The Pale Blue Dot? Chapter Thirteen: The Sun and the Moon

Originally Written By Thomas Perez. November 25, 2018 at 8:37PM. Copyright 2018. Updated 2020.

The Sun and the Moon; as they relate to stellar parallax with reference to their distances, measurements and speeds. This chapter is divided into three sections. Section One will cover the Sun, Section Two will cover the Moon and Section Three will cover distant measurements. So without ado, let us begin.

Section One: The Sun

According to mainstream science; “Earth’s closest approach to the Sun, called perihelion, comes in early January and is about 91 million miles (146 million km), just shy of 1 AU. The farthest from the Sun Earth gets is called aphelion. It comes in early July and is about 94.5 million miles (152 million km), just over 1 AU.”

Mainstream science also cites; “The astronomical unit is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun. However, that distance varies as Earth orbits the Sun, from a maximum to a minimum and back again once a year. Originally conceived as the average of Earth’s aphelion and perihelion, since 2012 it has been defined as exactly 149597870700 metres or about 150 million kilometres (93 million miles).”

International Astronomical Union, ed. (31 August 2012), “RESOLUTION B2 on the re-definition of the astronomical unit of length”(PDF)RESOLUTION B2, Beijing, Kina: International Astronomical Union

“An astronomical unit (AU) is the average distance between the Earth and the Sun, which is about 93 million miles or 150 million kilometers. Astronomical units are usually used to measure distances within our solar system.” (1 AU = 249597871 kilometers or 155092926.6832 miles. T. Perez).

However, what we are told differ from recently released (2005) government documents. Documents that reveal various physics and mathematical equations for conducting various experiments and tests performed in the 1950’s. Government documents reveal a localized Sun and flat Earth. According to 6 public domain documents; the Sun is said to be local and the Earth is said to be flat. Let us take a closer look into these documents. The following series of pictures demonstrate the admittance of a local Sun and flat Earth. The first picture of all 6 documents will depict the title, while the remaining pictures will show where the phrase “local Sun” and “flat Earth” appears.

Document Number 1: Contains title pic page; 9 and 4 additional pages; 5, 19, 20 and 32.

PDF Page 9: Title Pic Page…

PDF Page 5: A most interesting page…

PDF Page 19 uses the word “firmament.” The word “Firmament” means “Dome” as we have learned in chapter three concerning this subject matter.

PDF Page 20 uses “near Sun” “flat Earth” and “firmament.”

PDF Page 32 says; “Correlation established between earthquakes and light effects.”

Document Number 2: Contains title pic page and 5 additional pages; 1, 7, 14, 17, 18 and 28.

PDF Page 1: Title Pic Page…

PDF Page 7 mentions “a flat idealized Earth” with reference to electromagnetic fields…

PDF Page 14: The term “flat ground” is used…

PDF Page 17: The term “Homogeneous flat Earth” is used…

PDF Page 18: The term “Homogeneous flat Earth” is used again…

PDF Page 28: The term “flat Earth” is used…

Document Number 3: Contains title pic page and 2 additional ages; 10 and 16. They use the phrase; “Near-Sun” “Crepuscular rays” and “Flat (level) Earth.”

PDF Page 1: Title Pic Page…

PDF Page 10 depicts a local Sun and it’s rays along with its mathematical equations…

PDF Page 16: The term “Input to a flat Earth” is used…

Document Number 4: Contains title pic page and 4 additional ages; 17, 30, 31 and 35.

PDF Page 1: Title Pic Page…

PDF Page 17: The term “Bounce on a flat Earth” is used…

PDF Page 30: We read; “This may be caused by a violation of the assumption of the flat Earth model.”

PDF Page 31: The term “flat Earth” is used…

PDF Page 35: The term “flat Earth” is used again…

Document Number 5: Contains title pic page and 1 additional page; 7.

PDF Page 1: Title Pic Page…

PDF Page 7 mentions the term “flat Earth” with reference to flight projectiles…

Document Number 6: Contains title pic page and 1 additional page; 10.

PDF Page 1.: Title Pic Page…

PDF Page 10 cites; “These equations assume a flat Earth” with reference to flight dynamics and liquid payload…

If you were to Google these documents by title, you will find that each one of these documents are chuck full of mathematical equations and physics that can only be supported upon a flat Earth. In some of these documents where the word phrase “assume” is used in relation to a flat Earth is obviously due to the fact that the physics and mathematics involved do not support a globe spherical Earth. Such dissertations, findings and experiments can only be performed on a flat Earth model. And since modern academia insists on Earth as being spherical in shape, the word “assume” is used. It is used in the pretense of one necessitating a local Sun and a flat Earth in order for the calculations to work. And work they do; they are “accurate” as the following document cites…

You will also note the terms that are used; such as “almacantar” “zenith” “celestial” and “photometer.” These terms are used when referring to distance and measurements.

