38, a field of view of 0.61°, and an angular sampling resolution of 1.07 arc-seconds.

278. A further look into the type of lens used on the observatory would reveal another fisheye lens.

279. There are all sorts of fisheye lenses. For instance, there are fisheye lenses for APS-C cameras. Some common APS-C sensors range from 23.6 to 23.7 mm (0.93 to 0.93 in) on the long dimension and 15.6 mm (0.61in)on the shorter side, for a diagonal measurement between 28.2 to 28.4 mm (1.11 to 1.12 in). But in the case of the DSCO, in short, they are using circular stereographic Inverse mapping fisheye techniques.

280. NASA claims via the DSCO that it showed us the “dark side” of the Moon during the solar eclipse of 2017 as it was orbiting the Earth.

281. The so-called “dark side” is, well: dark. How can that be when the Earth is lit? Since the Earth is lit from the Sun, the Sun in this instance should be directly in front of the Earth and therefore the “dark side” of the Moon should not be dark at all; it should be illuminating since mainstream science claims that the Moon gets its light from the Sun.

282. Black circular matting surrounding the NASA solar eclipse video.

From Chapter 14 

283. Planets were seen as wandering stars as opposed to its other celestial companions were are considered fixed.

284. What constitutes a planet (as non-gaseous body with in a substance) along with its alleged gravitational influence was decided upon in 2006.

285. Prior to 2006, the term “planet” was completely arbitrary. But yet mainstream science maintained it as fact based upon an axiom.

286. Ars-sized or larger object beyond the orbit of Pluto would not be considered a planet, because he believes that it would not have time to clear its orbit.

287. A flat shaped planet will override what constitutes a planet by classification of what actually makes a planet; a planet. But it certainly does not mean that they can not exist. According to an article in Forbes, you could make a flat world that was larger than any object in our asteroid belt, and possibly even nearly the size of our Moon.

288. Neil deGrasse Tyson cites “Earth is still round.” But yet, he still can not disprove the flat Earth model as we discussed in chapter 13 in reference to an article that revealed such by the Washington Post.

289. A Planet is a celestial body that: (a) is in orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (c) has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.

290. Classification of what constitutes a planet was not harmoniously agreed upon.

291. If the “clearing the neighbourhood” criterion was to be abandoned, the number of planets in the Solar System could rise from eight to more than 50, with hundreds potentially to be discovered.

292. If the criteria of “clearing the neighborhood“ is abandoned, the Earth; whether a spherically oblate object or a flat circular non-rotating disked shaped body, wouldn’t matter since it will be non-conforming to IAU classifications for what constitutes a planet.

293. “Clearing the Neighborhood” actually means that a body of mass is independent of other, what they call, gravitational influence.

294. When asked the question; “What is the definitive proof there is Gravity;” Simon Bridge, scientist, revealed originally on Quora, and then published in Forbes said; “There isn’t one. That is not how science works.” Moreover, Bridge continues; “For Einstein gravity, the experiment is the bending of starlight (this is a key distinction between Einstein and Newtonian gravity, which both predict bending of starlight but to different amounts).”

295. Furthermore, there are several different theories concerning, for lack of a better word, this anomaly.

296. There are 21 theories concerning this anomaly (force).

297. 10 are in harmony with water as being the first, or at least the primary component of force in movement of shape, mass and perception (as briefly discussed in chapter 12).

298. The AU (Astronomical Unit) as defined above comes from measurements pertaining to ancient Greek stadiums – literally of stadia myriads 400 and 80000″). (Stadia).

299. On a Side Note: The Book of Enoch reveals that man would alter creation, asserting onto celestial bodies that wander pagan names. The naming of celestial objects after Roman gods is still practiced today. When no name is given, an object simply remains unnamed, as a number, until a pagan Roman name, or its equivalent in other languages, is given onto it if astronomers see fit.

300. Planets are said to be rocky or gaseous.

301. It is said that spectrometers help us determine the properties of a planet. This is done by using color from the periodic table.

302. However, one can choose any color for any element. There is no standard set of colors used to identify element groups or other properties. Colors are selected based on how well the text shows up against them, but mostly it’s just a matter of personal preference. You can find periodic tables in a variety of color schemes.

303. Astronomers use the instrument called the optical spectrometer which utilizes the electromagnetic spectrum, measures light intensity and wavelengths; and all of this is matched and compared to chosen colors inserted in the spectrometer itself – that is the colors of the Periodic Table. BUT what are their colors? Answer: There are none.

304. Elements are given colors by men (scientists, chemists and astronomers). In actuality, and therefore if, objects give off certain conformational characteristics, are not those confirmations based upon any given chosen color? Yes, they are.

305. Therefore, the information that we receive concerning our Wandering Stars are invalid and are hence circumstancially influenced by exterior means outside of the spectrometer itself. And as such, we can not ascertain for a certainty what our Wandering Stars are made up of. Rockey surfaces and various gaseous elements are merely poor hypothetical conclusions that have no basis in fact, since spectrums of light are just randomly chosen. CGI images are used with reference to, aka, “planets.” Without said CGI effects they appear to only be wandering gaseous elements (lights of different colors, stars).

306. Robotic landings have been seen to be outright forgeries. Many simply recorded on deserts or rocky surfaces here on Earth.

307. The mechanics, measurements, the AU’s and the definitions involved in finding out more about Wandering Stars, are the same methods used to measure distant fixed non-wandering stars. Except in this case, the measurement is allegedly to large of a number to write down when finding the distance between anything beyond the Sun or outer Solar System. In other words, the AU is no longer a practical means of measurement. They need a larger unit: The Lightyear.

308. The term lightyear was first coined. The term ligntyear was published in 1838.

309. The lightyear is most often used when. expressing distances to stars and other distances on a galactic scale, especially in non-specialist and popular science publications. The unit most commonly used in professional astrometry is the parsec. (As opposed to the confusion that the phrase “year” in “lightyear” can entail).

310. This new type of unit was applied to the star 61 Cygni. Bessel used a 6.2-inch (160 mm) heliometer designed by Joseph von Fraunhofer. The heliometer was the first successful measurements of stellar parallax (to determine the distance to a star). (The topic of parallax and it’s faulty conclusions was discussed in Part 3).

311. Nevertheless, the lightyear unit appeared, in 1851 in a German popular astronomical article by Otto Ule. The aether was voted against – though many disagreed with the consensus of voting against the aether, as we have learned in chapter 2 – and parallax became the accepted standard form of calculation. Later the speed of light became, according to mainstream science, a constant.

312. However, the speed of light is not constant.

From Chapter 15 & Chapter 16

313. Flat Earthers, like globe Earthers, do not deny the existence of the North Pole (the Artica). The Artica is the area where the North Star Polaris is fixed. But when it comes to the South Pole (the Antarctica) flat Earthers deny it’s existence, claiming that the Antarctica is a wall of ice surrounding the enclosed domed Earth. According to flat Earthers, the Antarctica is not a continent.

314. Flat Earthers maintain that passenger flights deep into the Antarctica is impossible since it stretches for miles on end. Maintaining fuel for a trip to and from the entire Antarctica would be impossible, considering what the average, and even the well above average, passenger airliner tank can hold. Furthermore, flat Earthers also believe that most of the Antarctica is off limits to the rest of the civilian population from exploring it due to the Antarctic Treaty – whether by twin otters and/or personal planes. Crossing over the Antarctica is a feat that has never truly been accomplished, despite what you may have learned, heard or read.

315. Places like Antarctica 21 are in the business of allegedly flying over Cape Horn and the mythical waters of the Drake Passage, the 2019-20 Classic Antarctica Air-Cruises take you to one of the most spectacular places on earth, the coldest, highest, windiest, driest, and remotest continent – Antarctica. Thirty departures are offered during the 2019-20 season, twelve aboard Ocean Nova, four aboard Hebridean Sky and fourteen aboard Magellan Explorer.

316. Do planes really fly over the Antarctic? Has anyone flown over the Antarctic? The answer to both questions is: “No.”

317. Many bloggers and websites contradict each other with reference to flights over the Antarctic.

318. Ellsworth and Kenyon did NOT fly over the Antarctic, from Little America to Dundee Island because the Antarctic as a continent does not exist at all. All they did was fly over a wall of ice, what is called, its peninsula.

319. They got lost 3x’s.

320. This inability to successfully find a destination the first time around is probably due to the anomalies found concerning the geomagnetic poles, specifically in this case; the Southern geomagnetic pole.

321. There is really no such thing as a North or South Pole. And while there are directional magnetic forces at work with regard to the N and S; the idea itself seems to cancel each other out, according to ‘’

322. Furthermore, the North and South Magnetic Poles are wandering points on Earth’s surface. They move, due to changes in Earth’s magnetic field. The location of the South Magnetic Pole is currently off the coast of Antarctica and even outside the Antarctic Circle. All magnets have two poles, where the lines of magnetic flux enter and emerge. Because opposite poles attract, this definition means that the Earth’s North Magnetic Pole is actually a Magnetic South Pole and the Earth’s South Magnetic Pole is a Magnetic North Pole.