Question: With this in mind; is the Sun very far away as quoted by NASA? Or is the Sun close and local as flat Earthers believe? The answer to that question lies in the science of distant measurements. Distant measurements are covered in section three of this article.

Some contend that if the Sun was so close the searing heat from the Sun would kill us all instantly. Moreover, there wouldn’t be life on Earth at all. But this line of reasoning is looking at it from a perspective thought to us. This line of reasoning comes from science claiming that the “temperature at the surface of the Sun is about 10,000 Fahrenheit (5,600 Celsius). The temperature rises from the surface of the Sun inward towards the very hot center of the Sun where it reaches about 27,000,000 Fahrenheit (15,000,000 Celsius)”

“The Sun is a huge, glowing sphere of hot gas. Most of this gas is hydrogen (about 70%) and helium (about 28%). Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen make up 1.5% and the other 0.5% is made up of small amounts of many other elements such as neon, iron, silicon, magnesium and sulfur.”

And according to NASA; “We rely on the Sun’s energy to live on Earth and the aurora relies on the Sun’s energy to drive the currents that make the aurora. The Sun is our nearest star. It is, as all stars are, a hot ball of gas made up mostly of Hydrogen. The Sun is so hot that most of the gas is actually plasma, the fourth state of matter.”

It is therefore absurd to even think of a local Sun when its diameter is 865,374 miles; accompanied with its enormous heat at 10,000-27,000 Fahrenheit. But what if we were to shrink the Sun and claim it to be only a light source with limited heat as it shines, bringing daylight perpendicular to the region’s where it rises, at a relatively close range of about 2,700-3,000 miles away? More on this in section three.

Now in reference to solar eclipses, the phenomenon is not difficult to explain at all. It is quite simple. The Moon’s path comes between the Earth and the Sun; hence causing the Sun to look like a black circle. Moreover, “…Solar eclipses are caused when the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun – an explanation that is, surprisingly, correct.” Even “know it all” Neil deGrasse Tyson would admit to the truth of this.

However, with reference to lunar (Moon) eclipses, and the face of the Moon in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres; the explanation is bit more difficult to comprehend on a flat Earth model; or is it? So without further ado, I will now discuss the Moon.

Section 2: The Moon

For thousands of years Man has looked upon the Moon and have always captured it on different objects and materials. The image of the Moon has been captured upon carvings and tablets made from stone, papyrus scrolls, woodcut renderings and finally photography. The first known photographed image of a detailed Moon was done by John William Draper, March 23, 1840. “He took the first detailed photo of the full Moon, reproducing craters, mountains, valleys, and other terrain that had previously only been seen through the highly variable artistic skills of various astronomers.”

The following is Drapers photograph…

While the Sun was first photographed by “the French physicist Hippolyte Armand Louis Fizeau (1819-1896) is best remembered as the first to measure the speed of light without any recourse to astronomical observations. Hippolyte Fizeau was born in Paris on Sept. 23, 1819, the son of a wealthy physician and professor at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris.”

The following picture is the work of Hippolyte Armand Louis Fizeau…

It is said, “Often when we see drawings of the Earth and the Moon, they look really close together. Don’t be fooled! They’re actually really far apart. The Moon is an average of 238,855 miles (384,400 km) away.”

The Moon’s orbit around Earth is elliptical. At perigee – its closest approach – the Moon comes as close as 225,623 miles (363,104 kilometers). At apogee – the farthest away it gets – the Moon is 252,088 miles (405,696 km) from Earth. On average, the distance from Earth to the Moon is about 238,855 miles (384,400 km).

In reference to its size, mainstream science claims that, “The Moon’s mean radius is 1,079.6 miles (1,737.5 kilometers). Double those figures to get its diameter: 2,159.2 miles (3,475 km), less than a third the width of Earth. The Moon’s equatorial circumference is 6,783.5 miles (10,917 km). If Earth were the size of a nickel, the Moon would be about as big as a coffee bean,” according to NASA.”

And as far as its rotation is concerned, mainstream science claims; “The Moon orbits the Earth once every 27.322 days. It also takes approximately 27 days for the Moon to rotate once on its axis. As a result, the Moon does not seem to be spinning but appears to observers from Earth to be keeping almost perfectly still. Scientists call this synchronous rotation.”

However; the distance, measurement and speed of the Moon may not be what they say it is. This will be discussed in section three; along with the Sun’s distance, measurement and speed as I have mentioned above.

What About Lunar Moon Eclipses?

During the Lunar eclipse of July 27-28 of 2018; Neil deGrasse Tyson decided to poke fun at flat Earthers. Taking his sarcastic joke to Twitter; he posted the following picture demonstrating a flat disk (the Earth) eclipsing the Moon and tweeting; “A Lunar eclipse flat Earthers have never seen.

I would assume that many flat Earthers did not take too kindly to being the pun end of a joke. Nor do they like being laughed at or called names by those who uphold a heliocentric globe Earth. The picture, in and of itself, demonstrates how Tyson perceives a Lunar eclipse. With that in mind, I would entertain the question of “What happens during a Lunar eclipse?” Most people know the answer to that question, but for the sake of this article I will go over it. According to mainstream science; “A Lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind Earth and into its shadow. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are exactly or very closely aligned, with Earth between the other two. A Lunar eclipse can occur only on the night of a full Moon” (Wiki). The following picture demonstrates a heliocentric globe Earth Lunar eclipse…

But how would a Lunar eclipse work on a flat Earth? Would the Earth show its shadow, as Tyson so sarcastically pictured for us, as a disk shaped body? Obviously the answer to that question is “No.” So what happens on a flat Earth model? Answer; there are two; one is that there are other orbiting bodies near the Moon and hence in the firmament. And two, the Moon is transparent or at least semi-transparent. And while there may be disagreements about this, everyone would agree that we have the knowledge to predict Lunar and Solar eclipses. Before I go on to provide credibility to the two answers with reference to Lunar eclipses on a flat Earth; allow me to show you that such predictions were never really due to fancy mathematical equations.

In Chapter 11 of ‘Earth is Not a Globe,’ Dr. Samuel Birley Rowbotham has provided equations for finding the time, magnitude and duration of a Lunar Eclipse at the end of the Chapter. In the Chapter Dr. Rowbotham cites;

“One of the most pitiful manifestations of ignorance of the true nature of theoretical astronomy is the ardent inquiry so often made, “How is it possible for that system to be false, which enables its professors to calculate to a second of time both solar and lunar eclipses for hundreds of years to come?” The supposition that such calculations are an essential part of the Newtonian or any other theory is entirely gratuitous, and exceedingly fallacious and misleading. Whatever theory is adopted, or if all theories are discarded, the same calculations can be made. The tables of the moon’s relative positions for any fraction of time are purely practical–the result of long-continued observations, and may or may not be connected with hypothesis. The necessary data being tabulated, may be mixed up with any, even the most opposite doctrines, or kept distinct from every theory or system, just as the operator may determine.”

After said quotation, he cites various authors who all claimed that the knowing of the astronomical positions with reference to their Solar and Lunar eclipses are not owed to precise mathematical fancy equations, but rather just to simple ordinary experience; hence keeping track of the heavenly bodies by days, months and years. The following quotations support this…

“The considered defects of the system of Ptolemy (who lived in the second century of the Christian era), did not prevent him from calculating all the eclipses that were to happen for 600 years to come.” (1)

“The most ancient observations of which we are in possession, that are sufficiently accurate to be employed in astronomical calculations, are those made at Babylon about 719 years before the Christian era, of three eclipses of the Moon. Ptolemy, who has transmitted them to us, employed them for determining the period of the Moon’s mean motion; and therefore had probably none more ancient on which he could depend. The Chaldeans, however, must have made a long series of observations before they could discover their ‘Saros,’ or lunar period of 6585⅓ days, or about 18 years; at which time, as they had learnt, the place of the Moon, her node and apogee return nearly to the same situation with respect to the earth and the Sun, and, of course, a series of nearly similar eclipses occur.” (1)

“Thales (B.C. 600) predicted the eclipse which terminated the war between the Medes and the Lydians. Anaxagoras (B.C. 530) predicted an eclipse which happened in the fifth year of the Peloponnesian War.” (2)

“Hipparchus (140 B.C.) constructed tables of the motions of the Sun and Moon; collected accounts of such eclipses as had been made by the Egyptians and Chaldeans, and calculated all that were to happen for 600 years to come.” (3)

“The precision of astronomy arises, not from theories, but from prolonged observations, and the regularity of the motions, or the ascertained uniformity of their irregularities.” (4)

“No particular theory is required to calculate eclipses; and the calculations may be made with equal accuracy independent of every theory.” (5)

(1). Lectures on Natural Philosophy,” p. 370. By Professor Partington.

(1). Ibid; p 370.

(2). Professor Barlow, in “Encyclopædia Metropolitana,” p. 486.

(3). “Encyclopædia Londinensis,” vol. if., p. 402.

(4). “Million of Facts.” By Sir Richard Phillips. Page 358.

(5). Somerville’s “Physical Sciences,” p. 46.

Zetetic Astronomy, by ‘Parallax’ (pseud. Samuel Birley Rowbotham), [1881].

There are other citations concerning the basic ability to predict Solar and Lunar eclipses just by experience, observation and recordings, but I will leave it at that.

Other Bodies Near the Moon and the Firmament

Many ancients of the past and professors of modern-day academia will also insist that not only does the Earth not cast a shadow upon the Moon, but that the phenomena is due to other heavenly bodies coming in between the Moon and the Earth which may be invisible. Moreover, many also insist that the Moon has its own light; and that its light is not a reflection from the Sun. I do realize that even suggesting such a thing may sound a bit ludicrous; but I would not have done so if others before me, and even now, had not claim such things. The following citations confirm this presupposition. A presupposition that is unfortunately ignored, like that of which I discussed concerning stellar aberrations in chapter two.