323. Science tells us the N will become the S, and S will become the N. However, the term “flip” is somewhat descriptive by those who uphold a spherical Earth model, wouldn’t you say? But on the other hand, we can clearly see that the changes in magnetic directional influences are circular. And since they are circular, this directional path can also exist on a flat circular non-spherical Earth. See picture from physics in chapter 15.

324. The North geomagnetic Pole, is actually the south pole of the Earth’s magnetic field, and the South geomagnetic pole is the north pole. The magnetic field is generated by electric currents due to the motion of convection currents of molten iron in the Earth’s outer core driven by heat escaping from the core, a natural process called a geo-dynamo.

325. On a flat Earth it’s true that unipolar magnets can’t exist, but this is not a problem for the flat Earth model. This is because ring magnets, which are shaped like, you guessed it, a flat disk, are capable of having radial magnetization. In a radial magnet, one magnetic pole is at the center and other other is at all points on the edge of the magnet. But this explanation only speaks in reference to an ice wall surrounding the entire enclosed domed Earth.

326. The magnetic field from the iron in the base causes electricity to flow around through the ring. The electricity in the ring is called an eddy current. The eddy current causes the metal ring to become a magnet. The two electromagnets are arranged so that their north poles point at each other.

327. Ring magnets neodymium. Most ring magnets and tube-shaped magnets are axially magnetised: North and South poles are located on flat circular surfaces (“top and bottom”). The few diametrically magnetised ring magnets with poles “left and right” are specifically marked.

328. Acknowledging an ice wall surrounding the Earth, the “ring” of currents and magnetic attractions itself are also caused from the bottom of the disk, like shown in Eddy’s Current. The wall of ice at the bottom of the Earth can converge “to meet at a point. A pair of lines of longitude are parallel at the equator but converge toward the poles.

329. The United States National Centers for Environmental Information uses the Enhanced Magnetic Model (EMM). The EMM results in significantly improved pointing accuracy than the World Magnetic Model (WMM), which uses spherical harmonic representation to degree and order 12, resolving the magnetic field at 3000 km wavelength. The EMM model provides the magnetic field vector at any desired location and altitude close to and above the Earth’s surface. Why not simply use the WMM? Because they know it doesn’t work.

330. Flight paths over the alleged continent of Antarctica have been debunked fully in chapters 15 and 16. Too much to cite in this outline. Please see chapters 15 and 16.

331. Circumnavigational paths taken by Magellan and Columbus over the alleged spherical Earth have also been debunked fully in chapters 15 and 16. Too much to cite in this outline. Please see chapters 15 and 16.

332. Captain Cook discovers the Ice Wall. Cook said that he can find no South continent.

333. The 1st motive behind Cooks voyages was to find the transit of Venus; and the 2nd was to find the elusive South continent. He found the transit of Venus, but did not find a Southern continent. So he decided to set sail a 2nd time to find it. And even though there was no evidence for it the 1st time, this continent was still rumored to exist.

334. The history of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe. The term Antarctic, referring to the opposite of the Arctic Circle, was coined by Marinus of Tyre in the 2nd century AD. Terra Australis (Latin for South Land) was a hypothetical continent first posited in antiquity and which appeared on maps between the 15th and 18th centuries. The existence of Terra Australis was not based on any survey or direct observation, but rather on the idea that continental land in the Northern Hemisphere should be balanced by land in the South. This theory of balancing land has been documented as early as the 5th century on maps by Macrobius who uses the term Australis on his maps.

335. So what we learn here is that map makers from the 15th and 18th centuries were influenced by Macrobius from the 5th cent and actually MADE UP A HYPOTHETICAL LAND MASS to match that found in the North. But what we learn from Cook, and his expertise in meticulously making maps as he saw things for himself, is that he concluded that no such Southern continent existed.

336. Longitudes, latitudes and parallels are discussed, along with their degrees in chapters 15 and 16 .

337. You are NOT allowed to sail or fly below the 60th South Parallel.

338. Demanding a picture of the ends of the Earth, if any, requires one to not only travel below the 60th South Parallel, but also to cross the entire breadth of the Antarctica. And as stated above, the Antarctica is roughly 3,400 miles in diameter. So that would mean our trip would be a boat ride below the 60th South Parallel, plus another 3,400mi trip back (totalling 6,800mi); that is assuming that the official model is correct. But again, we are NOT allowed to travel INDEPENDENTLY without alleged designated routes below the 60 parallel.