The Moon exists at no great distance above the earth’s surface, is a matter admitted by many of the leading astronomers of the day. In the report of the council of the Royal Astronomical Society, for June 1850, it is said; “We may well doubt whether that body which we call the Moon is the only satellite of the Earth.” ‘Earth Not a Globe.’ By Samuel Birley Rowbotham.

In the report of the Academy of Sciences for October 12th, 1846, and again for August, 1847, the director of one of the French observatories gives a number of observations and calculations which have led him to conclude that; “There is at least one non-luminous body of considerable magnitude which is attached as a satellite to this earth.” (1).

Sir John Herschel admits that; “Invisible moons exist in the firmament.” (2). Sir John Lubbock is of the same opinion, and gives rules and formulas for calculating their distances, periods and motions.

At the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, in 1850, the president stated that; “The opinion was gaining ground, that many of the fixed stars were accompanied by companions emitting no light.” “The ‘changeable stars’ which disappear for a time, or are eclipsed, have been supposed to have very large opaque bodies revolving about or near to them, so as to obscure them when they come in conjunction with us.” (3)

(1). “Herschel’s Astronomy,” pp. 521 and 616.

(2). “Philosophical Magazine” for 1848, p. 80.

(3). “Encyclopedia Londinensis.” Art., “Fixed Stars.”

The citations above can easily explain why the Moon goes through what is called Moon phases, such as; a new Moon, old Moon, half a Moon, a crescent Moon, waxing Moon and a waning Moon, etc. There are many such citations concerning “invisible” heavenly bodies (objects). However, most of these citations are quite old. That being the case, a question that may come to mind is; “Are there any such citations today?” The answer to that question is “Yes” there are. “Theoretical physicists at the University of Bonn propose a new class of celestial bodies.”

Another article cites; “invisible” structures lurking in the Milky Way.” “Essentially, the structures appear to be large clumps of some sort of material, possibly clouds of cool gas, in the existing thin gas that lies between stars. And they appear to be in odd shapes.”

A Transparent or Semi Transparent Moon

“In this faint light the telescope can distinguish both the larger spots, and also bright shining points, and even when more than half the Moon’s disc is illuminated, a faint grey” (1)

“light can still be seen on the remaining portion by the aid of the telescope. These phenomena are particularly striking when viewed from the high mountain plateaus of Quito and Mexico.” (2)

“On the 15th of March, 1848, when the Moon was seven and a half days old, I never saw her unilluminated disc so beautifully. On my first looking into the telescope a star of about the 7th magnitude was some minutes of a degree distant from the Moon’s dark limb. I saw that its occultation by the Moon was inevitable. The star, instead of disappearing the moment the Moon’s edge came in contact with it, apparently glided on the Moon’s dark face, as if it had been seen through a transparent Moon; or, as if a star were between me and the Moon I have seen a similar apparent projection several times…The cause of this phenomenon is involved in impenetrable mystery.” (3)

“Occultation of Jupiter by the Moon, on the 24th of May, 1860, by Thomas Gaunt, Esq. ‘I send you the following account as seen by me at Stoke Newington. The observation was made with an achromatic of 3.3 inches aperture, 50 inches focus; the immersion with a power of 50, and the emersion with a power of 70. At the immersion I could not see the dark limb of the Moon until the planet appeared to touch it, and then only to the extent of the diameter of the planet; but what I was most struck with was the appearance on the Moon as it passed over the planet. It appeared as though the planet was a dark object, and glided on to the Moon instead of behind it; and the appearance continued until the planet was hid, when I suddenly lost the dark limb of the Moon altogether.” (4)

“Occultation of Jupiter by the Moon, May 24, 1860, observed by T. W. Burr, Esq., at Highbury. The planet’s first limb disappeared at 8h. 44m. 6.7s., the second limb disappeared at 8h. 45m. 4.9s. local sidereal time, on the Moon’s dark limb. The planet’s first limb reappeared at 9h. 55m. 48s.; the second limb reappeared at 9h. 56m. 44.7s., at the bright limb. The planet was well seen, notwithstanding the strong sunlight (4h. 34m. Greenwich mean time), but of course without any belts. The Moon’s dark limb could not be detected until it touched the planet, when it was seen very sharply defined and black; and as it passed the disc of Jupiter in front appeared to brighten. So that the Moon’s limb was preceded by a bright band of light, doubtless an effect of contrast.” (5)

“Occultation of the Pleiades, December 8, 1859, observed at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich; communicated by the Astronomer Royal. Observed by Mr. Dunkin with the alt-azimuth, the disappearance of 27 Tauri was a most singular phenomenon; the star appeared to move a considerable time along the Moon’s limb, and disappeared behind a prominence at the first time noted (5h. 34m.); in a few seconds it re-appeared, and finally disappeared at the second time noted (5h. 35m.).” “Observed by Mr. Criswich, with the north equatorial, 27Tauri was not occulted at all, though it passed so close to some of the illuminated peaks of the dark limb as hardly to be distinguished from them.” (6)

(1). Discoveries in the South Sea,” p. 39, by Captain James Burney.

(2). Description of the Heavens,” p. 354, by Alex. von Humboldt.

(3). Sir James South, of the Royal Observatory, Kensington, in a letter in the “Times” newspaper of April 7, 1848.

(4). Monthly Notices of Royal Astronomical Society, for June 8, 1860.

(5). Ibid.

(6). Monthly Notices of Royal Astronomical Society, December 9, 1859.

The following pictures demonstrate a transparent Moon during its phases, where we can see the blue atmosphere (skies) and the stars through it…

For the next picture, it would suit you better to click on it and bring it closer into focus. Many stars can be seen through the Moon…

Here we see a blue star…

Here we see a red and white star…­

Many have laboured hard to make it appear that these phenomena are the result of what they have assumed to be light reflected from the earth – “Earth light,” “the reflection of a reflection.” The Sun’s light thrown back from the Moon to the Earth and returned from the Earth to the Moon! It seems never to have occurred to these “students of imagination” that this so-called “Earth-light” is most intense when the Moon is youngest, and therefore illuminates the earth the least. When the operating cause is least intense, the effect is much the greatest!

Besides the fact that when the Moon is only a few hours old, and sometimes until past the first quarter, the naked eye is able to see through her body to the light shining on the other side, both fixed stars and planets have been seen through a considerable part of her substance” ‘Earth Not a Globe,’ By Rowbotham. But the above citations are contrary to this line of reasoning.

The only explanation for this is that the Moon is either transparent or semi-transparent; and eclipses (full and partial) are due to unseen invisible objects coming across it, as we have learned above. This will also confirm its phases. The stars are either relatively close to it, even coming across it; in front of its face, as they orbit the firmament and behind it – as in the Moon’s transparency.

Moreover, in order to see a full Moon with 100% totality you would need to be looking at the Moon’s daylight side face-on. But according to the geometry of the globe Earth we would never see the daylight side face-on, otherwise the Earth would get in the way of the sunlight. There should always be a portion of the Moon that is unlit. 100% totality should be impossible, no matter how much mental gymnastics are done with the scale. If we are not looking at the daylight side face on, complete totality is impossible.

Knowing this, it therefore most likely that the term “Dark Side of the Moon” is either fictitious or an error based upon the globe Earth theory. However, on a possible transparent, or Semi-transparent Moon, the unseen dark side does not exist. But some would argue that the images taken from the ‘Deep Space Climate Observatory’ (DSCO) satellite confirms not only a globular Earth, but also the Moon’s dark side (the other side we do not see).

The observatory orbits the Earth at about 1.6 million kilometers (1 million miles). It contains a 4 megapixel CCD camera and telescope. The camera is called the EPIC (Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera). The EPIC has an aperture diameter of 30.5 cm (12 in), a focal ratio of 9.38, a field of view of 0.61°, and an angular sampling resolution of 1.07 arcseconds. (Wiki).

A further look into the type of lens used on the observatory would reveal another fisheye lens; similar to all of the cameras used on the ISS. A focal ratio of less than 10° will provide you with a wider field of view (FoV). This is the ‘speed’ of a telescope’s optics, found by dividing the focal length by the aperture. The smaller the f/number, the lower the magnification, the wider the field, and the brighter the image with any given eyepiece or camera. With a wider field of view one can turn something flat and horizontal to some thing round and spherical…

You will note the black surroundings in the image on the right. This is typical fisheye lens format, like my quarter demonstration in chapter eight. But in order to do this, they have to perform what is called Inverse Mapping. Inverse Mapping is performed for fisheye lenses. The format is described in the two pictures below…

1st Pic…

2nd Pic…

“New mapping equations are derived to transform the images captured by the fisheye lens camera into the undistorted remapped ones under practical circumstances. In the obstacle detection, we make use of the features of vertical edges on objects from remapped images to indicate the relative positions of obstacles”

The following 3 pictures illustrate this…

But I wanted to try this for myself. I proceeded to download a flat non-Gleason map. After that I fish-eyed it to see how it would look out of curiosity. The following pictures demonstrate this…