339. The Antarctic is nothing more than a very large sheet of ice – almost like a small island, but not a continent.

340. Anything beyond 60° is forbidden to tourists. The ONLY way one can go beyond the 60th South parallel is by DESIGNATED routes.

341. Designated routes are due to the Antarctic Treaty established on December 1st, 1959.

342. If we were to cut off 60° in the North, the areas of land that will be cut off to the public would be all of; Northern Canada, Alaska, much of Russia, including St. Petersburg and other major cities, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Greenland. The cut off is huge! Now why in the world is this much area blocked off in the South? Do you really think it’s because of penguins, like the child propaganda movie “Happy Feet” so wonderfully illustrated for us?

343. Illuminating information into ALL this, including the Antarctic Treaty, can be found simply by reading Part 11. Too much to include here.

From Chapter 17

344. There are 21 companies and enterprises NASA has contracts with. You will notice that the DOD (Department of Defense) and the military are mentioned in conjunction with these contracted companies on several occasions. See chapter 17.

345. For all the names, details and citations pertaining to these companies see chapter 17.

346. Hilbert spaces. Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. It extends the methods of vector algebra and calculus from the two-dimensional Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space to spaces with any finite or infinite number of dimensions. It’s essentially just an infinitely dimensional vector space. A Hilbert space is an abstract vector space possessing the structure of an inner product that allows length and angle to be measured. Furthermore, Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used.

347. In other words, a flat 2 dimensional universe – Euclidean Space – which contain finite dimensions of length and width and 3 dimensional spaces – which contain length, width and height can be fixed and set at any infinite or finite distances to allow for measure and limits but can also allow for limits that do not exist – hence the expansion. It allows curved space, which is often refered to as spatial geometry that is not flat, for flat space, described as Euclidean geometry to exist. Hence a flat universe with a flat expanding infinite Earth is not difficult to comprehend. If you are familiar with integrals and Gausses Law then you should be able to understand the mathematics for an infinite Earth.

348. Gauss’s law, with alleged gravitational forces, is confirmed when examined on an infinite Earth. See physics math in chapter 10.

349. We are told; Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime.

350. Edwin Hubble: (1889-1953) discovered space.

351. However, a rival to Hubble, Harlow Shapley, thought that the universe was static. To Shapley, the universe was only the Milky Way (our galaxy) and that there was nothing else beyond it, despite an earlier declaration of such from William Herschel a century before. Like Hubble, Herschel believed that there was more to outer space than just our Milky Way galaxy.

352. Outer space does not begin at a definite altitude above the Earth’s surface. However, the Karman line, an altitude of 100 km (62 mi) above sea level, is conventionally used as the start of outer space in space treaties and for aerospace records keeping.

353. The term space was first used to mean the region beyond Earth’s sky in John Milton’s Paradise Lost in 1667. The term outward space was used in 1842 by the English poet Lady Emmeline Stuart-Wortley in her poem “The Maiden of Moscow.” The expression outer space was used as an astronomical term by Alexander von Humboldt in 1845. It was later popularized in the writings of H. G. Wells in 1901.

354. Space has 3 dimensions. It is called; ‘Three-Dimensional Space.’ It is a geometric setting in which three values called parameters are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension. In physics and mathematics a sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space. When n = 3, the set of all such locations is called three-dimensional Euclidean Space.

355. Later the concept of time was added to the space of 3 dimensions; called Spacetime. Hence the term: Four Dimensional Continuum. However, in 1905 Einstein postulated that the laws of physics are invariant (i.e., identical) in all inertial systems (i.e., non-accelerating frames of reference); The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of the motion of the light source.

356. Remember what I said in prior articles in reference to light speed, lightyears, measurements, stellar parallax and aberrations? We remember the inconsistencies concerning them and how they were subject to error, miscalculations and downright personal preferences in a particular mathematical persuasion; all steaming from a minority vote and prestige, rather than the majority.

357. Many physicists are beginning to once again question the validity of outer space itself. It would appear to me that many physicists are going back to the fundamentals; reexamining experiments, theories and mathematical equations in conjunction with those experiments and equations.

358. It is peculiar that some physicists are even questioning space, especially when they apparently have all the empirical evidence they will ever need – via – photos and videos, courtesy of NASA and other space agencies. But nevertheless, question it they do; flat Earthers are not the only ones.

359. What is the shape of the universe? Answer: There are 3 possibilities. In General Relativity, four-dimensional spacetime is curved. There are basically three possible shapes to the Universe; 1. a flat Universe (Euclidean or zero curvature), like a sheet 2. a spherical or closed Universe (positive curvature) or 3. a hyperbolic or open Universe (negative curvature). In other words; the universe could be positively curved, like a sphere. The universe could be negatively curved, like a saddle. The universe could be flat, like a sheet of paper.