Fisheye 1…

Fisheye 2…

Fisheye 3…

Fisheye 4…

It is now obvious that the observatory is using a circular fisheye lens of which they map out by Inverse means. For instance here is a video taken from NASA via the DSCO as it claims to view the dark-side of the Moon orbiting the Earth. You will note two very obvious observations, or flaws; the 1st being that the so-called “dark side” is, well: dark. How can that be when the Earth is lit? Since the Earth is lit from the Sun, the Sun in this instance should be directly in front of the Earth and therefore the “dark side” of the Moon should not be dark at all; it should be illuminating since mainstream science claims that the Moon gets its light from the Sun. But some might even argue and suggest that perhaps the Earth is lit because the Sun is on the left or on the right. But if that was the case then the Moon should be half lit on the left or on the right. And 2nd, you will note the black circular matting surrounding the video. In the 2nd GIF, you will notice a bright white patch on the Earth, presumably from the Sun. Some would claim “its being seen from a point of view; just below the eclipse. However, the white patch should at least be blocked out to some degree, if indeed this video feed was truly displaying the solar eclipse from alleged space. Observe the following from NASA…

There are all sorts of fisheye lenses. For instance, there are fisheye lenses for APS-C cameras. Some common APS-C sensors range from 23.6 to 23.7 mm (0.93 to 0.93 in) on the long dimension and 15.6 mm (0.61in) on the shorter side, for a diagonal measurement between 28.2 to 28.4 mm (1.11 to 1.12 in). But in the case of the DSCO, in short, they are using circular stereographic Inverse mapping fisheye techniques.

Northern and Southern Hemispheres

With reference to the Moon, in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere, we know that the Moon’s appearance is different. The face of the Moon in the Northern Hemisphere is different from the face of the Moon in the Southern Hemisphere, hence proving a spherical ball Earth, as the pictures below demonstrates. Moreover, the same side of the Moon always faces us.

The pictures above would make any flat Earther shake with doubt.

According to Discover Magazine; “For starters, the Moon is not stuck in place with one side facing us. Our lunar companion rotates while it orbits Earth. It’s just that the amount of time it takes the Moon to complete a revolution on its axis is the same it takes to circle our planet – about 27 days. As a result, the same lunar hemisphere always faces Earth.”

But let us take a closer look into this picture, before I allow flat Earthers to concede to defeat. The way we see the Moon is due to perspective; where we are on the Earth. For instance, put a sticker of the number 9 on your ceiling; from one perspective it will show you that it is still the number 9. But if you were to walk to the opposite side of the room the number 9 will flip over to reveal a 6 – hence the term: “Upside down Moon” in the Southern Hemisphere. Or right side up; depending on positional perspective. If you were to walk in the middle (the equator) of the number, you will see it not as a number at all. You will be simply seeing it from a third perspective.

Of course I realize that the ceiling number observational object lesson was a bit crude and not very convincing for a ball Moon model. However, it is convincing for a transparent “wheeling” Moon. What do I mean by “Wheeling?” Exactly how it is written. Considering the possibilities that we have looked into so far concerning the Moon, it is not too far-fetched to think that the Moon may be turning like a wheel. Not rotating, but turning like a wheel. This, along with invisible heavenly bodies, will also account for its various phases. Moreover, this turning can easily work on both models; a ball, transparent or disk shaped Moon. This turning, for instance, starts as we see it rising in the North and then flips as it rises in the South and re-flips back when entering the North again; and so on. And that the reason for our not seeing the back of the Moon on a flat Earth is that it may be blocked out by other celestial objects as discussed above.

The following picture was provided by a globe Earther with the intention of debunking the flat Earth model. You will note the Moon’s turning (like a wheel).

To globe Earthers this reality is due to where we are on a spherical ball Earth. However, the picture can easily prove a flat Earth instead – as in matters of perspective and location. Couple this with what we have learned thus far, the flat Earth model can not be disproven. Even Neil deGrasse Tyson could not debunk it, as the following article from the Washington Post tells us.

And finally, the thought that the Moon may be a reflection of the Earth. A relatively new hypothesis. I do not remember how I stumbled across this theory, but after looking into it, I thought it to be a subject based upon chasing after its own tail, like a dog or cat; always chasing but never catching it; desperately trying to look deep into the wishing well. If the thought tantalizes your palate, then I would suggest that you Google the term or look up the topic on YouTube. At the moment, I find no support for this theory. But I must admit, it is a fascinating one; and one that deserves a second look. I am willing to change my opinion about this if I am provided with more convincing facts. But all I read and see are conjectures. Nothing from reputable books, sites or videos.

Section 3: Distant Measurements (Angular Distances) and Sizes 

You will remember our presupposition above when I cited; “But what if we were to shrink the Sun and claim it to be only a light source with limited heat as it shines, bringing daylight perpendicular to the region’s where it rises, at a relatively close range of about 2,700-3,000 miles away?”

Well, if this is the case, then why don’t we just fly a Go-Pro into the Sun to confirm a distance of 2,700-3,000 miles instead of 91-93,000,000 miles away? The answer to that question may lie in telemetry with reference to the Sun’s speed and it’s distance at 2,700-3,000 miles – which is 14,256,000 – 15,840,000 in feet. Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring. The word is derived from Greek roots: tele = remote, and metron = measure” (Wiki). Moreover, the expansion of the Earth, as we have learned in chapter three, may also be a contributing factor.

If the Sun is moving at a great speed, as opposed to it being stationary, then perhaps that may be the reason why telemetry may be difficult when trying to fly an object into the Sun. Some may also be quick to cite, “If the Sun is that close why don’t you just fly yourself close to it to confirm your measurements?” That is more of a satirical question than a legitimate one. But allow me to entertain it. One can not fly near the Sun due to its blinding light and it’s heat; anymore than one can hold a light bulb when lit for more that 3 seconds; nor can one look into it closely with the naked eye. Even with sunglasses on, the heat from the Sun alone would discourage any attempt. Furthermore, let us remember that the feet of distance is enormous. However, many would still claim; “If the Sun is local and indeed traveling and circling the Earth at great speeds, wouldn’t we see it move fairly quickly on Earth, and even more so on an airplane?” Well, the answer to that question is; “yes” and “no.” Yes, because the farther we are from an object, the slower it seems to move. And “no,” because the closer we are to an object, the faster it moves.

For instance, when on a fast-moving train, objects that are closer appear to move fast, while objects far away appear to move slower. We are on Earth see the Sun, it seems to move slow – in fact, it even seems as if it is not moving at all when we look at it with the naked eye (with sunglasses on of course). The same applies to the Moon. But if we were to get our eye closer to both objects, with a pair of binoculars or a good telescope, we will see the quick movement of said bodies as they move out of our lenses. Of course many would claim that is because the Earth is rotating at 1000 mph (1,036 mph, according to NASA), with our Moon at 2,288 mph; and not the sun.

But again, what if the Sun is the object that is moving? In order to test my theory mathematically we will need to know the circumference of the Earth. According to mainstream science; “The circumference of the Earth in kilometers is 40,075 km, and the circumference of the Earth in miles is 24,901″ (25,000 miles rounded off – T. Perez).

Moreover, “Earth’s spin is constant, but the speed depends on what latitude you are located at. Here’s an example. The circumference (distance around the largest part of the Earth) is roughly 24,898 miles (40,070 kilometers), according to NASA. (This area is also called the equator). If you estimate that a day is 24 hours long, you divide the circumference by the length of the day. This produces a speed at the equator of about 1,037 mph (1,670 km/h).”

The sources above tell us the rate at which the Earth travels at its fastest (at the equator) is 1,036 to 1,037 mph. Now let us instead consider a rotating Sun above the Earth.

knowing that a “nautical mile is based on the circumference of the earth, and is equal to one minute of latitude. It is slightly more than a statute (land measured) mile (1 nautical mile = 1.1508 statute miles)Nautical miles are used for charting and navigating.”

And knowing also that “The distance between degrees of longitude is about 60 nautical miles at the equator. It is less further north or south as the longitude lines converge towards the poles. Degrees of latitude are always 60 nautical miles apart.”

We can now find out the speed at which a nearby local Sun can travel. Picture a flat Earth circle in your mind. Or better yet, look at this Gleason Map picture below. Now draw a straight line from top to bottom in the middle of the circle.

We know that a circle is 360 degrees from start to finish, and a line drawn in the middle causes the half on the right and the half on left to become 180 degrees respectively. Now picture the Sun circling clockwise as it rises and sets with 12hrs intervals (12×2 = a 24hr period), that would make our 360 degree circle exactly 180 degrees (half a circle), based our Sun rising in the East and setting in the West @ the equinox. And knowing that 60 nautical miles (NM) = 1 degree – for I.e., 1 degree longitude = 60 NM, 2 degrees = 120 NM, and so forth. And also knowing that 1 NM = 1.150.78 English miles, the mathematics for a traveling rotating Sun on a flat Earth is now possible as follows…

60NM = 1 Degree

180 degrees × 60NM = 10,800NM – that is from the moment the Sun rose and to the moment it set, it traveled 10,800NM, and it took 12hrs to do it.

10,800NM × 1.15078 = 12,428.424ml

12,428.424ml / 12hr = 1,035.702mph (1,036 rounded off). When we add its full encirclement 1036×2 it comes out to 2,702 – about the same as it’s distance as we will find out below.

So the Sun, in this model of a flat Earth, is the object that is traveling at the speed of 1,036 and not the Earth. It is the same number; 1,036 – coincidence? Some might actually say; “yes, it’s only a coincidence.” But all would agree that it is extremely Interesting, wouldn’t you say? However, nothing in mathematics is a “coincidence,” it is said to be a fact.

There are several theories about the relative size and distance of the Sun and Moon all with their points of evidence and points of contention. One can easily use sextants and plane trigonometry to calculate the distance of the Sun and Moon. When this method is used, the finding result is that the Sun and Moon are both only about 32 miles in diameter and less than a few thousand miles from Earth (2,700-3,000).