360. In a flat universe, Euclidean geometry (space) applies at the very largest scales. This means parallel lines will never meet, and the internal angles of a triangle always add up to exactly 180 degrees, just like you’re used to. But in curved universes, whether finite or infinite, things get weird.

361. As of 2018, the simplest version of the inflationary theory, an extension of the Big Bang theory, predicts that the density of the universe is very close to the critical density, and that the geometry of the universe is flat, like a sheet of paper.

362. The WMAP spacecraft can measure the basic parameters of the Big Bang theory including the geometry of the universe. If the universe were flat, the brightest microwave background fluctuations (or “spots”) would be about one degree across. If the universe were open, the spots would be less than one degree across. If the universe were closed, the brightest spots would be greater than one degree across.

363. Recent measurements (c. 2001) by a number of ground-based and balloon-based experiments, including MAT/TOCO, Boomerang, Maxima and DASI, have shown that the brightest spots are about 1 degree across. Thus the universe was known to be flat to within about 15% accuracy prior to the WMAP results. WMAP has confirmed this result with very high accuracy and precision. This was confirmed in 2013.

364. When cosmologists say that the universe is flat they are referring to space – the universe and its parallel siblings of time past. However, for them, spacetime is not flat. It can’t be: Einstein’s general theory of relativity says that matter and energy curve spacetime, and there are enough matter and energy lying around to provide for curvature.

365. In other words, the universe, as in space itself, is flat but spacetime is not. This declaration demands that it be beyond a shadow of a doubt. But when we consider various aspects like spacetime curvature and topologies with a sensitive quantum-spacetime-measuring tool called the ‘Holometer,’ the question of 3 dimensional space comes into play; in favor of a 2 dimensional shape.

366. The job of the Holometer is to be able to detect holographic fluctuations in spacetime. In other words, it is supposed to check for pixels found in the universe at the smallest levels – smaller than a proton. This is called ‘Hogans Theory,’ named after Craig Hogan – particle astrophysicist.

367. As of December 3, 2015, after a year of data collection, the Holometer has ruled out Hogan’s theory of a pixelated universe to a high degree of statistical significance (4.6 sigma). The study found that spacetime is not quantized at the scale being measured.

368. It’s like something out of the movie, ‘The Matrix.’ The only thing about all of this is that it is real. The theories are real, and so are the observations. And if the theories are real, then our perceptions concerning shapes like balls, spheres and curvatures are illusions and perceptions like I discussed in chapter 12. Illusions similar to high tech video space games like; Mass Effect, StarCraft, Star Wars, Halo and Star Trek – where we see ball like spheres called “planets,” but they are really on a flat screen. Is it any wonder why there is such a thing as the philosophy of perception and discussions concerning Rene Descartes’ ‘Meditations,’ and his Cartesian doubt.

369. Hogans theory was proven correct, it coincided with the 2013 confirmation of the universe as being “flat like a sheet of paper.” However, they maintain that they are still not sure. But for now, the similarities of the two would just have to wait. But while we are waiting, I find it rather very interesting that the theory of a holographic universe (and our world, for that matter) came about at the same time in 2014-15 that astronomers and physicists confirmed a flat universe in 2013. I suppose they were seeking confirmation. Since the universe is flat, and possibly holographic, then what are the true dimensions of the Earth and space?

370. We know the universe is flat. We also know that it is not a hologram or pixelated matrix like a HD television set; at least for now. We know that different shapes exist. We also know that although spacetime curvatures exist, we also know that it exists on a sheet – a flat sheet.

371. Having a flat universe does not effect the shape of the firmament/Dome at all. Because if that was the case, then spherical balls that cause curvatures in spacetime would not exist according to mainstream. So therefore, by reasonable deduction, a flat universe doesn’t cancel out a domed Earth. A domed Earth is like a glass snow globe. A snow globe is half a globe. The surface inside the globe is flat, while it’s world is rounded, or circumscribed, by the glass protecting the contents inside. The other half of the globe does not exist, it is the bottom. And that bottom can go on forever from the perspective of the little figurines inside the domed globe. A globe can also be placed on an outstretched sheet; causing curvature.

372. Hence outer space is really a whole lot of inner space instead. Our sheet – the firmament Dome – becomes the center of the universe because it is the universe. And since the dome circumscribes the Earth as postulated in chapter 3 and 17, the Earth and all contained in it, under it (as in its oceans) and above it, is all that is and all that will ever be. The Earth and it’s firmament is the stretched cosmos expanding. The Earth doesn’t occupy the cosmos, the cosmos occupies the Earth and her firmament Dome. And as a result of that occupation, the universe appears to be the thing that is expanding, when in reality it may be the Earth that is expanding.

373. NASA denies an expanding Earth, claiming; “Earth is not expanding, as some scientists had previously speculated,” as of 2011. However, as of 2015 ‘Science Direct’ claims that it is expanding, and they have a number of empirical evidences to show for it, including, but not limited to, plate tectonics.

374. If the Earth is not expanding, then you would have to believe that it is the universe that is expanding instead. But if that was the case, then you would have to disprove the majority that claims that the universe is not expanding as they once thought it was. And if you do that, then you just might have to concede to an expanding Earth, firmament or dome.

375. In other words, since according to some; one is expanding, the other is not. But to others, the other is expanding while the prior is not. Perhaps the two are expanding. An expanding universe makes no difference to a flat Farther since they believe the firmament is the universe; and if that is the thing that is expanding then so is the Earth – since the firmament is attached to the Earth. In other words, both are infinite; a flat universe demonstrates this. The expansion may be due to an over spreading sheet – hence the Earth.

376. A number of Biblical verses indicate this

377. In other words, a flat 2 dimensional universe – Euclidean Space –  which contain finite dimensions of length and width and 3 dimensional spaces – which contain length and width can be fixed and set at any infinite or finite distances to allow for measure and limits but can also allow for limits that do not exist – hence the expansion.

378. It allows curved space, which is often refered to as spatial geometry that is not flat, for flat space, described as Euclidean geometry to exist. Hence a flat universe with a flat expanding infinite Earth is not difficult to comprehend. If you are familiar with integrals and Gausses Law then you should be able to understand the mathematics for an infinite Earth.

379. Gauss’s law, his mathematical physics with alleged gravitational forces are examined in reference to an infinite Earth in chapter 10.

380. I am convinced that there is more to NASA than meets the eye. Moreover, if the Earth was truly proven to be flat and infinite then NASA and every other space agency would literally be laughed out of the business – a multi billion dollar business. Their business would crumble, and they would have to admit that perhaps there is God; and that this God created our Earth flat and infinite. Moreover, astronomical, astrophysical, the theoretical sciences and every sub-category itself would have to admit to the validity of the Scriptures. This is something I believe they would NEVER do, much less admit to. There’s just simply too much at stake.

From Chapter 18

381. In a paper entitled the Continuation From a Flat to a Round Earth Model in the Coplanar Orbit Transfer Problem, the authors Max Cerf, Thomas Haberkorn and Emmanuel Trélat discuss “The problem of minimization of the fuel consumption for the coplanar orbit transfer problem.” Under the section; “The Round Earth Model and the Optimal Control Problem.”

382. As we have learned in chapter seven, again, we see the words; transference, convergence and transfiguration being used. Other keywords used are; “Orbit transfer problem; Optimal Control Problem (OCP); Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP); shooting method; continuation,” In the paper, they transfer, converge and transfigure the Earth mathematically for the saving of fuel consumption by using Euler’s equation results. A consumption that is flown in “high-thrust orbit transfer that we furthermore restrict to be coplanar. …”The resulting numerical continuation process thus provides a new way to solve the problem of minimization of fuel consumption for the coplanar orbit transfer problem.” (13). The problem involves solving shooting calculations, as in initial takeoffs, orbits and trajectories; all this on a coplanar path.

383. Coplanar: Another keyword found in the paper that we should all focus upon. What does the term coplanar mean? The definition of the word means “Lines, and line segments, that lie on the same plane (and consequently space) are considered coplanar lines.”

384. There exist various numerical methods to solve such a problem, that they usually separate them in two classes: direct and indirect methods. Direct methods consist in discretizing the optimal control problem in order to rewrite it as a parametric optimization problem. Then a nonlinear large scale optimization solver is applied. The advantage of this approach is that it is straightforward and is usually quite robust. The main drawback is that, because of the. discretization step, those methods are computationally demanding and that they are not very accurate in general when compared to the indirect approach. Indirect methods are based on the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP) that is a set of necessary conditions for a candidate trajectory and control strategy to be optimal. The idea is to use those necessary conditions to reduce the search of a solution to the search of the zero of the so-called shooting function (indirect methods are also called shooting methods in this context).

385. Pontryagin Maximum Principle – PMP: “Is used in optimal control theory to find the best possible control for taking a dynamical system from one state to another, especially in the presence of constraints for the state or input controls.” (19). Hence discretizing and PMP go hand and hand together. The PMP was formulated in 1956 by the Russian mathematician Lev Pontryagin and his students.