“A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects. The primary use of a sextant is to measure the angle between an astronomical object and the horizon for the purposes of celestial navigation.” Moreover, a sextant is “an instrument with a graduated arc of 60° and a sighting mechanism, used for measuring the angular distances between objects and especially for taking altitudes in navigation.” (Wiki and Google Dictionary).

Typical sextants and how to use one are pictured below…

In the moving GIF above you will note the parallax difference as the pendulum piece moves side to side. The parallax is the dotted white lines. You will note the parallax changes. You will also note its angular change also when reflecting off the mirror. This is the same method mainstream astronomy uses when figuring out the measurements and distances of heavenly objects. What I mean is that the principle is the same, but not the mechanism of which they use to measure bodies and distances of heavenly objects.

Sextants for astronomical observations are devices depicting a sixth of a circle, used primarily for measuring the positions of stars, but have been replaced over time by transit telescopes and astrometry techniques. Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies. The information obtained by astrometric measurements provide information on the kinematics of celestial objects. Kinematics is the study of motion only – from point A to B, and so forth.

Some would conclude that sextants only work but for so much. It fails to accurately measure long distant celestial bodies; like stars and so forth. This thinking is a faulty. As we have learned in chapter two, stellar parallaxes (when used with reference to celestial objects) which gave birth to stellar aberrations (the so-called final nail in the coffin for geocentrism) are not compatible with the theories of light. And because of this, Aberrations became a motivation for the aether and the Michelson Morley experiment. And since Einstein’s universal light constant saw no need for the aether, the aether was abandoned by mainstream science. However, a universal constant is only one way of looking at it (light). And because of this Einstein did not abandon the aether; in fact he stated that “we should not deny it.”

So where are they getting their enormous astronomical figures from? Sextants and plane trigonometry can do just the same; and albeit, at a consistent rate. When we compare the two opposing measurements; the geocentric flat Earth model with that of the heliocentric globe Earth model, the heliocentric adherents are pretty much inconsistent. It is the least plausible model. If we were to apply Ockham’s Razor, it is certainly the most exaggerated and imaginative.

For instance, the reigning heliocentric theory claims the Sun to be a whopping 865,374 miles in diameter, 92,955,807 miles from the Earth, and the Moon 2,159 miles in diameter, 238,900 miles from the Earth; as quoted earlier from mainstream science. Their astronomical figures always sound perfectly precise, but they have historically been notorious for regularly and drastically changing them to suit their various models. For instance, Copernicus calculated the Sun’s distance from Earth to be 3,391,200 miles. A century later, Johannes Kepler decided it was actually 12,376,800 miles away. Issac Newton once said,“It matters not whether we reckon it 28 or 54 million miles distant for either would do just as well.”Benjamin Martin calculated between 81 and 82 million miles, Thomas Dilworth claimed 93,726,900 miles, John Hind stated 95,298,260 miles, Benjamin Gould stated more than 96 million miles and Christian Mayer said it was more than 104 million.

So since it’s inception, the heliocentrics have said that the Sun is 3 million to 104 million miles away. That gives them enough room to play with. In the meantime geocentric flat Earthers have always maintained a consistent distance of 2,700-3,000 miles away, with a diameter of 32 miles. However, many would be quick to cite that of the commercial and corporate airliners and jets; they fly well above 2,700-3,000 miles in altitude. Not so, they are confusing miles with feet. Remember, our 2,700 miles 14,256,000 in feet. While our 3,000 miles = 15,840,000 in feet.

For instance; “Large passenger planes can’t fly much higher than about 12 kilometers (7.5 miles, which 39,600 ft). The air is too thin above that altitude to hold the plane up.”

“The highest certified altitude of an airliner was Concorde’s 60,000 feet. Today some of the corporate jets can fly at 51,000 feet. Q: What is the highest cruising altitude allowed? A: Most airliners are limited to 45,000 feet or less. Feb 2, 2014″

Another anomaly that we can clearly see with our own naked eyes is the fact that clouds can be seen traveling and moving behind the Sun. Many videos depict this; hence depicting a close local Sun as the following picture illustrates.

However, they are also some videos out there that debunk this concept convincingly. Or so it seems. The following video debunks the notion of clouds behind the Sun…

However, after discovering the following video, that depicts clouds behind the Sun, I am convinced that the Sun is a close local celestial body…

Here is another video. This one is 47 minutes long. But it is worth the watch…

With reference to the Moon; it is about 2,700-3,000 miles away. And it’s speed can be calculated as the Sun was above. In reference to its size, you will recall that mainstream science claims that it’s radius is 1,079, it’s diameter 2,159.2 and an equatorial circumstance of 6,783.5 miles. This too (as in their proportional measurements) can also be measured by using the same techniques as we did in reference to the Sun. Obviously every single detail about the Sun and Moon was not covered in this chapter. Things like Sun rays, spots, Lunar rays, their lights as they shine, reflections, and so forth are covered in chapter eighteen.