386. They use the principle of the PMP by discretizing the flat Earth model into a curved Earth model in order to solve the optimal control problem and the orbital transfer problem. They freely admit this.

387. In order to solve the problem of optimal control a Cartesian coordinate system must be used.

388. “Optimal control deals with the problem of finding a control law for a given system such that a certain optimality criterion is achieved. A control problem includes a cost functional that is a function of state and control variables. An optimal control is a set of differential equations describing the paths of the control variables that minimize the cost function. The optimal control can be derived using Pontryagins’s maximum principle (a necessary condition also known as Pontryagin’s minimum principle or simply Pontryagin’s Principle), or by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation (a sufficient condition).

389. However, using Cartesian coordinates only causes problems for those who insist that the Earth is a globe. So the “change” must take place in order to fit their prepositional math and spherical Earth model. The convergence and transfer must be obtained if the optimal control problem is to be solved. The problem can only be solved if they assume that the Earth is spherical in shape. And in order to this they created the PMP as mentioned above.

390. “The model that we use for the coplanar orbit transfer problem is the following. Assume (emphasis T. Perez) that the Earth is spherical with center O and consider an inertial geocentric frame (O,~i,~j,~k). Since we consider the coplanar orbit transfer problem, we assume that the whole trajectory lies in the plane O + R~i + R~j.” “Instead of Cartesian coordinates, we next use polar coordinates whose definition is recalled.” (28). The definition is the mathematical expression they use. They recall the expression and set it.

391. After said conversion and set in, they “Define the flight path angle by once again using the Cartesian system.” “Then, the control system is written in cylindrical coordinates.” “The optimal control problem under consideration then consists in steering the control system from an initial configuration to some final configuration that is either of the form.” 

392. “The conditions mean that the satellite has to enter a specified orbit at a given point of it. The conditions (7) mean that the satellite must be steered to a final elliptic orbit of energy Kf < 0 and eccentricity ef , without fixing the entry point on that orbit.” 

393. Under the section called “Simplified Flat Earth Model” the paper demonstrates how they convert the simplified flat Earth model gradually and continuously into the globe model.

394. “The motion of a vehicle in a flat Earth model with constant gravity is governed by the control system.” After said simplification, they must change their coordinates from a flat plane to a curve. Even though, “It is admitted that it happens that (OCP)-flat can be explicitly and nearly analytically solved by applying the PMP.

395. It should be understood that such a control system is achieved by, according to the paper, “Corresponding diffeomorphism, such that F(x, h, vx, vh) = (r, ϕ, v, γ). For the control, the transformation from cylindrical to Cartesian”

396. They calculate mathematical expressions toward this continual gradual conversion from a flat Earth to a spherical Earth; and from a gravitational constant on a flat Earth to a gravitational variable, also from a flat Earth model. Hence they “Make a first continuation on the parameter λ1, keeping λ2 = 0, passing from λ1 = 0 (flat Earth model with constant gravity) to λ1 = 1 (flat Earth model with variable gravity), and then a second continuation, keeping λ1 = 1, passing from λ2 = 0 to λ2 = 1 (modified flat Earth model, equivalent to the initial round Earth model).

397. They admit to the work as preliminary “Many questions remain open and from this point of view our work should be considered as preliminary.”

398. They also admit that it “is very probable that one may encounter some difficulties, as in any continuation process, due to the intricate topology of the space of possible continuation paths, this space being not always arc-wise connected.”

399. “Typology is the mathematical study of geometric properties and spatial relations unaffected by the continuous change of shape or size of figures.”

400. Since typology is the application of unchanging properties and spatial relations then why the choice of change to begin with?

401. Upon this instance many would be quick to say that they do this because the use of a linearized model of a non linear event exists, where the result are minuscule in change to the data but severely complicate the maths. In other words, why do this if its going to complicate the math for no benefit? That alone can tell you that the Earth is spherical. Yes, that much is accurate, but “Lines remains parallel because cylinders are flat.” Moreover, traditional views are still used in elementary treatments of geometry, but the advanced mathematical viewpoint has shifted to the infinite curvilinear surface and this is how a cylinder is now defined in various modern branches of geometry and topology.

402. Even Euler’s 6DOF reveals this. “The 6DOF (Euler Angles) block implements the Euler angle representation of six-degrees-of-freedom equations of motion, taking into consideration the rotation of a body-fixed coordinate frame (Xb, Yb, Zb) about a flat Earth reference frame (Xe, Ye, Ze).” (34). Hence, the shape of the Earth can indeed be flat covered by a dome.

403. And then there are atmospheric vibrations.

404. A study by scientists at Kyoto University and the University of Hawaii at Mānoa has shown that the Earth’s entire atmosphere vibrates in a manner that greatly resembles the vibrations of a ringing bell.” (35). Where do these vibrations come from? What causes them?

405. CO2 absorbing an incoming infrared energy of photon causes the CO2 molecule to vibrate.

406. Can such a sound and vibration come from a dome enclosed Earth? Can tangible manifestations often left as evidence of trespass, even from so intangible a quarter, be left without further scrutiny? For example, “Where do our carbon dioxide emissions go?” “…Only about 50 percent of the CO2 from human emissions remains in the atmosphere. The remainder is approximately equally split between uptake into the land biosphere and into the ocean.”

407. However, “While hydrogen and helium make up most of the gases in interstellar space, tiny traces of other elements such as carbon, oxygen and iron also exist.” (38). But since the majority of C02 is left trapped, or enclosed if you will, in Earth’s firmament – aka – dome, is it possible that such an oval shape enclosed system is responsible for the given behaviors of C02 molecules in reference to their vibrations? The answer to that question is; yes.

408. Flat Earthers claim that the dome itself is made up of some unseen type of impenetrable glass force. A covering – a “Raqiya” – which means “an expanse” “a visible arch of the sky,” as described in chapter four. If it is an unseen impenetrable glass, then perhaps the vibrations are due to C02 molecules bouncing off the flat Earth firmament/dome.

409. Can an heterogeneous mixture be indicated?

410. “A heterogeneous mixture contains two or more ingredients or phases. The phases might be at least two solids, liquids, or gases, or a solid liquid (suspension), liquid/liquid (emulsion), gas/liquid (aerosol), or gas/solid (smoke). The different phases mix together, but are physically separate.” 

411. If we were to consider a heterogeneous causing a separation of atmosphere and water, like when oil and water are combined, that do not mix evenly, but instead form two separate layers, is it not possible or at least feasible, that the components or elements that make up said heterogeneous are indeed made up of a two layer separation of atmosphere and water? The answer to that question is; yes.

412. Hence the different layers of Earth’s atmosphere. “The clouds and the sky are said to be at an average height of 6,500 to 20,000 – 22,000 miles high above the Earth. While Earth’s atmosphere is said to be 300 miles thick (from ground to top). With most of it within 10 miles of the surface. There are five main layers to this atmosphere. Working our way up from ground level we have; the Troposphere – 0 – 25 km (0 – 7 miles high), the Stratosphere – 25 – 50 km (7 – 31 miles high), the Mesosphere – 50 – 80 km (31 – 50 miles high), the Thermosphere – 80 – 700 km (50 – 440 miles high), and the Exosphere – 700 – 10,000 km (440 – 6,200 miles high).”

413. By make up, we all know that water is made up of three atoms; two hydrogen and one oxygen. The universe or “space” itself is made up of a plasma of hydrogen and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays. But out of this make up, “Helium and hydrogen make up 99.9 percent of known matter in the universe, according to Even so, there is still about 10 times more hydrogen than helium in the universe”… “Oxygen, the third most common element, is about 1,000 times less abundant than hydrogen.” (43). Electrons represent only ~ 0.0005 of mass.

414. Hydrogen, when in its pure state, separated from water, is an odorless colorless gas. Hydrogen can also exist in plasma form called hydrogen plasma. The plasma state can be contrasted with the other states: solid, liquid, and gas. “…And when particles from the solar wind are excited by the earth’s magnetic field lines, they can also form a plasma.” (44). Hence heterogeneity may be at play here; separating the atmosphere (the lower parts of the firmament dome with its higher divisional layers of atmospheric conditions) with what is outside the dome, or as it is commonly called the cosmos. To flat Earthers, the dome is the actual universe of expanse or “Raqiya.” where the Sun and Moon exist rotating and in perpetual circular motion around the flat Earth.

415. With this understanding in mind, modern scientists are now claiming that the Moon is in our very own atmosphere. For all intent and purposes the Moon is, more than likely, located in the exosphere, which lies between 440 – 6,200 miles just above the thermosphere, and not 238,900 miles away.

416. Hence, an arc of trajectory is not so much dependant only upon an oval shaped dome, or firmament, in so much as they more concerned with the dip during velocity from point A to point B, while attempting to fly by circular moving objects like our Moon, the planets (wandering stars), and various orbital asteroids.

Bibliography and Citations From Original Series